Michael N. Schmitt

Naval War College - Stockton Center for the Study of International Law

Stockton Professor and Director

686 Cushing Road

Newport, RI 02841

United States

http://www.usnwc.edu/Academics/Faculty/Michael-Schmitt.aspx

University of Exeter Law School

Professor of Public International Law

Streatham Court

University of Exeter

Exeter, EX4 4QJ

United Kingdom

http://socialsciences.exeter.ac.uk/law/staff/mschmitt/

Lieber Institute, USMA at West Point

Francis Lieber Distinguished Scholar

600 Thayer Rd

West Point, NY 10996

United States

SCHOLARLY PAPERS

71

DOWNLOADS
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33,185

CITATIONS
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in Total Papers Citations

50

Scholarly Papers (71)

1.

Computer Network Attack and the Use of Force in International Law: Thoughts on a Normative Framework

Columbia Journal of Transnational Law, Vol. 37, 1998-99
Number of pages: 54 Posted: 19 May 2010
Michael N. Schmitt
Naval War College - Stockton Center for the Study of International Law
Downloads 2,804 (4,024)
Citation 5

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computer, network, cyber, jus an bellum, use of force, international law, self-defense, self-defence, collective security

2.

Military Necessity and Humanity in International Humanitarian Law: Preserving the Delicate Balance

Virginia Journal of International Law, Vol. 50, No. 4, p. 795, 2010
Number of pages: 45 Posted: 05 May 2010 Last Revised: 14 Mar 2016
Michael N. Schmitt
Naval War College - Stockton Center for the Study of International Law
Downloads 2,412 (5,164)
Citation 9

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humanity, necessity, humanitarian law, law of war, law of armed conflict, ihl, loac

3.

Drone Attacks Under the Jus ad Bellum and Jus in Bello: Clearing the 'Fog of Law'

Yearbook of International Humanitarian Law, Forthcoming
Number of pages: 14 Posted: 03 Apr 2011
Michael N. Schmitt
Naval War College - Stockton Center for the Study of International Law
Downloads 2,311 (5,555)
Citation 3

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drones, UAV, UAS, jus ad bellum, use of force, international humanitarian law, law of armed conflict

4.

Autonomous Weapon Systems and International Humanitarian Law: A Reply to the Critics

Harvard National Security Journal Feature (2013)
Number of pages: 37 Posted: 05 Dec 2012 Last Revised: 09 Feb 2013
Michael N. Schmitt
Naval War College - Stockton Center for the Study of International Law
Downloads 1,178 (16,704)
Citation 18

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international humanitarian law, law of armed conflict, robots, autonomous

5.

'Out of the Loop': Autonomous Weapon Systems and the Law of Armed Conflict

4 Harvard National Security Journal 231 (2013)
Number of pages: 51 Posted: 06 Feb 2013 Last Revised: 03 Jul 2014
Michael N. Schmitt and Jeffrey Thurnher
Naval War College - Stockton Center for the Study of International Law and Office of the US Army Judge Advocate General
Downloads 1,166 (16,936)
Citation 2

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autonomous, humanitarian law, law of armed conflict, weapon

6.

Humanitarian Law and Direct Participation in Hostilties by Private Contractors or Civilian Employees

Chicago Journal of International Law, Vol. 5, 2004-2005
Number of pages: 36 Posted: 20 May 2010
Michael N. Schmitt
Naval War College - Stockton Center for the Study of International Law
Downloads 1,035 (20,213)
Citation 1

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IHL, humanitarian law, law of armed conflict, direct participation, civilians

7.

The Law of Cyber Warfare: Quo Vadis?

25 Stanford Law & Policy Review 269-299 (2014)
Number of pages: 32 Posted: 06 Sep 2013 Last Revised: 16 Nov 2015
Michael N. Schmitt
Naval War College - Stockton Center for the Study of International Law
Downloads 999 (21,353)
Citation 1

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cyber, cyber wars, sovereignty, jus ad bellum, use of force, self-defense, jus in bello, humanitarian law

8.

'Below the Threshold' Cyber Operations: The Countermeasures Response Option and International Law

Virginia Journal of International Law, Vol. 54, 2014
Number of pages: 36 Posted: 14 Nov 2013 Last Revised: 07 Apr 2015
Michael N. Schmitt
Naval War College - Stockton Center for the Study of International Law
Downloads 994 (21,496)
Citation 1

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cyber, State responsibility, countermeasures

9.

The Tyranny of Context: Israeli Targeting Practices in Legal Perspective

37 University of Pennsylvania Journal of International Law 53-139 (2015)
Number of pages: 88 Posted: 13 Apr 2015 Last Revised: 15 Nov 2015
Michael N. Schmitt and John Merriam
Naval War College - Stockton Center for the Study of International Law and Government of the United States of America - Judge Advocate General's Corps
Downloads 965 (22,451)
Citation 1

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Law of armed conflict, international humanitarian law, targeting, attack, Israel, Israel Defense Force, Military Advocate General, armed conflict

10.

Cyber Operations and the Jus in Bello: Key Issues

Naval War College International Law Studies, 2011
Number of pages: 22 Posted: 03 Apr 2011
Michael N. Schmitt
Naval War College - Stockton Center for the Study of International Law
Downloads 932 (23,616)
Citation 1

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cyber, information operations, law of armed conflict, international humanitarian law

11.

Israeli Targeting: A Legal Appraisal

68:4 Naval War College Review 15-33 (Autumn 2015)
Number of pages: 20 Posted: 21 Apr 2015 Last Revised: 17 Sep 2015
John Merriam and Michael N. Schmitt
Government of the United States of America - Judge Advocate General's Corps and Naval War College - Stockton Center for the Study of International Law
Downloads 787 (30,018)

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law of armed conflict, targeting, humanitarian law, Israel, Israel Defence Force

12.

Legitimacy Versus Legality Redux: Arming the Syrian Rebels

7 Journal of National Security Law and Policy 139-159 (2014)
Number of pages: 21 Posted: 15 Aug 2013 Last Revised: 20 Feb 2014
Michael N. Schmitt
Naval War College - Stockton Center for the Study of International Law
Downloads 737 (32,830)

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Use of force, intervention, Humanitarian intervention, self-defense, countermeasures, armed conflict, state responsibility, Syria, rebels, insurgents

13.

Asymmetrical Warfare and International Humanitarian Law

Air Force Law Review, Vol. 62, No. 1, 2007
Number of pages: 43 Posted: 09 May 2010
Michael N. Schmitt
Naval War College - Stockton Center for the Study of International Law
Downloads 735 (32,967)
Citation 6

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asymmetrical warfare, asymmetry, humanitarian law, ihl, loac, law of armed conflict

14.

Deconstructing Direct Participation in Hostilties: The Constitutive Elements

New York University Journal of International Law and Politics, Vol. 42, p. 697, 2010
Number of pages: 44 Posted: 05 May 2010 Last Revised: 10 Jun 2010
Michael N. Schmitt
Naval War College - Stockton Center for the Study of International Law
Downloads 709 (34,604)
Citation 3

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Direct Participation, Constitutive Elements, Humanitarian Law, Law of War, Law of Armed Conflict

15.

Proxy Wars in Cyber Space: The Evolving International Law of Attribution

I(II) Fletcher Security Review 55-73 (2014)
Number of pages: 23 Posted: 01 Feb 2014 Last Revised: 16 Aug 2014
Michael N. Schmitt and Liis Vihul
Naval War College - Stockton Center for the Study of International Law and NATO Cooperative Cyber Defence Centre of Excellence
Downloads 655 (38,495)
Citation 1

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16.

Targeting and International Humanitarian Law in Afghanistan

Naval War College International Law Studies, pp. 307-339, 2009 , Israel Yearbook on Human Rights, Vol. 39, 2009
Number of pages: 33 Posted: 05 May 2010
Michael N. Schmitt
Naval War College - Stockton Center for the Study of International Law
Downloads 616 (41,795)
Citation 1

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Afghanistan, targeting, IHL, LOAC, humanitarian law, law of war, law of armed conflict

17.

The Syrian Intervention: Assessing the Possible International Law Justifications

89 International Law Studies 744 (2013)
Number of pages: 14 Posted: 08 Sep 2013
Michael N. Schmitt
Naval War College - Stockton Center for the Study of International Law
Downloads 562 (47,181)

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Syria, chemical weapons, humanitarian intervention, self-defense

18.

Investigating Violations of International Law in Armed Conflict

Havard National National Security Journal, Vol. 2, pp. 31-84, 2011
Number of pages: 54 Posted: 29 Sep 2010 Last Revised: 05 Jan 2011
Michael N. Schmitt
Naval War College - Stockton Center for the Study of International Law
Downloads 557 (47,710)
Citation 2

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investigations, war crimes, international humanitararian law, law of armed conflict, IHL, human rights

Charting the Legal Geography of Non-International Armed Conflict

90 International Law Studies 1 (2014)
Number of pages: 20 Posted: 06 Jan 2014 Last Revised: 20 Feb 2014
Michael N. Schmitt
Naval War College - Stockton Center for the Study of International Law
Downloads 430 (65,219)
Citation 3

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Geography, Common Article 2, Common Article 3, humanitarian law, law of armed conflict, geography, non-international armed conflict

Charting the Legal Geography of Non-International Armed Conflict

52 Military Law and the Law of War Review 93-102 (2013)
Number of pages: 25 Posted: 02 Feb 2015
Michael N. Schmitt
Naval War College - Stockton Center for the Study of International Law
Downloads 113 (241,843)

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20.

Human Shields in International Humanitarian Law

Columbia Journal of Transnational Law, Vol. 47, 2009
Number of pages: 48 Posted: 05 May 2010
Michael N. Schmitt
Naval War College - Stockton Center for the Study of International Law
Downloads 536 (50,040)

Abstract:

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human shields, humanitarian law, law of armed conflict, law of war

21.

Cyber Operations and the Jus Ad Bellum Revisited

56 VILLANOVA LAW REVIEW 569-606 (2011)
Number of pages: 38 Posted: 05 Dec 2012
Michael N. Schmitt
Naval War College - Stockton Center for the Study of International Law
Downloads 532 (51,023)
Citation 2

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Jus ad bellum, cyber, self-defense, use of force, UN Charter, 2(4), 51

22.

Attacking 'Islamic State' and the Khorasan Group: Surveying the International Law Landscape

53 Columbia Journal of Transnational Law Bulletin 1 (2014)
Number of pages: 29 Posted: 20 Nov 2014 Last Revised: 29 Nov 2014
Louise Arimatsu and Michael N. Schmitt
University of Exeter and Naval War College - Stockton Center for the Study of International Law
Downloads 529 (50,897)
Citation 1

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islamic State, ISIS, ISIL, Syria, self-defense, use of force, Iraq, Khorasan

23.

The Interpretive Guidance on the Notion of Direct Participation in Hostilities: A Critical Analysis

Harvard National Security Journal, Vol. 1, p. 5, 2010
Number of pages: 40 Posted: 08 May 2010
Michael N. Schmitt
Naval War College - Stockton Center for the Study of International Law
Downloads 485 (56,828)
Citation 11

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Humanitarial Law, Law of War, Direct Participation, Civilians, Law of Armed Conflict

24.

Beyond State-Centrism: International Law and Non-State Actors in Cyberspace

21 Journal of Conflict and Security Law 1-17 (2016)
Number of pages: 17 Posted: 23 Mar 2016 Last Revised: 15 Aug 2016
Michael N. Schmitt and Sean Watts
Naval War College - Stockton Center for the Study of International Law and Creighton University School of Law
Downloads 478 (57,869)
Citation 1

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cyber, non-state, sovereignty, state responsibility, jus ad bellum, self-defense, self-defence

25.

The Decline of International Humanitarian Law Opinio Juris and the Law of Cyber Warfare

Texas International Law Journal, Vol. 50, 2015
Number of pages: 43 Posted: 18 Aug 2014 Last Revised: 05 Jun 2015
Michael N. Schmitt and Sean Watts
Naval War College - Stockton Center for the Study of International Law and Creighton University School of Law
Downloads 463 (60,190)

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humanitarian law; cyber; opinio juris, law of war,customary law

26.

Bellum Americanum: the U.S. View of Twenty-First Century War and Its Possible Implications for the Law of Armed Conflict

Michigan Journal of International Law, Vol. 19, 1998
Number of pages: 40 Posted: 12 May 2010
Michael N. Schmitt
Naval War College - Stockton Center for the Study of International Law
Downloads 422 (67,349)
Citation 1

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humanitarian law, law of armed conflict, IHL, LOAC, law of war, warfare, distinction, revolution in military affairs, RMA, jus ad bellum

27.

In Defense of Due Diligence in Cyberspace

125 Yale Law Journal Forum 68 (2015)
Number of pages: 14 Posted: 24 Jun 2015
Michael N. Schmitt
Naval War College - Stockton Center for the Study of International Law
Downloads 418 (68,105)

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Due diligence, cyber, countermeasures, state responsibility

28.

'On Target': Precision and Balance in the Contemporary Law of Targeting

7 Journal of National Security and Policy 379-409 (2014)
Number of pages: 32 Posted: 21 May 2014 Last Revised: 19 Jan 2015
Michael N. Schmitt and Eric Widmar
Naval War College - Stockton Center for the Study of International Law and Stockton Center for the Study of International Law
Downloads 356 (82,271)
Citation 2

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targeting, drones, autonomous weapon systems, cyber, law of armed conflict, international humanitarian law, balance, collateral damage, precautions in attack

29.

International Law in Cyberspace: The Koh Speech and the Tallinn Manual Justaposed

54 Harvard International Law Journal Online 13 (2012)
Number of pages: 25 Posted: 14 Dec 2012
Michael N. Schmitt
Naval War College - Stockton Center for the Study of International Law
Downloads 343 (86,790)
Citation 1

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cyber, jus ad bellum, self-defense, use of force, humanitarian law

30.

Wings Over Libya: The No-Fly Zone in Legal Perspective

Yale Journal of International Law Online, Vol. 36, pp. 45-58, 2011
Number of pages: 14 Posted: 03 Apr 2011
Michael N. Schmitt
Naval War College - Stockton Center for the Study of International Law
Downloads 343 (85,902)

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no-fly, no-flight, Libya, international humanitarian law, law of armed conflict

31.

Extraterritorial Lethal Targeting: Deconstructing the Logic of International Law

Columbia Journal of Transnational Law, Vol. 52, 2013
Number of pages: 36 Posted: 01 Mar 2013 Last Revised: 14 Feb 2014
Michael N. Schmitt
Naval War College - Stockton Center for the Study of International Law
Downloads 337 (87,609)
Citation 2

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use of force, humanitarian law, law of armed conflict, self-defense, extraterritorial

32.

Rewired Warfare: Rethinking the Law of Cyber Attack

96(893) International Review of the Red Cross 189-206 (2014)
Number of pages: 18 Posted: 28 Jul 2014 Last Revised: 30 Sep 2015
Michael N. Schmitt
Naval War College - Stockton Center for the Study of International Law
Downloads 330 (89,729)

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cyber operation, cyber attack, functionality test, humanitarian law

33.

The Law of Cyber Targeting

Tallinn Paper No. 7
Number of pages: 23 Posted: 16 Jan 2015
Michael N. Schmitt
Naval War College - Stockton Center for the Study of International Law
Downloads 317 (93,756)

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Cyber, humanitarian law, law of armed conflict, distinction, proportionality, precautions in attack

34.

Responding to Transnational Terrorism under the Jus Ad Bellum: A Normative Framework

Naval Law Review, Vol. 56, No. 1, 2008
Number of pages: 43 Posted: 19 May 2010
Michael N. Schmitt
Naval War College - Stockton Center for the Study of International Law
Downloads 307 (97,109)

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terrorism, jus ad bellum, international law, border, self-defense, self-defence

35.

Classification of Cyber Conflict

17 Journal of Conflict and Security Law 245 (2012)
Number of pages: 16 Posted: 05 Dec 2012
Michael N. Schmitt
Naval War College - Stockton Center for the Study of International Law
Downloads 290 (103,281)
Citation 3

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international humanitarian law, cyber, conflict, classification, non-international, international armed conflict

36.

Cyber Countermeasures and Effects on Third Parties: The International Legal Regime

14 Baltic Yearbook of International Law 1 (2014)
Number of pages: 24 Posted: 14 Feb 2014 Last Revised: 28 Mar 2015
Michael N. Schmitt and M. Christopher Pitts
Naval War College - Stockton Center for the Study of International Law and Emory University School of Law
Downloads 288 (104,086)

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countermeasures, cyber, State responsibility

37.

Grey Zones in the International Law of Cyberspace

42:2 Yale Journal of International Law Online 1 (2017)
Number of pages: 21 Posted: 30 May 2018
Michael N. Schmitt
Naval War College - Stockton Center for the Study of International Law
Downloads 282 (106,795)

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cyber, sovereignty, intervention, the use of force, self-defense, humanitarian law

38.

The Nature of International Law Cyber Norms

Tallinn Papers No. 5 (NATO Cooperative Cyber Defence Centre of Excellence, Dec. 2014)
Number of pages: 35 Posted: 31 Dec 2014
Michael N. Schmitt and Liis Vihul
Naval War College - Stockton Center for the Study of International Law and NATO Cooperative Cyber Defence Centre of Excellence
Downloads 266 (113,183)

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Cyber, international law

39.

Drone Law: A Reply to UN Special Rapporteur Emmerson

Virginia Journal of International Law Digest, Vol. 55, No. 13, 2014
Number of pages: 16 Posted: 22 Aug 2014
Michael N. Schmitt
Naval War College - Stockton Center for the Study of International Law
Downloads 264 (114,096)

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drones, remotely piloted aircraft, humanitarian law, use of force, extraterritorial, targeting, targeted killings, extrajudicial killings, jus ad bellum, jus in bello

40.

Bellum Americanum Revisited: U.S. Security Strategy and the Jus Ad Bellum

Military Law Review, Vol. 176, p. 364, 2003
Number of pages: 58 Posted: 19 May 2010
Michael N. Schmitt
Naval War College - Stockton Center for the Study of International Law
Downloads 261 (115,478)

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Use of force, jus ad bellum, international law, strategy, weapons of mass destruction, WMD, counterterrirism, terrorism, humanitarian intervention

41.

'Attack' as a Term of Art in International Law: The Cyber Operations Context

PROCEEDINGS OF THE 4TH INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE ON CYBER CONFLICT 283-293 (Christian Czosseck, Rain Ottis & Katharina Ziolkowski eds., 2012)
Number of pages: 11 Posted: 05 Dec 2012
Michael N. Schmitt
Naval War College - Stockton Center for the Study of International Law
Downloads 260 (115,903)

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cyber, attack, armed attack, international humanitarian law, self-defense

42.

The Principle of Discrimination in 21st Century Warfare

Yale Human Rights and Development Law Journal, Vol. 2, 1999
Number of pages: 40 Posted: 09 May 2010
Michael N. Schmitt
Naval War College - Stockton Center for the Study of International Law
Downloads 259 (116,387)
Citation 11

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discrimination, distinction, IHL, humanitarian law, law of armed conflict, LOAC, conflict

43.

Characterization of Conflict: The Case of Iraq

Chatham House Project on Categorization of Conflict Discussion Paper
Number of pages: 28 Posted: 09 May 2010
Michael N. Schmitt
Naval War College - Stockton Center for the Study of International Law
Downloads 251 (120,254)

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international armed conflict, non-international armed conflict, humanitarian law, occupation, law of war, law of armed conflict, IHL, LOAC

44.

State Opinio Juris and International Humanitarian Law Pluralism

91 International Law Studies 171 (2015) , Texas International Law Journal, Vol. 50, No. 2015
Number of pages: 46 Posted: 12 May 2015
Michael N. Schmitt and Sean Watts
Naval War College - Stockton Center for the Study of International Law and Creighton University School of Law
Downloads 244 (123,701)

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International Humanitarian Law, Law of War, Law of Armed Conflict, Opinio Juris, Public International Law, National Security Law

45.

Faultlines in the Law of Attack

TESTING THE BOUNDARIES OF INTERNATIONAL HUMANITARIAN LAW, Breau, Susan & Jachec-Neale, Agnieszka, eds., Chapter 9, pp. 277-307, British Institute of International and Comparative Law, 2006
Number of pages: 31 Posted: 20 May 2010
Michael N. Schmitt
Naval War College - Stockton Center for the Study of International Law
Downloads 241 (125,291)

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IHL, attack, humanitarian law, LOAC, law of armed conflict, law of war, targeting, military objectives, civilian morale, leadership targeting, proportionality, human shields, and precautions in attack

46.

The Notion of ‘Objects’ During Cyber Operations: A Riposte in Defence of Interpretive and Applicative Precision

48 Israel Law Review 81-109 (2015)
Number of pages: 30 Posted: 31 Jan 2015
Michael N. Schmitt
Naval War College - Stockton Center for the Study of International Law
Downloads 234 (129,100)
Citation 4

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cyber, data, object, humanitarian law, law of armed conflict, military objective

47.

Narrowing the International Law Divide: The Drone Debate Matures

39 Yale Journal of International Law Online 1-14 (2014)
Number of pages: 14 Posted: 14 Nov 2013 Last Revised: 25 Mar 2016
Michael N. Schmitt
Naval War College - Stockton Center for the Study of International Law
Downloads 233 (129,655)

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drone, predator, unmanned, humanitarian law, human rights watch, amnesty international

48.

Targeting Narcoinsurgents in Afghanistan: The Limits of International Humanitarian Law

Yearbook of International Humanitarian Law, Vol. 12, pp. 1-20, 2009
Number of pages: 20 Posted: 08 May 2010 Last Revised: 21 Jun 2010
Michael N. Schmitt
Naval War College - Stockton Center for the Study of International Law
Downloads 228 (132,384)
Citation 1

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Drugs, Afghanistan, Insurgency, Law of War, International Humanitarian Law, Law of Armed Conflict, Target

49.

Sovereignty in Cyberspace: Lex Lata Vel Non?

111 American Journal of International Law Unbound 213 (2017)
Number of pages: 6 Posted: 25 Aug 2017
Michael N. Schmitt and Liis Vihul
Naval War College - Stockton Center for the Study of International Law and NATO Cooperative Cyber Defence Centre of Excellence
Downloads 219 (137,648)

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sovereignty, cyber

50.

Clipped Wings: Effective and Legal No-Fly Zone Rules of Engagement

Loyola of Los Angeles International and Comparative Law Review, Vol. 20, 1998
Number of pages: 64 Posted: 28 Jun 2010
Michael N. Schmitt
Naval War College - Stockton Center for the Study of International Law
Downloads 217 (138,885)
Citation 1

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no-fly, zone, ROE, rules of engagement, international law

51.

The Vanishing Law of War: Reflections on Law and War in the 21st Century

Harvard International Review, p. 64, Spring 2009
Number of pages: 6 Posted: 05 May 2010
Michael N. Schmitt
Naval War College - Stockton Center for the Study of International Law
Downloads 210 (143,261)
Citation 1

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humanitarian law, law of war, law of armed conflict, IHL, LOAC, distinction

52.

Unmanned Combat Aircraft Systems (Armed Drones) and International Humanitarian Law: Simplifying the Oft Benighted Debate

30 BOSTON UNIVERSITY INTERNATIONAL LAW JOURNAL 595-619 (2012)
Number of pages: 26 Posted: 05 Dec 2012
Michael N. Schmitt
Naval War College - Stockton Center for the Study of International Law
Downloads 202 (148,579)

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drones, UAV, UAS, UCAS, predator

53.

21st Century Conflict: Can the Law Survive?

Melbourne Journal of International Law, Vol. 8, 2007
Number of pages: 34 Posted: 09 May 2010
Michael N. Schmitt
Naval War College - Stockton Center for the Study of International Law
Downloads 184 (161,877)
Citation 1

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terrorism, asymmetry, asymmetrical warfare, jus ad bellum, jus in bello, IHL, humanitarian law, LOAC, law of armed conflict

54.

Status of Opposition Fighters in a Non-International Armed Conflict

88 NAVAL WAR COLLEGE INTERNATIONAL LAW STUDIES 119-144 (Kenneth Watkin & Andrew Norris eds., 2012)
Number of pages: 26 Posted: 05 Dec 2012
Michael N. Schmitt
Naval War College - Stockton Center for the Study of International Law
Downloads 165 (178,233)
Citation 2

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international humanitarian law, direct participation, combatants, status

55.

Classification [Of Conflict] in Future Conflict

INTERNATIONAL LAW AND THE CLASSIFICATION OF CONFLICT 455-477 (Elizabeth Wilmshurst ed., Oxford University Press, 2012)
Number of pages: 23 Posted: 05 Dec 2012
Michael N. Schmitt
Naval War College - Stockton Center for the Study of International Law
Downloads 154 (188,914)

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classification, international humanitarian law, international armed conflict, non-international, crime, future

56.

Respect for Sovereignty in Cyberspace

Texas Law Review, Vol. 95, 2017
Number of pages: 32 Posted: 31 May 2018
Michael N. Schmitt and Liis Vihul
Naval War College - Stockton Center for the Study of International Law and NATO Cooperative Cyber Defence Centre of Excellence
Downloads 144 (199,648)

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cyber, sovereignty, international law, state practice opinio juris

57.

The International Law of Unconventional Statecraft

5 Harvard National Security Journal 349-376 (2014)
Number of pages: 28 Posted: 27 Jan 2014 Last Revised: 17 Jun 2014
Michael N. Schmitt and Andru E Wall
Naval War College - Stockton Center for the Study of International Law and Stockton Center for International Law
Downloads 134 (211,527)

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unconventional warfare, intervention, self-defense, armed attack, use of force, state responsibility

58.

Joint and Combined Targeting: System and Process

Weighing Lives in War (Jens Ohlin, Larry May & Claire Finkelstein eds. Oxford University Press 2017 Forthcoming)
Number of pages: 23 Posted: 30 Aug 2016
Naval War College - Stockton Center for the Study of International Law, Government of the United States of America - Stockton Center for the Study of International Law, Government of the United States of America - Stockton Center for the Study of International Law, Independent and Government of the United States of America - Stockton Center for the Study of International Law
Downloads 129 (218,038)

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targeting, international humanitarian law, cyber

59.

Aerial Blockades in Historical, Legal and Practical Perspective

USAFA Journal of Legal Studies, Vol. 2, p. 21, 1991
Number of pages: 66 Posted: 09 May 2010
Michael N. Schmitt
Naval War College - Stockton Center for the Study of International Law
Downloads 125 (223,327)

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blockade, air, aerial, air warfare, humanitarian law, IHL, law of armed conflict, loac

60.

'Change Direction' 2006: Israeli Operations in Lebanon and The International Law of Self-Defense

Michigan Journal of International Law, Vol. 29, 2008
Number of pages: 39 Posted: 05 May 2010
Michael N. Schmitt
Naval War College - Stockton Center for the Study of International Law
Downloads 121 (228,861)
Citation 3

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Israel, Lebanon, Use of Force, Jus ad Bellum

61.

Precision Air Warfare and the Law of Armed Conflict

89 International Law Studies 669 (2013)
Number of pages: 28 Posted: 11 Jul 2013
Christopher Markham and Michael N. Schmitt
Government of the United States of America - Marine Corps and Naval War College - Stockton Center for the Study of International Law
Downloads 116 (236,166)

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international humanitarian law, air warfare, law of armed conflict, precision, law of war, air

62.

'Virtual' Disenfranchisement: Cyber Election Meddling in the Grey Zones of International Law

19 Chicago Journal of International Law 30-67 (2018)
Number of pages: 39 Posted: 30 May 2018 Last Revised: 19 Aug 2018
Michael N. Schmitt
Naval War College - Stockton Center for the Study of International Law
Downloads 103 (256,752)

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cyber, election, meddling, sovereignty, intervention, interference, international law

63.

Wound, Capture, or Kill? A Reply to Professor Ryan Goodman's 'The Power to Kill or Capture Enemy Combatants'

24 European Journal of International Law 855 (2013)
Number of pages: 7 Posted: 30 Sep 2013
Michael N. Schmitt
Naval War College - Stockton Center for the Study of International Law
Downloads 92 (276,471)

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humanitarian law, law of war, law of armed conflict, capture

64.

Debellatio

MAX PLANCK ENCYCLOPEDIA OF PUBLIC INTERNATIONAL LAW, 2009
Number of pages: 4 Posted: 19 May 2010
Michael N. Schmitt
Naval War College - Stockton Center for the Study of International Law
Downloads 83 (294,813)

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debellatio, international law, subjugation

65.

Assessing U.S. Justifications for Using Force in Response to Syriai's Chemical Attacks: An International Law Perspective

Journal of National Security Law and Policy, Forthcoming
Number of pages: 19 Posted: 10 Aug 2017
Michael N. Schmitt and Christopher Ford
Naval War College - Stockton Center for the Study of International Law and Government of the United States of America - Stockton Center for the Study of International Law
Downloads 81 (299,195)

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Humanitarian Intervention, Syria, Missile Attack, Self-Defense, International Law, IHL, LOAC, Law of Armed Conflict, UN, Security Council, Chemical Weapons

66.

Peacetime Cyber Responses and Wartime Cyber Operations Under International Law: An Analytical Vade Mecum

8 Harvard National Security Journal 239 (2017)
Number of pages: 44 Posted: 31 May 2018
Michael N. Schmitt
Naval War College - Stockton Center for the Study of International Law
Downloads 76 (310,647)

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Cyber, International Law, Tallinn Manual

67.

Effects-Based Operations and the Law of Aerial Warfare

Washington University Global Studies Law Review, Vol. 5, p. 265, 2006
Number of pages: 30 Posted: 20 May 2010
Michael N. Schmitt
Naval War College - Stockton Center for the Study of International Law
Downloads 65 (338,394)

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aerial, air, effects-based, targeting, IHL, humanitarian law, LOAC, law of armed conflict

68.

Iraq (2003 Onwards)

INTERNATIONAL LAW AND THE CLASSIFICATION OF CONFLICT 356-386 (Elizabeth Wilmshurst ed., Oxford University Press, 2012)
Number of pages: 31 Posted: 05 Dec 2012
Michael N. Schmitt
Naval War College - Stockton Center for the Study of International Law
Downloads 35 (439,425)

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international armed conflict, non-international, international humanitarian law, classification, Iraq

69.

Invisible Injuries: Concussive Effects and International Humanitarian Law

9 Harvard National Security Journal 72 (2018)
Number of pages: 28 Posted: 31 May 2018
Michael N. Schmitt and Chad Highfill
Naval War College - Stockton Center for the Study of International Law and Government of the United States of America - Stockton Center for the Study of International Law
Downloads 23 (498,104)

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concussion, injury, humanitarian law, law of armed conflict, proportionality, precautions

70.

'Enemy Controlled Battlespace': The Contemporary Meaning and Purpose of Additional Protocol I's Article 44(3) Exception

Vanderbilt Journal of Transnational Law, Forthcoming, Exeter Centre for International Law Working Paper No. 2018/6
Number of pages: 29 Posted: 05 Oct 2018
Kubo Mačák and Michael N. Schmitt
University of Exeter and Naval War College - Stockton Center for the Study of International Law
Downloads 13 (556,134)

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armed conflict, combatant status, distinction, enemy controlled battlespace, international humanitarian law, treaty interpretation

71.

The Legality of Cross-Border Counterterrorist Operations into Pakistan: Clearing the 'Fog of Law'

Inter Alia (Durham University), Forthcoming
Posted: 09 May 2010 Last Revised: 23 Aug 2014
Michael N. Schmitt
Naval War College - Stockton Center for the Study of International Law

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drone, humanitarian law, pakistan, use of force

Other Papers (1)

Total Downloads: 122
1.

Cyberspace and International Law: The Penumbral Mist of Uncertainty

126 Harvard Law Review Forum 176 (2013)
Number of pages: 5 Posted: 17 Apr 2013
Michael N. Schmitt
Naval War College - Stockton Center for the Study of International Law
Downloads 122

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Cyberspace, international law, cyber