Michal Gal

University of Haifa - Faculty of Law

SCHOLARLY PAPERS

53

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“  I am currently working on data regimes  ”

Scholarly Papers (53)

1.

Algorithmic Consumers

Harvard Journal of Law and Technology, Vol. 30, 2017
Number of pages: 45 Posted: 29 Nov 2016 Last Revised: 06 Apr 2017
Michal Gal and Niva Elkin-Koren
University of Haifa - Faculty of Law and Tel-Aviv University - Faculty of Law
Downloads 2,175 (9,541)
Citation 6

Abstract:

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artificial intelligence, algorithms, regulation, antitrust

2.

The Ecology of Antitrust: Preconditions for Competition Law Enforcement in Developing Countries

Number of pages: 23 Posted: 17 Feb 2005
Michal Gal
University of Haifa - Faculty of Law
Downloads 1,590 (15,794)
Citation 1

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antitrust, competition policy, economic development, political economy

3.

The Hidden Costs of Free Goods: Implications for Antitrust Enforcement

Antitrust Law Journal , Vol. 80, No. 401, 2016, UC Berkeley Public Law Research Paper No. 2529425, NYU Law and Economics Research Paper No. 14-44
Number of pages: 59 Posted: 23 Nov 2014 Last Revised: 08 Oct 2017
Michal Gal and Daniel L. Rubinfeld
University of Haifa - Faculty of Law and University of California at Berkeley - School of Law
Downloads 1,550 (16,413)
Citation 14

Abstract:

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free, free goods, antitrust, regulation

4.

Access Barriers to Big Data

59 Arizona Law Review 339 (2017)
Number of pages: 47 Posted: 29 Aug 2016 Last Revised: 08 Oct 2017
Daniel L. Rubinfeld and Michal Gal
University of California at Berkeley - School of Law and University of Haifa - Faculty of Law
Downloads 1,278 (21,937)
Citation 27

Abstract:

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big data, entry barriers

5.

Algorithmic Challenges to Autonomous Choice

Michigan Telecommunications and Technology Law Review, 2017
Number of pages: 40 Posted: 23 May 2017 Last Revised: 08 Oct 2017
Michal Gal
University of Haifa - Faculty of Law
Downloads 1,268 (22,203)
Citation 12

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algorithm, autonomy, choice, consent, intent, technology

6.

The Competitive Effects of the GDPR

Journal of Competition Law and Economics (2020)
Number of pages: 37 Posted: 16 Mar 2020 Last Revised: 24 Mar 2020
Michal Gal and Oshrit Aviv
University of Haifa - Faculty of Law and entero.io
Downloads 1,232 (23,207)
Citation 9

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GDPR, Competition, Data Protection, Privacy, CCPA

7.

Monopoly Pricing as an Antitrust Offense in the U.S. And the EC: Two Systems of Belief About Monopoly?

Number of pages: 53 Posted: 07 Apr 2005
Michal Gal
University of Haifa - Faculty of Law
Downloads 1,123 (26,530)
Citation 3

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8.

Abuse of Dominance - Exploitative Abuses

in HANDBOOK ON EUROPEAN COMPETITION LAW (Lianos and Geradin eds., Edward Elgar, 2013), Chapter 9, pp. 385-422
Number of pages: 32 Posted: 12 Mar 2015
Michal Gal
University of Haifa - Faculty of Law
Downloads 937 (34,364)
Citation 1

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Antitrust, competition law, exploitative abuses, excessive prices

9.

Radical Restorative Remedies for Digital Markets

Berkeley Technology Law Journal, Vol. 37, No. 1, 2021
Number of pages: 38 Posted: 09 Sep 2020 Last Revised: 02 Oct 2020
Michal Gal and Nicolas Petit
University of Haifa - Faculty of Law and European University Institute - Department of Law (LAW)
Downloads 924 (35,034)
Citation 1

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10.

Algorithms as Illegal Agreements

Berkeley Technology Law Journal, Forthcoming
Number of pages: 45 Posted: 16 May 2018
Michal Gal
University of Haifa - Faculty of Law
Downloads 851 (39,313)
Citation 3

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Algorithms, Illegal Agreements, Facilitating Practices, Competition, Competition Law, Antitrust, Artificial Intelligence, Deep Learning

11.

Size Does Matter: General Policy Prescriptions for Optimal Competition Rules in Small Economies

Southern California Law Review, Vol. 73, 2001, NYU Ctr for Law and Business Research Paper No. 01-004
Number of pages: 68 Posted: 17 Apr 2001 Last Revised: 19 Jul 2010
Michal Gal
University of Haifa - Faculty of Law
Downloads 835 (40,364)
Citation 2

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12.

Data Standardization

94 NYU Law Review (2019) Forthcoming, NYU Law and Economics Research Paper No. 19-17
Number of pages: 30 Posted: 14 Feb 2019 Last Revised: 04 Jul 2019
Michal Gal and Daniel L. Rubinfeld
University of Haifa - Faculty of Law and University of California at Berkeley - School of Law
Downloads 664 (54,777)
Citation 10

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13.

Below-Cost Price Alignment: Meeting or Beating Competition?

NYU Law and Economics Research Paper No. 07-20, European Competition Law Review (ECLR), Vol. 28, No. 6, 2007
Number of pages: 15 Posted: 12 Jul 2007
Michal Gal
University of Haifa - Faculty of Law
Downloads 513 (75,852)
Citation 1

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14.

The Chilling Effect of Governance-by-Data on Innovation

University of Chicago Law Review, Vol. 86, 2018
Number of pages: 25 Posted: 30 Jul 2018 Last Revised: 25 Nov 2018
Niva Elkin-Koren and Michal Gal
Tel-Aviv University - Faculty of Law and University of Haifa - Faculty of Law
Downloads 503 (77,711)

Abstract:

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data, governance, big data, algorithm, enforcement, privacy, personalized law

15.

Drafting Competition Law for Developing Jurisdictions: Learning from Experience

Economic Characteristics of Developing Jurisdictions: Their Implications for Competition Law, Edward Elgar, 2014, Forthcoming, NYU Law and Economics Research Paper No. 14-11
Number of pages: 69 Posted: 16 Apr 2014 Last Revised: 20 Mar 2015
Michal Gal and Eleanor M. Fox
University of Haifa - Faculty of Law and New York University School of Law
Downloads 501 (78,100)
Citation 2

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16.

Regional Competition Law Agreements: An Important Step for Antitrust Enforcement

University of Toronto Faculty of Law Review, Vol. 60, p. 239, 2010, NYU Law and Economics Research Paper No. 09-47
Number of pages: 25 Posted: 14 Nov 2009 Last Revised: 08 Oct 2017
Michal Gal
University of Haifa - Faculty of Law
Downloads 483 (81,597)
Citation 1

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17.

The Social Contract at the Basis of Competition Law

Reconciling Efficiency and Equity: A Global Challenge for Competition Policy (Gerard and Ilanos eds., Cambridge University Press, 2019
Number of pages: 21 Posted: 09 Aug 2017 Last Revised: 22 Dec 2019
Michal Gal
University of Haifa - Faculty of Law
Downloads 408 (99,530)

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antitrust, competition law, social contract, inequality, welfare, total welfare, individual welfare

18.

The Case for Limiting Private Litigation of Excessive Pricing

Forthcoming, Journal of Competition Law and Economics (2020)
Number of pages: 25 Posted: 16 Oct 2019
Michal Gal
University of Haifa - Faculty of Law
Downloads 400 (101,779)
Citation 1

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Competition law, antitrust, excessive pricing, private litigation, Article 102 TFEU, Damages Directive, decision theory

19.

The 'Cut and Paste' of Article 82 of the EC Treaty in Israel: Conditions for a Successful Transplant

European Journal of Law Reform, Vol. 9, No. 3, 2007, NYU Law and Economics Research Paper No. 08-03
Number of pages: 19 Posted: 15 Jan 2008
Michal Gal
University of Haifa - Faculty of Law
Downloads 382 (107,339)
Citation 2

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20.

Aggregate Concentration: An Empirical Study of Competition Law Solutions

Journal of Antitrust Enforcement (September 2016), University of Hong Kong Faculty of Law Research Paper No. 2016/030
Number of pages: 44 Posted: 19 Sep 2016 Last Revised: 20 Jan 2018
Michal Gal and Thomas K. Cheng
University of Haifa - Faculty of Law and The University of Hong Kong - Faculty of Law
Downloads 364 (113,290)

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aggregate concentration, concentration, antitrust, competition, competition law, oligopolistic coordination, bargaining power, abuse of bargaining power

21.

Market Power Parasites: Abusing the Power of Digital Intermediaries to Harm Competition

Harvard Journal of Law & Technology, Vol. 35, 2021
Number of pages: 40 Posted: 24 Mar 2021
Noga Blickstein Shchory and Michal Gal
University of Haifa, Faculty of Law and University of Haifa - Faculty of Law
Downloads 363 (113,630)

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market power, digital firms, information, information markets, information manipulation, ratings, reviews, , antitrust, fraud, fraud on the market

22.

The Effects of Smallness and Remoteness on Competition Law - the Case of New Zealand

NYU, Law and Economics Research Paper No. 06-48, Competition and Consumer Law Journal, Vol. 14, No. 3, 2007
Number of pages: 29 Posted: 05 Nov 2006
Michal Gal
University of Haifa - Faculty of Law
Downloads 356 (116,086)
Citation 2

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23.

Reality Bites (or Bits): The Political Economy of Antitrust Enforcement

INTERNATIONAL ANTITRUST LAW AND POLICY, p. 605, Barry Hawk, ed., Juris Publishing, 2002, NYU, Law and Economics Research Paper No. 06-22
Number of pages: 14 Posted: 11 May 2006
Michal Gal
University of Haifa - Faculty of Law
Downloads 346 (119,761)

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24.

Reducing Rivals Prices: Government-Supported Mavericks as New Solutions for Oligopoly Pricing

Stanford Journal of Law, Business, and Finance, Vol. 7, 2001, NYU, Law and Economics Working Paper No. 99-016; and Columbia Law School, Law-Econ Working Paper No. 163
Number of pages: 30 Posted: 30 May 2000 Last Revised: 19 Jul 2010
Michal Gal
University of Haifa - Faculty of Law
Downloads 302 (138,507)
Citation 3

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25.

The Effects Doctrine As a Basis for Extraterritorial Application of the Israeli Competition Law

Iyunei Mishpat 45 (2021) [Hebrew]
Number of pages: 48 Posted: 18 Feb 2021
Tamar Indig and Michal Gal
University of Haifa and University of Haifa - Faculty of Law
Downloads 299 (139,954)

Abstract:

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antitrust, competition law, effects doctrine, Israel

26.

Free Movement of Judgments: Increasing Deterrence of International Cartels Though Jurisdictional Reliance

Virginia Journal of International Law, Vol. 51(1), 57, 2010, NYU Law and Economics Research Paper No. 08-44
Number of pages: 37 Posted: 30 Oct 2008 Last Revised: 08 Oct 2017
Michal Gal
University of Haifa - Faculty of Law
Downloads 291 (143,964)
Citation 4

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27.

Extra-Territorial Application of Antitrust - The Case of a Small Economy (Israel)

COOPERATION, COMITY, AND COMPETITION POLICY, Andrew Guzman, ed., Oxford University Press, 2009
Number of pages: 22 Posted: 29 Jan 2009 Last Revised: 22 Jun 2020
Michal Gal
University of Haifa - Faculty of Law
Downloads 288 (145,551)

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28.

Algorithms and Competition Law

Concurrences (May 2020)
Number of pages: 8 Posted: 09 Sep 2020
Michal Gal and Thibault Schrepel
University of Haifa - Faculty of Law and VU University Amsterdam
Downloads 284 (147,634)

Abstract:

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competition, competition law, antitrust, algorithms, algorithmic consumers

29.

Regulation by Declaration: A Novel Regulatory Mechanism to Limit Abuse of Monopoly Power

New York University Journal of Law and Business, Vol. 2, p. 404, 2006, NYU, Law and Economics Research Paper No. 06-14
Number of pages: 26 Posted: 10 May 2006
Michal Gal
University of Haifa - Faculty of Law
Downloads 279 (150,316)

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30.

Antitrust in High-Technology Industries: A Symposium Introduction

Journal of Competition Law and Economics, 2012, Loyola University Chicago School of Law Research Paper No. 2012-015
Number of pages: 9 Posted: 18 Jul 2012
Michal Gal and Spencer Weber Waller
University of Haifa - Faculty of Law and Loyola University Chicago School of Law
Downloads 270 (155,381)
Citation 1

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antitrust, high-tech, high technology, innovation, intellectual property, network effects, Schumpeter, synamic efficiency, search neutrality, open source, market definition, behavioral economics, remedies, reverse payments, monopolization, abuse of dominance

31.

Merger Policy for Small and Micro Jurisdictions

More Pros and Cons of Merger Policy (2013)
Number of pages: 34 Posted: 19 Jan 2013
Michal Gal
University of Haifa - Faculty of Law
Downloads 257 (163,221)

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antitrust, competition law, merger, small economies, micro economies

Harmful Remedies: Optimal Reformation of Anti-Competitive Contracts

Number of pages: 44 Posted: 04 May 1999
Michal Gal
University of Haifa - Faculty of Law
Downloads 246 (169,761)

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Harmful Remedies: Optimal Reformation of Anti-Competitive Contracts

Posted: 21 Jun 2002
Michal Gal
University of Haifa - Faculty of Law

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33.

3D Challenges: Ensuring Competition and Innovation in 3D Printing

Vanderbilt Journal of Entertainment & Technology Law, Vol. 20, No. 102, 2019
Number of pages: 37 Posted: 01 Apr 2019 Last Revised: 24 Aug 2020
Michal Gal
University of Haifa - Faculty of Law
Downloads 244 (171,695)

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3D printing, competition, innovation, dynamic efficiency

34.

The Power of the Crowd in the Sharing Economy

Law and Ethics of Human Rights (2018)
Number of pages: 22 Posted: 11 Apr 2018
Michal Gal
University of Haifa - Faculty of Law
Downloads 241 (173,736)
Citation 1

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sharing economy, crowd, platforms, competition law, regulation

35.

Patent Challenge Clauses: A New Antitrust Offense?

Iowa Law Review, Vol. 102, No. 4, Forthcoming
Number of pages: 57 Posted: 13 Dec 2016 Last Revised: 18 Jun 2018
Michal Gal and Alan D. Miller
University of Haifa - Faculty of Law and Faculty of Law, Western University
Downloads 220 (189,454)
Citation 1

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Patents, Challenge Clauses, Antitrust, Actavis, Patent Validity, Licensing

36.

The Follower Phenomenon: Implications for the Design of Monopolization Rules in a Global Economy

Antitrust Law Journal, Vol. 76, No. 3, 2010
Number of pages: 30 Posted: 21 Jul 2010
Jorge Padilla and Michal Gal
Compass Lexecon and University of Haifa - Faculty of Law
Downloads 217 (191,948)

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antitrust, competition, transplant of laws

37.

Legal Obstacles to Private Enforcement of Competition Law

3(2) Markets and Competition Law Review 133 (2019)
Number of pages: 20 Posted: 13 Jan 2020
Michal Gal and Rivi Dahan
University of Haifa - Faculty of Law and University of Haifa, Faculty of Law, Students
Downloads 208 (199,685)

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Competition Law, Private Enforcement, Decision Theory, Damages Directive

38.

When the Going Gets Tight: Institutional Solutions When Antitrust Enforcement Resources are Scarce

Loyola University Chicago Law Journal, Vol. 41, 2010
Number of pages: 25 Posted: 21 Jul 2010
Michal Gal
University of Haifa - Faculty of Law
Downloads 191 (215,806)

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39.

New Powers - New Vulnerabilities? A Critical Analysis of Market Inquiries Performed by Competition Authorities

Competition Law as Regulation, Di Porto and Drexl eds., Edward Elgar, 2013
Number of pages: 20 Posted: 07 Oct 2013
Tamar Indig and Michal Gal
University of Haifa and University of Haifa - Faculty of Law
Downloads 180 (227,095)
Citation 1

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Market inquiries, market studies, competition law, antitrust, competition agencies

40.

Antitrust in a Globalized Economy: The Unique Enforcement Challenges Faced by Small and by Developing Jurisdictions

Fordham International Law Journal, Vol. 33, No. 101, 2009
Number of pages: 45 Posted: 02 Oct 2012
Michal Gal
University of Haifa - Faculty of Law
Downloads 171 (237,321)
Citation 1

Abstract:

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antitrust, competition, international, regional

41.

Viral Open Source: Competition vs. Synergy

Journal of Competition Law and Economics, September 2012.
Number of pages: 36 Posted: 02 Jan 2012 Last Revised: 22 Oct 2013
Michal Gal
University of Haifa - Faculty of Law
Downloads 169 (239,612)

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open source, virality, competition, synergy, dynamic efficiency

42.

Licensee Patent Challenges

Yale Journal on Regulation, Vol. 32, No. 1, 2015
Number of pages: 41 Posted: 09 Sep 2015
Alan D. Miller and Michal Gal
Faculty of Law, Western University and University of Haifa - Faculty of Law
Downloads 167 (241,995)
Citation 1

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Patents, Licensing, Antitrust, Challenges, Contracts

43.

Echo Chambers and Competition Law: Should Algorithmic Choices be Respected?

Frederic Jenny Liber Amicorum: Standing Up for Convergence and Relevance in Antitrust, Vol. II, Forthcoming
Number of pages: 20 Posted: 24 Mar 2020
Eran Fish and Michal Gal
University of Lucerne and University of Haifa - Faculty of Law
Downloads 165 (244,426)

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Populism, Radical Right, Neo-liberalism, European Union, Proletarization

44.

Expansion and Contraction in Monopolization Law

Antitrust Law Journal , Vol. 76, No. 3, p. 653, 2010
Number of pages: 10 Posted: 27 Jun 2010
University of Haifa - Faculty of Law, Notre Dame Law School and Loyola University Chicago School of Law
Downloads 162 (248,265)

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Antitrust, Competition Law, Dominant Firm, Monopoly, Monopolization, Attempted Monopolization, Abuse of Dominance, European Union, Multinational Firms, Multinational Corporations

45.

Regional Agreements of Developing Jurisdictions: Unleashing the Potential

Edward Elgar, COMPLETION POLICY AND REGIONAL INTERGRATION IN DEVELOPING COUNTRIES, Mor Bakhoum, Josef Drexl, Michal Gal, David Gerber, Eleanor Fox eds., 2012
Number of pages: 22 Posted: 31 Aug 2011
Michal Gal and Inbal Faibish
University of Haifa - Faculty of Law and University of Haifa - Faculty of Law
Downloads 156 (256,295)
Citation 2

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antitrust, competition law, regional agreement, developing jurisdictions

46.

Superior Bargaining Power: Dealing With Aggregate Concentration Concerns

Abusive Practices in Competition Law (Di Porto and Podszun eds., 2018), University of Hong Kong Faculty of Law Research Paper No. 2019/116
Number of pages: 44 Posted: 14 Jan 2020 Last Revised: 18 Feb 2022
Thomas K. Cheng and Michal Gal
The University of Hong Kong - Faculty of Law and University of Haifa - Faculty of Law
Downloads 154 (258,933)

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bargaining power, antitrust, competition law, aggregate concentration

47.

Six Principles for Limiting Government-Facilitated Restraints on Competition

Common Market Law Review, Vol. 44, 2007
Number of pages: 41 Posted: 27 Sep 2010
Michal Gal and Inbal Faibish
University of Haifa - Faculty of Law and University of Haifa - Faculty of Law
Downloads 154 (258,933)
Citation 3

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Competition Authorities, Antitrust, Comparative Advantage, Regulation

48.

The Prohibition of Excessive Pricing: Inherent Difficulties, Potential Mistakes, and Conditions for Application

Number of pages: 69 Posted: 18 Feb 2021 Last Revised: 22 Mar 2022
Michal Gal and Yossi Spiegel
University of Haifa - Faculty of Law and Tel Aviv University, Coller School of Management
Downloads 139 (280,924)

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excessive pricing, unfair price, monopoly, dominance, antitrust, competition law, dynamic efficiency

49.

Review Essay: New Perspectives on International Antitrust

The American Journal of International Law, Vol. 106, pp. 401, 2011
Number of pages: 10 Posted: 17 Jun 2012
Michal Gal
University of Haifa - Faculty of Law
Downloads 124 (306,117)

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50.

Limiting Algorithmic Cartels

38(1) Berkeley Technology Law Journal, 2023 Forthcoming
Number of pages: 37 Posted: 23 Mar 2022
Michal Gal
University of Haifa - Faculty of Law
Downloads 94 (369,327)

Abstract:

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51.

Voice Shoppers: From Information Gaps to Choice Gaps in Consumer Markets

Brooklyn Law Review , Vol. 88, No. 1, Forthcoming
Number of pages: 46 Posted: 14 Apr 2022
Noga Blickstein Shchory and Michal Gal
University of Haifa, Faculty of Law and University of Haifa - Faculty of Law
Downloads 32 (604,631)

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voice shoppers, Alexa, Google Assistant, competition, agency law, consumer protection

52.

The Competitive Effects of China’s Legal Data Regime

Journal of Competition Law and Economics (2022)
Number of pages: 31 Posted: 19 May 2022
Tamar Giladi Shtub and Michal Gal
University of Haifa - Faculty of Law and University of Haifa - Faculty of Law
Downloads 20 (686,095)

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China, data regime, competition law, data, privacy, big tech

53.

Competition Policy for Small Market Economies

Posted: 07 Oct 2003
Michal Gal
University of Haifa - Faculty of Law

Abstract:

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Other Papers (1)

Total Downloads: 41
1.

Illegal Pricing Algorithms

62(1) Communications of the ACM 1 (January 2019)
Number of pages: 3 Posted: 06 Feb 2019
Michal Gal
University of Haifa - Faculty of Law
Downloads 41

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algorithms, cartel, facilitating practices, antitrust, competition law