Michael N. Schmitt

University of Reading School of Law

Whiteknights

Reading, Berkshire RG6 6AH

United Kingdom

http://https://www.reading.ac.uk/law/Staff/m-schmitt.aspx

Lieber Institute, USMA at West Point

G. Norman Lieber Distinguished Scholar

600 Thayer Rd

West Point, NY Rhode Island 10996

United States

http://https://www.reading.ac.uk/law/Staff/m-schmitt.aspx

Naval War College - Stockton Center for the Study of International Law

Stockton Professor and Director

686 Cushing Road

Newport, RI 02841

United States

SCHOLARLY PAPERS

84

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47,663

SSRN CITATIONS
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Top 7,275

in Total Papers Citations

101

CROSSREF CITATIONS

79

Scholarly Papers (84)

1.

Computer Network Attack and the Use of Force in International Law: Thoughts on a Normative Framework

Columbia Journal of Transnational Law, Vol. 37, 1998-99
Number of pages: 54 Posted: 19 May 2010
Michael N. Schmitt
Downloads 3,666 (3,771)
Citation 18

Abstract:

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computer, network, cyber, jus an bellum, use of force, international law, self-defense, self-defence, collective security

2.

Military Necessity and Humanity in International Humanitarian Law: Preserving the Delicate Balance

Virginia Journal of International Law, Vol. 50, No. 4, p. 795, 2010
Number of pages: 45 Posted: 05 May 2010 Last Revised: 14 Mar 2016
Michael N. Schmitt
Downloads 3,452 (4,174)
Citation 3

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humanity, necessity, humanitarian law, law of war, law of armed conflict, ihl, loac

3.

Drone Attacks Under the Jus ad Bellum and Jus in Bello: Clearing the 'Fog of Law'

Yearbook of International Humanitarian Law, Forthcoming
Number of pages: 14 Posted: 03 Apr 2011
Michael N. Schmitt
Downloads 2,733 (6,206)
Citation 1

Abstract:

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drones, UAV, UAS, jus ad bellum, use of force, international humanitarian law, law of armed conflict

4.

'Out of the Loop': Autonomous Weapon Systems and the Law of Armed Conflict

4 Harvard National Security Journal 231 (2013)
Number of pages: 51 Posted: 06 Feb 2013 Last Revised: 03 Jul 2014
Michael N. Schmitt, Jeffrey Thurnher and Jeffrey Thurnher
and Office of the US Army Judge Advocate GeneralU.S. Army
Downloads 1,865 (11,489)
Citation 5

Abstract:

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autonomous, humanitarian law, law of armed conflict, weapon

5.

Autonomous Weapon Systems and International Humanitarian Law: A Reply to the Critics

Harvard National Security Journal Feature (2013)
Number of pages: 37 Posted: 05 Dec 2012 Last Revised: 09 Feb 2013
Michael N. Schmitt
Downloads 1,862 (11,513)
Citation 26

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international humanitarian law, law of armed conflict, robots, autonomous

6.

'Below the Threshold' Cyber Operations: The Countermeasures Response Option and International Law

Virginia Journal of International Law, Vol. 54, 2014
Number of pages: 36 Posted: 14 Nov 2013 Last Revised: 07 Apr 2015
Michael N. Schmitt
Downloads 1,499 (16,265)
Citation 4

Abstract:

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cyber, State responsibility, countermeasures

7.

Cyber Attacks and Cyber (Mis)information Operations during a Pandemic

Journal of National Security Law & Policy, Vol. 11, p. 247, 2020
Number of pages: 38 Posted: 28 May 2020 Last Revised: 09 Dec 2020
Marko Milanovic and Michael N. Schmitt
University of Nottingham School of Law and
Downloads 1,187 (23,044)
Citation 4

Abstract:

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cyber, cyber attacks, misinformation, disinformation, COVID-19, human rights

8.

The Law of Cyber Warfare: Quo Vadis?

25 Stanford Law & Policy Review 269-299 (2014)
Number of pages: 32 Posted: 06 Sep 2013 Last Revised: 16 Nov 2015
Michael N. Schmitt
Downloads 1,179 (23,274)
Citation 4

Abstract:

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cyber, cyber wars, sovereignty, jus ad bellum, use of force, self-defense, jus in bello, humanitarian law

9.

The Tyranny of Context: Israeli Targeting Practices in Legal Perspective

37 University of Pennsylvania Journal of International Law 53-139 (2015)
Number of pages: 88 Posted: 13 Apr 2015 Last Revised: 15 Nov 2015
Michael N. Schmitt and John Merriam
and Government of the United States of America - Judge Advocate General's Corps
Downloads 1,127 (24,841)
Citation 2

Abstract:

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Law of armed conflict, international humanitarian law, targeting, attack, Israel, Israel Defense Force, Military Advocate General, armed conflict

10.

Humanitarian Law and Direct Participation in Hostilties by Private Contractors or Civilian Employees

Chicago Journal of International Law, Vol. 5, 2004-2005
Number of pages: 36 Posted: 20 May 2010
Michael N. Schmitt
Downloads 1,099 (25,772)
Citation 3

Abstract:

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IHL, humanitarian law, law of armed conflict, direct participation, civilians

11.

Cyber Operations and the Jus in Bello: Key Issues

Naval War College International Law Studies, 2011
Number of pages: 22 Posted: 03 Apr 2011
Michael N. Schmitt
Downloads 1,081 (26,388)

Abstract:

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cyber, information operations, law of armed conflict, international humanitarian law

12.

Grey Zones in the International Law of Cyberspace

42:2 Yale Journal of International Law Online 1 (2017)
Number of pages: 21 Posted: 30 May 2018
Michael N. Schmitt
Downloads 978 (30,572)
Citation 3

Abstract:

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cyber, sovereignty, intervention, the use of force, self-defense, humanitarian law

13.

Israeli Targeting: A Legal Appraisal

68:4 Naval War College Review 15-33 (Autumn 2015)
Number of pages: 20 Posted: 21 Apr 2015 Last Revised: 17 Sep 2015
John Merriam and Michael N. Schmitt
Government of the United States of America - Judge Advocate General's Corps and
Downloads 889 (34,801)

Abstract:

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law of armed conflict, targeting, humanitarian law, Israel, Israel Defence Force

14.

Asymmetrical Warfare and International Humanitarian Law

Air Force Law Review, Vol. 62, No. 1, 2007
Number of pages: 43 Posted: 09 May 2010
Michael N. Schmitt
Downloads 882 (35,166)
Citation 1

Abstract:

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asymmetrical warfare, asymmetry, humanitarian law, ihl, loac, law of armed conflict

15.

Proxy Wars in Cyber Space: The Evolving International Law of Attribution

I(II) Fletcher Security Review 55-73 (2014)
Number of pages: 23 Posted: 01 Feb 2014 Last Revised: 16 Aug 2014
Michael N. Schmitt and Liis Vihul
and NATO Cooperative Cyber Defence Centre of Excellence
Downloads 869 (36,018)

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16.

Deconstructing Direct Participation in Hostilties: The Constitutive Elements

New York University Journal of International Law and Politics, Vol. 42, p. 697, 2010
Number of pages: 44 Posted: 05 May 2010 Last Revised: 10 Jun 2010
Michael N. Schmitt
Downloads 822 (38,780)
Citation 2

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Direct Participation, Constitutive Elements, Humanitarian Law, Law of War, Law of Armed Conflict

17.

Legitimacy Versus Legality Redux: Arming the Syrian Rebels

7 Journal of National Security Law and Policy 139-159 (2014)
Number of pages: 21 Posted: 15 Aug 2013 Last Revised: 20 Feb 2014
Michael N. Schmitt
Downloads 800 (40,296)
Citation 2

Abstract:

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Use of force, intervention, Humanitarian intervention, self-defense, countermeasures, armed conflict, state responsibility, Syria, rebels, insurgents

18.

Beyond State-Centrism: International Law and Non-State Actors in Cyberspace

21 Journal of Conflict and Security Law 1-17 (2016)
Number of pages: 17 Posted: 23 Mar 2016 Last Revised: 15 Aug 2016
Michael N. Schmitt, Sean Watts and Sean Watts
and Creighton University School of LawLieber Institute for Law & Land Warfare, West Point
Downloads 785 (41,349)

Abstract:

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cyber, non-state, sovereignty, state responsibility, jus ad bellum, self-defense, self-defence

19.

In Defense of Due Diligence in Cyberspace

125 Yale Law Journal Forum 68 (2015)
Number of pages: 14 Posted: 24 Jun 2015
Michael N. Schmitt
Downloads 727 (45,802)

Abstract:

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Due diligence, cyber, countermeasures, state responsibility

Charting the Legal Geography of Non-International Armed Conflict

90 International Law Studies 1 (2014)
Number of pages: 20 Posted: 06 Jan 2014 Last Revised: 20 Feb 2014
Michael N. Schmitt
Downloads 503 (72,646)

Abstract:

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Geography, Common Article 2, Common Article 3, humanitarian law, law of armed conflict, geography, non-international armed conflict

Charting the Legal Geography of Non-International Armed Conflict

52 Military Law and the Law of War Review 93-102 (2013)
Number of pages: 25 Posted: 02 Feb 2015
Michael N. Schmitt
Downloads 219 (180,697)

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21.

Human Shields in International Humanitarian Law

Columbia Journal of Transnational Law, Vol. 47, 2009
Number of pages: 48 Posted: 05 May 2010
Michael N. Schmitt
Downloads 700 (48,225)

Abstract:

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human shields, humanitarian law, law of armed conflict, law of war

22.

The Interpretive Guidance on the Notion of Direct Participation in Hostilities: A Critical Analysis

Harvard National Security Journal, Vol. 1, p. 5, 2010
Number of pages: 40 Posted: 08 May 2010
Michael N. Schmitt
Downloads 698 (48,413)
Citation 1

Abstract:

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Humanitarial Law, Law of War, Direct Participation, Civilians, Law of Armed Conflict

23.

Targeting and International Humanitarian Law in Afghanistan

Naval War College International Law Studies, pp. 307-339, 2009 , Israel Yearbook on Human Rights, Vol. 39, 2009
Number of pages: 33 Posted: 05 May 2010
Michael N. Schmitt
Downloads 694 (48,779)

Abstract:

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Afghanistan, targeting, IHL, LOAC, humanitarian law, law of war, law of armed conflict

24.

The Syrian Intervention: Assessing the Possible International Law Justifications

89 International Law Studies 744 (2013)
Number of pages: 14 Posted: 08 Sep 2013
Michael N. Schmitt
Downloads 683 (49,811)

Abstract:

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Syria, chemical weapons, humanitarian intervention, self-defense

25.

Attacking 'Islamic State' and the Khorasan Group: Surveying the International Law Landscape

53 Columbia Journal of Transnational Law Bulletin 1 (2014)
Number of pages: 29 Posted: 20 Nov 2014 Last Revised: 29 Nov 2014
Louise Arimatsu and Michael N. Schmitt
University of Exeter and
Downloads 654 (52,712)

Abstract:

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islamic State, ISIS, ISIL, Syria, self-defense, use of force, Iraq, Khorasan

26.

Respect for Sovereignty in Cyberspace

Texas Law Review, Vol. 95, 2017
Number of pages: 32 Posted: 31 May 2018
Michael N. Schmitt and Liis Vihul
and NATO Cooperative Cyber Defence Centre of Excellence
Downloads 648 (53,377)
Citation 1

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cyber, sovereignty, international law, state practice opinio juris

27.

Cyber Operations and the Jus Ad Bellum Revisited

56 VILLANOVA LAW REVIEW 569-606 (2011)
Number of pages: 38 Posted: 05 Dec 2012
Michael N. Schmitt
Downloads 641 (54,119)
Citation 1

Abstract:

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Jus ad bellum, cyber, self-defense, use of force, UN Charter, 2(4), 51

28.

Investigating Violations of International Law in Armed Conflict

Havard National National Security Journal, Vol. 2, pp. 31-84, 2011
Number of pages: 54 Posted: 29 Sep 2010 Last Revised: 05 Jan 2011
Michael N. Schmitt
Downloads 632 (55,141)
Citation 1

Abstract:

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investigations, war crimes, international humanitararian law, law of armed conflict, IHL, human rights

29.

The Decline of International Humanitarian Law Opinio Juris and the Law of Cyber Warfare

Texas International Law Journal, Vol. 50, 2015
Number of pages: 43 Posted: 18 Aug 2014 Last Revised: 05 Jun 2015
Michael N. Schmitt, Sean Watts and Sean Watts
and Creighton University School of LawLieber Institute for Law & Land Warfare, West Point
Downloads 609 (57,781)
Citation 2

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humanitarian law; cyber; opinio juris, law of war,customary law

30.

The Nature of International Law Cyber Norms

Tallinn Papers No. 5 (NATO Cooperative Cyber Defence Centre of Excellence, Dec. 2014)
Number of pages: 35 Posted: 31 Dec 2014
Michael N. Schmitt and Liis Vihul
and NATO Cooperative Cyber Defence Centre of Excellence
Downloads 505 (73,049)
Citation 1

Abstract:

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Cyber, international law

31.

International Law in Cyberspace: The Koh Speech and the Tallinn Manual Justaposed

54 Harvard International Law Journal Online 13 (2012)
Number of pages: 25 Posted: 14 Dec 2012
Michael N. Schmitt
Downloads 478 (78,090)
Citation 2

Abstract:

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cyber, jus ad bellum, self-defense, use of force, humanitarian law

32.

Bellum Americanum: the U.S. View of Twenty-First Century War and Its Possible Implications for the Law of Armed Conflict

Michigan Journal of International Law, Vol. 19, 1998
Number of pages: 40 Posted: 12 May 2010
Michael N. Schmitt
Downloads 468 (80,092)

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humanitarian law, law of armed conflict, IHL, LOAC, law of war, warfare, distinction, revolution in military affairs, RMA, jus ad bellum

33.

'On Target': Precision and Balance in the Contemporary Law of Targeting

7 Journal of National Security and Policy 379-409 (2014)
Number of pages: 32 Posted: 21 May 2014 Last Revised: 19 Jan 2015
Michael N. Schmitt and Eric Widmar
and Stockton Center for the Study of International Law
Downloads 447 (84,611)
Citation 1

Abstract:

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targeting, drones, autonomous weapon systems, cyber, law of armed conflict, international humanitarian law, balance, collateral damage, precautions in attack

34.

Extraterritorial Lethal Targeting: Deconstructing the Logic of International Law

Columbia Journal of Transnational Law, Vol. 52, 2013
Number of pages: 36 Posted: 01 Mar 2013 Last Revised: 14 Feb 2014
Michael N. Schmitt
Downloads 428 (89,036)
Citation 4

Abstract:

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use of force, humanitarian law, law of armed conflict, self-defense, extraterritorial

35.

'Attack' as a Term of Art in International Law: The Cyber Operations Context

PROCEEDINGS OF THE 4TH INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE ON CYBER CONFLICT 283-293 (Christian Czosseck, Rain Ottis & Katharina Ziolkowski eds., 2012)
Number of pages: 11 Posted: 05 Dec 2012
Michael N. Schmitt
Downloads 423 (90,239)
Citation 5

Abstract:

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cyber, attack, armed attack, international humanitarian law, self-defense

36.

Responding to Transnational Terrorism under the Jus Ad Bellum: A Normative Framework

Naval Law Review, Vol. 56, No. 1, 2008
Number of pages: 43 Posted: 19 May 2010
Michael N. Schmitt
Downloads 419 (91,222)
Citation 8

Abstract:

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terrorism, jus ad bellum, international law, border, self-defense, self-defence

37.

Rewired Warfare: Rethinking the Law of Cyber Attack

96(893) International Review of the Red Cross 189-206 (2014)
Number of pages: 18 Posted: 28 Jul 2014 Last Revised: 30 Sep 2015
Michael N. Schmitt
Downloads 417 (91,707)
Citation 1

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cyber operation, cyber attack, functionality test, humanitarian law

38.

Wings Over Libya: The No-Fly Zone in Legal Perspective

Yale Journal of International Law Online, Vol. 36, pp. 45-58, 2011
Number of pages: 14 Posted: 03 Apr 2011
Michael N. Schmitt
Downloads 409 (93,839)

Abstract:

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no-fly, no-flight, Libya, international humanitarian law, law of armed conflict

39.

The Law of Cyber Targeting

Tallinn Paper No. 7
Number of pages: 23 Posted: 16 Jan 2015
Michael N. Schmitt
Downloads 408 (94,091)

Abstract:

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Cyber, humanitarian law, law of armed conflict, distinction, proportionality, precautions in attack

40.

Joint and Combined Targeting: System and Process

Weighing Lives in War (Jens Ohlin, Larry May & Claire Finkelstein eds. Oxford University Press 2017 Forthcoming)
Number of pages: 23 Posted: 30 Aug 2016
, Government of the United States of America - Stockton Center for the Study of International Law, Government of the United States of America - Stockton Center for the Study of International Law, Independent and Government of the United States of America - Stockton Center for the Study of International Law
Downloads 406 (94,662)

Abstract:

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targeting, international humanitarian law, cyber

41.

Classification of Cyber Conflict

17 Journal of Conflict and Security Law 245 (2012)
Number of pages: 16 Posted: 05 Dec 2012
Michael N. Schmitt
Downloads 386 (100,320)
Citation 1

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international humanitarian law, cyber, conflict, classification, non-international, international armed conflict

42.

Cyber Countermeasures and Effects on Third Parties: The International Legal Regime

14 Baltic Yearbook of International Law 1 (2014)
Number of pages: 24 Posted: 14 Feb 2014 Last Revised: 28 Mar 2015
Michael N. Schmitt and M. Christopher Pitts
and Emory University School of Law
Downloads 370 (105,195)

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countermeasures, cyber, State responsibility

43.

State Opinio Juris and International Humanitarian Law Pluralism

91 International Law Studies 171 (2015) , Texas International Law Journal, Vol. 50, No. 2015
Number of pages: 46 Posted: 12 May 2015
Michael N. Schmitt, Sean Watts and Sean Watts
and Creighton University School of LawLieber Institute for Law & Land Warfare, West Point
Downloads 363 (107,545)
Citation 1

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International Humanitarian Law, Law of War, Law of Armed Conflict, Opinio Juris, Public International Law, National Security Law

44.

Drone Law: A Reply to UN Special Rapporteur Emmerson

Virginia Journal of International Law Digest, Vol. 55, No. 13, 2014
Number of pages: 16 Posted: 22 Aug 2014
Michael N. Schmitt
Downloads 331 (119,089)

Abstract:

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drones, remotely piloted aircraft, humanitarian law, use of force, extraterritorial, targeting, targeted killings, extrajudicial killings, jus ad bellum, jus in bello

45.

Sovereignty in Cyberspace: Lex Lata Vel Non?

111 American Journal of International Law Unbound 213 (2017)
Number of pages: 6 Posted: 25 Aug 2017
Michael N. Schmitt and Liis Vihul
and NATO Cooperative Cyber Defence Centre of Excellence
Downloads 325 (121,458)
Citation 1

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sovereignty, cyber

46.

The Notion of ‘Objects’ During Cyber Operations: A Riposte in Defence of Interpretive and Applicative Precision

48 Israel Law Review 81-109 (2015)
Number of pages: 30 Posted: 31 Jan 2015
Michael N. Schmitt
Downloads 322 (122,690)
Citation 1

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cyber, data, object, humanitarian law, law of armed conflict, military objective

47.

Narrowing the International Law Divide: The Drone Debate Matures

39 Yale Journal of International Law Online 1-14 (2014)
Number of pages: 14 Posted: 14 Nov 2013 Last Revised: 25 Mar 2016
Michael N. Schmitt
Downloads 322 (122,690)

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drone, predator, unmanned, humanitarian law, human rights watch, amnesty international

48.

Faultlines in the Law of Attack

TESTING THE BOUNDARIES OF INTERNATIONAL HUMANITARIAN LAW, Breau, Susan & Jachec-Neale, Agnieszka, eds., Chapter 9, pp. 277-307, British Institute of International and Comparative Law, 2006
Number of pages: 31 Posted: 20 May 2010
Michael N. Schmitt
Downloads 313 (126,873)

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IHL, attack, humanitarian law, LOAC, law of armed conflict, law of war, targeting, military objectives, civilian morale, leadership targeting, proportionality, human shields, and precautions in attack

49.

Status of Opposition Fighters in a Non-International Armed Conflict

88 NAVAL WAR COLLEGE INTERNATIONAL LAW STUDIES 119-144 (Kenneth Watkin & Andrew Norris eds., 2012)
Number of pages: 26 Posted: 05 Dec 2012
Michael N. Schmitt
Downloads 308 (128,614)
Citation 8

Abstract:

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international humanitarian law, direct participation, combatants, status

50.

The Principle of Discrimination in 21st Century Warfare

Yale Human Rights and Development Law Journal, Vol. 2, 1999
Number of pages: 40 Posted: 09 May 2010
Michael N. Schmitt
Downloads 301 (131,877)
Citation 9

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discrimination, distinction, IHL, humanitarian law, law of armed conflict, LOAC, conflict

51.

Bellum Americanum Revisited: U.S. Security Strategy and the Jus Ad Bellum

Military Law Review, Vol. 176, p. 364, 2003
Number of pages: 58 Posted: 19 May 2010
Michael N. Schmitt
Downloads 300 (132,351)

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Use of force, jus ad bellum, international law, strategy, weapons of mass destruction, WMD, counterterrirism, terrorism, humanitarian intervention

52.

Unmanned Combat Aircraft Systems (Armed Drones) and International Humanitarian Law: Simplifying the Oft Benighted Debate

30 BOSTON UNIVERSITY INTERNATIONAL LAW JOURNAL 595-619 (2012)
Number of pages: 26 Posted: 05 Dec 2012
Michael N. Schmitt
Downloads 285 (139,620)

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drones, UAV, UAS, UCAS, predator

53.

Characterization of Conflict: The Case of Iraq

Chatham House Project on Categorization of Conflict Discussion Paper
Number of pages: 28 Posted: 09 May 2010
Michael N. Schmitt
Downloads 282 (141,142)

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international armed conflict, non-international armed conflict, humanitarian law, occupation, law of war, law of armed conflict, IHL, LOAC

54.

Targeting Narcoinsurgents in Afghanistan: The Limits of International Humanitarian Law

Yearbook of International Humanitarian Law, Vol. 12, pp. 1-20, 2009
Number of pages: 20 Posted: 08 May 2010 Last Revised: 21 Jun 2010
Michael N. Schmitt
Downloads 274 (145,404)

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Drugs, Afghanistan, Insurgency, Law of War, International Humanitarian Law, Law of Armed Conflict, Target

55.

21st Century Conflict: Can the Law Survive?

Melbourne Journal of International Law, Vol. 8, 2007
Number of pages: 34 Posted: 09 May 2010
Michael N. Schmitt
Downloads 262 (152,075)
Citation 1

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terrorism, asymmetry, asymmetrical warfare, jus ad bellum, jus in bello, IHL, humanitarian law, LOAC, law of armed conflict

56.

Classification [Of Conflict] in Future Conflict

INTERNATIONAL LAW AND THE CLASSIFICATION OF CONFLICT 455-477 (Elizabeth Wilmshurst ed., Oxford University Press, 2012)
Number of pages: 23 Posted: 05 Dec 2012
Michael N. Schmitt
Downloads 261 (152,684)

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classification, international humanitarian law, international armed conflict, non-international, crime, future

57.

The Vanishing Law of War: Reflections on Law and War in the 21st Century

Harvard International Review, p. 64, Spring 2009
Number of pages: 6 Posted: 05 May 2010
Michael N. Schmitt
Downloads 254 (157,013)

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humanitarian law, law of war, law of armed conflict, IHL, LOAC, distinction

58.

Clipped Wings: Effective and Legal No-Fly Zone Rules of Engagement

Loyola of Los Angeles International and Comparative Law Review, Vol. 20, 1998
Number of pages: 64 Posted: 28 Jun 2010
Michael N. Schmitt
Downloads 248 (160,701)

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no-fly, zone, ROE, rules of engagement, international law

59.

'Virtual' Disenfranchisement: Cyber Election Meddling in the Grey Zones of International Law

19 Chicago Journal of International Law 30-67 (2018)
Number of pages: 39 Posted: 30 May 2018 Last Revised: 19 Aug 2018
Michael N. Schmitt
Downloads 234 (169,899)
Citation 1

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cyber, election, meddling, sovereignty, intervention, interference, international law

60.

Foreign Cyber Interference in Elections

97 International Law Studies 739 (2021)
Number of pages: 27 Posted: 14 Apr 2021
Michael N. Schmitt
Downloads 224 (177,195)

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cyber, sovereignty, intervention, human rights, elections

61.

The International Law of Unconventional Statecraft

5 Harvard National Security Journal 349-376 (2014)
Number of pages: 28 Posted: 27 Jan 2014 Last Revised: 17 Jun 2014
Michael N. Schmitt and Andru E Wall
and Stockton Center for International Law
Downloads 219 (181,045)
Citation 1

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unconventional warfare, intervention, self-defense, armed attack, use of force, state responsibility

62.

Peacetime Cyber Responses and Wartime Cyber Operations Under International Law: An Analytical Vade Mecum

8 Harvard National Security Journal 239 (2017)
Number of pages: 44 Posted: 31 May 2018
Michael N. Schmitt
Downloads 207 (190,819)
Citation 1

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Cyber, International Law, Tallinn Manual

63.

An International Attribution Mechanism for Hostile Cyber Operations?

96 International Law Studies __ (2020), Hebrew University of Jerusalem Legal Research Paper No. 20-16
Number of pages: 18 Posted: 17 Jun 2020 Last Revised: 18 Jun 2020
Michael N. Schmitt and Yuval Shany
and Hebrew University of Jerusalem - Faculty of Law and Institute of Criminology
Downloads 193 (203,381)

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cyber, attribution, ICT, state responsibility

64.

Assessing U.S. Justifications for Using Force in Response to Syriai's Chemical Attacks: An International Law Perspective

Journal of National Security Law and Policy, Forthcoming
Number of pages: 19 Posted: 10 Aug 2017
Michael N. Schmitt and Christopher Ford
and Government of the United States of America - Stockton Center for the Study of International Law
Downloads 173 (223,714)

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Humanitarian Intervention, Syria, Missile Attack, Self-Defense, International Law, IHL, LOAC, Law of Armed Conflict, UN, Security Council, Chemical Weapons

65.

Aerial Blockades in Historical, Legal and Practical Perspective

USAFA Journal of Legal Studies, Vol. 2, p. 21, 1991
Number of pages: 66 Posted: 09 May 2010
Michael N. Schmitt
Downloads 173 (223,714)

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blockade, air, aerial, air warfare, humanitarian law, IHL, law of armed conflict, loac

66.

Precision Air Warfare and the Law of Armed Conflict

89 International Law Studies 669 (2013)
Number of pages: 28 Posted: 11 Jul 2013
Christopher Markham and Michael N. Schmitt
Government of the United States of America - Marine Corps and
Downloads 168 (229,397)

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international humanitarian law, air warfare, law of armed conflict, precision, law of war, air

67.

'Change Direction' 2006: Israeli Operations in Lebanon and The International Law of Self-Defense

Michigan Journal of International Law, Vol. 29, 2008
Number of pages: 39 Posted: 05 May 2010
Michael N. Schmitt
Downloads 165 (232,902)
Citation 7

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Israel, Lebanon, Use of Force, Jus ad Bellum

68.

Debellatio

MAX PLANCK ENCYCLOPEDIA OF PUBLIC INTERNATIONAL LAW, 2009
Number of pages: 4 Posted: 19 May 2010
Michael N. Schmitt
Downloads 162 (236,454)

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debellatio, international law, subjugation

69.

International Humanitarian Law and the Targeting of Non-State Intelligence Personnel and Objects

Duke Journal of Comparative & International Law, Vol. 30, 2020
Number of pages: 39 Posted: 14 Jul 2020
Michael N. Schmitt
Downloads 149 (253,551)

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humanitarian law, law of armed conflict, armed group, direct participation

70.

Wound, Capture, or Kill? A Reply to Professor Ryan Goodman's 'The Power to Kill or Capture Enemy Combatants'

24 European Journal of International Law 855 (2013)
Number of pages: 7 Posted: 30 Sep 2013
Michael N. Schmitt
Downloads 144 (260,558)
Citation 3

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humanitarian law, law of war, law of armed conflict, capture

71.

Classification of Cyber Capabilities and Operations as Weapons, Means, or Methods of Warfare

95 International Law Studies 179 (2019)
Number of pages: 48 Posted: 24 Jul 2019
Jeffrey Biller and Michael N. Schmitt
Government of the United States of America - Judge Advocate General’s Corps and
Downloads 126 (288,731)
Citation 1

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cyber, weapons review, precautions in attack, neutrality cyber capabilities, cyber weapons

72.

Autonomous Cyber Capabilities and the International Law of Sovereignty and Intervention

96 International Law Studies 549-576 (2020)
Number of pages: 29 Posted: 22 Feb 2021
Michael N. Schmitt
Downloads 107 (324,205)

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sovereignty, autonomous, intervention, state responsibility, cyber

73.

Effects-Based Operations and the Law of Aerial Warfare

Washington University Global Studies Law Review, Vol. 5, p. 265, 2006
Number of pages: 30 Posted: 20 May 2010
Michael N. Schmitt
Downloads 91 (360,116)
Citation 1

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aerial, air, effects-based, targeting, IHL, humanitarian law, LOAC, law of armed conflict

74.

Iraq (2003 Onwards)

INTERNATIONAL LAW AND THE CLASSIFICATION OF CONFLICT 356-386 (Elizabeth Wilmshurst ed., Oxford University Press, 2012)
Number of pages: 31 Posted: 05 Dec 2012
Michael N. Schmitt
Downloads 89 (365,158)

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international armed conflict, non-international, international humanitarian law, classification, Iraq

75.

Invisible Injuries: Concussive Effects and International Humanitarian Law

9 Harvard National Security Journal 72 (2018)
Number of pages: 28 Posted: 31 May 2018
Michael N. Schmitt and Chad Highfill
and Government of the United States of America - Stockton Center for the Study of International Law
Downloads 85 (375,583)

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concussion, injury, humanitarian law, law of armed conflict, proportionality, precautions

76.

Taming the Lawless Void: Tracking the Evolution of International Law Rules for Cyberspace

3:3 Texas National Security Review 32-47 (Autumn 2020)
Number of pages: 16 Posted: 23 Feb 2021
Michael N. Schmitt
Downloads 84 (378,232)

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cyber, international law, sovereignty, use of force, intervention, norms

77.

Collective Cyber Countermeasures?

12 Harvard National Security Journal 176 (2021)
Number of pages: 39 Posted: 08 Jul 2021
Michael N. Schmitt, Sean Watts and Sean Watts
and Creighton University School of LawLieber Institute for Law & Land Warfare, West Point
Downloads 80 (389,375)

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public international law, state responsibility, circumstances precluding wrongfulness, self-help, cyber, international relations

78.

Responding to Hostile Cyber Operations: The 'In-Kind' Option

97 International Law Studies 96 (2021)
Number of pages: 27 Posted: 22 Feb 2021
Michael N. Schmitt and Durward Johnson
and US Army Judge Advocate General's Corps
Downloads 70 (419,396)

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Cyber, sovereignty, use of force, intervention, countermeasure, self-defense

79.

Common Article 1 and the Duty to 'Ensure Respect'

96 International Law Studies 674-706 (2020)
Number of pages: 34 Posted: 22 Feb 2021
Michael N. Schmitt, Sean Watts and Sean Watts
and Creighton University School of LawLieber Institute for Law & Land Warfare, West Point
Downloads 65 (436,029)

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Geneva Convention, Common Article, Ensure Respect, Humanitarian Law, Law of Armed Conflict, Armed Conflict

80.

'Enemy Controlled Battlespace': The Contemporary Meaning and Purpose of Additional Protocol I's Article 44(3) Exception

Vanderbilt Journal of Transnational Law, Forthcoming, Exeter Centre for International Law Working Paper No. 2018/6
Number of pages: 29 Posted: 05 Oct 2018
Kubo Mačák and Michael N. Schmitt
University of Exeter and
Downloads 61 (450,034)

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armed conflict, combatant status, distinction, enemy controlled battlespace, international humanitarian law, treaty interpretation

81.

NATO Collective Defense at 70: Confession and Response Revisited

Emory International Law Review, Vol. 34, 2019
Number of pages: 36 Posted: 22 Feb 2021
Michael N. Schmitt
Downloads 52 (484,350)

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NATO, International Law, Collective Defense, Collective Defense, Article 5, North Atlantic Treaty

82.

Uncertainty in the Law of Targeting: Towards a Cognitive Framework

10 Harvard National Security Journal 148-194 (2019)
Number of pages: 47 Posted: 22 Feb 2021
Michael N. Schmitt and Michael Schauss
and United States Army, Judge Advocate General's Corps
Downloads 44 (519,193)

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uncertainty, targeting, humanitarian law, law of armed conflict, discrimination, distinction, proportionality, precautions in attack

83.

Wired Warfare 3.0: Protecting the Civilian Population during Cyber Operations

101(1) International Review of the Red Cross 333-355 (2019)
Posted: 16 Apr 2021
Michael N. Schmitt

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cyber, attack, article 49, Additional Protocol I, humanitarian law, law of armed conflict, attack, object, data, Tallinn Manual

84.

The Legality of Cross-Border Counterterrorist Operations into Pakistan: Clearing the 'Fog of Law'

Inter Alia (Durham University), Forthcoming
Posted: 09 May 2010 Last Revised: 23 Aug 2014
Michael N. Schmitt

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drone, humanitarian law, pakistan, use of force

Other Papers (1)

Total Downloads: 190
1.

Cyberspace and International Law: The Penumbral Mist of Uncertainty

126 Harvard Law Review Forum 176 (2013)
Number of pages: 5 Posted: 17 Apr 2013 Last Revised: 28 Dec 2020
Michael N. Schmitt
Downloads 190

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Cyberspace, international law, cyber