Michal Gal

University of Haifa - Faculty of Law

SCHOLARLY PAPERS

43

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16,294

SSRN CITATIONS

36

CROSSREF CITATIONS

70

Ideas:
“  I am currently working on the competitive effects of the GDPR  ”

Scholarly Papers (43)

1.

Algorithmic Consumers

Harvard Journal of Law and Technology, Vol. 30, 2017
Number of pages: 45 Posted: 29 Nov 2016 Last Revised: 06 Apr 2017
Michal Gal and Niva Elkin-Koren
University of Haifa - Faculty of Law and University of Haifa - Faculty of Law
Downloads 1,656 (10,313)
Citation 2

Abstract:

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artificial intelligence, algorithms, regulation, antitrust

2.

The Ecology of Antitrust: Preconditions for Competition Law Enforcement in Developing Countries

COMPETITION, COMPETITIVENESS AND DEVELOPMENT, pp. 20-38, 2004
Number of pages: 23 Posted: 17 Feb 2005
Michal Gal
University of Haifa - Faculty of Law
Downloads 1,407 (13,380)

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antitrust, competition policy, economic development, political economy

3.

The Hidden Costs of Free Goods: Implications for Antitrust Enforcement

Antitrust Law Journal , Vol. 80, No. 401, 2016, UC Berkeley Public Law Research Paper No. 2529425, NYU Law and Economics Research Paper No. 14-44
Number of pages: 59 Posted: 23 Nov 2014 Last Revised: 08 Oct 2017
Michal Gal and Daniel L. Rubinfeld
University of Haifa - Faculty of Law and University of California at Berkeley - School of Law
Downloads 1,126 (18,815)
Citation 14

Abstract:

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free, free goods, antitrust, regulation

4.

Monopoly Pricing as an Antitrust Offense in the U.S. And the EC: Two Systems of Belief About Monopoly?

Antitrust Bulletin, Vol. 49, pp. 343-384, Spring 2004
Number of pages: 53 Posted: 07 Apr 2005
Michal Gal
University of Haifa - Faculty of Law
Downloads 1,021 (21,714)
Citation 3

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5.

Algorithmic Challenges to Autonomous Choice

Michigan Telecommunications and Technology Law Review, 2017
Number of pages: 40 Posted: 23 May 2017 Last Revised: 08 Oct 2017
Michal Gal
University of Haifa - Faculty of Law
Downloads 999 (22,417)
Citation 8

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algorithm, autonomy, choice, consent, intent, technology

6.

Size Does Matter: General Policy Prescriptions for Optimal Competition Rules in Small Economies

Southern California Law Review, Vol. 73, 2001, NYU Ctr for Law and Business Research Paper No. 01-004
Number of pages: 68 Posted: 17 Apr 2001 Last Revised: 19 Jul 2010
Michal Gal
University of Haifa - Faculty of Law
Downloads 781 (31,853)
Citation 2

Abstract:

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7.

Access Barriers to Big Data

59 Arizona Law Review 339 (2017)
Number of pages: 47 Posted: 29 Aug 2016 Last Revised: 08 Oct 2017
Daniel L. Rubinfeld and Michal Gal
University of California at Berkeley - School of Law and University of Haifa - Faculty of Law
Downloads 763 (32,885)
Citation 15

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big data, entry barriers

8.

Abuse of Dominance - Exploitative Abuses

in HANDBOOK ON EUROPEAN COMPETITION LAW (Lianos and Geradin eds., Edward Elgar, 2013), Chapter 9, pp. 385-422
Number of pages: 32 Posted: 12 Mar 2015
Michal Gal
University of Haifa - Faculty of Law
Downloads 575 (48,124)

Abstract:

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Antitrust, competition law, exploitative abuses, excessive prices

9.

Algorithms as Illegal Agreements

Berkeley Technology Law Journal, Forthcoming
Number of pages: 45 Posted: 16 May 2018
Michal Gal
University of Haifa - Faculty of Law
Downloads 528 (53,621)
Citation 1

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Algorithms, Illegal Agreements, Facilitating Practices, Competition, Competition Law, Antitrust, Artificial Intelligence, Deep Learning

10.

Regional Competition Law Agreements: An Important Step for Antitrust Enforcement

University of Toronto Faculty of Law Review, Vol. 60, p. 239, 2010, NYU Law and Economics Research Paper No. 09-47
Number of pages: 25 Posted: 14 Nov 2009 Last Revised: 08 Oct 2017
Michal Gal
University of Haifa - Faculty of Law
Downloads 437 (67,683)

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11.

Below-Cost Price Alignment: Meeting or Beating Competition?

NYU Law and Economics Research Paper No. 07-20, European Competition Law Review (ECLR), Vol. 28, No. 6, 2007
Number of pages: 15 Posted: 12 Jul 2007
Michal Gal
University of Haifa - Faculty of Law
Downloads 435 (68,073)
Citation 1

Abstract:

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12.

Drafting Competition Law for Developing Jurisdictions: Learning from Experience

Economic Characteristics of Developing Jurisdictions: Their Implications for Competition Law, Edward Elgar, 2014, Forthcoming, NYU Law and Economics Research Paper No. 14-11
Number of pages: 69 Posted: 16 Apr 2014 Last Revised: 20 Mar 2015
Michal Gal and Eleanor M. Fox
University of Haifa - Faculty of Law and New York University School of Law
Downloads 378 (80,342)

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13.

The Chilling Effect of Governance-by-Data on Innovation

University of Chicago Law Review, Vol. 86, 2018
Number of pages: 25 Posted: 30 Jul 2018 Last Revised: 25 Nov 2018
Niva Elkin-Koren and Michal Gal
University of Haifa - Faculty of Law and University of Haifa - Faculty of Law
Downloads 371 (82,158)

Abstract:

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data, governance, big data, algorithm, enforcement, privacy, personalized law

14.

The 'Cut and Paste' of Article 82 of the EC Treaty in Israel: Conditions for a Successful Transplant

European Journal of Law Reform, Vol. 9, No. 3, 2007, NYU Law and Economics Research Paper No. 08-03
Number of pages: 19 Posted: 15 Jan 2008
Michal Gal
University of Haifa - Faculty of Law
Downloads 346 (89,046)
Citation 1

Abstract:

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15.

Reality Bites (or Bits): The Political Economy of Antitrust Enforcement

INTERNATIONAL ANTITRUST LAW AND POLICY, p. 605, Barry Hawk, ed., Juris Publishing, 2002, NYU, Law and Economics Research Paper No. 06-22
Number of pages: 14 Posted: 11 May 2006
Michal Gal
University of Haifa - Faculty of Law
Downloads 325 (95,453)

Abstract:

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16.

The Effects of Smallness and Remoteness on Competition Law - the Case of New Zealand

NYU, Law and Economics Research Paper No. 06-48, Competition and Consumer Law Journal, Vol. 14, No. 3, 2007
Number of pages: 29 Posted: 05 Nov 2006
Michal Gal
University of Haifa - Faculty of Law
Downloads 318 (97,796)
Citation 2

Abstract:

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17.

The Social Contract at the Basis of Competition Law

Reconciling Efficiency and Equity: A Global Challenge for Competition Policy (Gerard and Ilanos eds., Cambridge University Press, 2019
Number of pages: 21 Posted: 09 Aug 2017 Last Revised: 22 Dec 2019
Michal Gal
University of Haifa - Faculty of Law
Downloads 315 (98,837)

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antitrust, competition law, social contract, inequality, welfare, total welfare, individual welfare

18.

Data Standardization

94 NYU Law Review (2019) Forthcoming, NYU Law and Economics Research Paper No. 19-17
Number of pages: 30 Posted: 14 Feb 2019 Last Revised: 04 Jul 2019
Michal Gal and Daniel L. Rubinfeld
University of Haifa - Faculty of Law and University of California at Berkeley - School of Law
Downloads 304 (102,706)
Citation 5

Abstract:

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19.

Reducing Rivals Prices: Government-Supported Mavericks as New Solutions for Oligopoly Pricing

Stanford Journal of Law, Business, and Finance, Vol. 7, 2001, NYU, Law and Economics Working Paper No. 99-016; and Columbia Law School, Law-Econ Working Paper No. 163
Number of pages: 30 Posted: 30 May 2000 Last Revised: 19 Jul 2010
Michal Gal
University of Haifa - Faculty of Law
Downloads 287 (109,349)
Citation 2

Abstract:

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20.

Extra-Territorial Application of Antitrust - The Case of a Small Economy (Israel)

COOPERATION, COMITY, AND COMPETITION POLICY, Andrew Guzman, ed., Oxford University Press, 2009, NYU Law and Economics Research Paper No. 09-03
Number of pages: 22 Posted: 29 Jan 2009
Michal Gal
University of Haifa - Faculty of Law
Downloads 267 (118,014)

Abstract:

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21.

Regulation by Declaration: A Novel Regulatory Mechanism to Limit Abuse of Monopoly Power

New York University Journal of Law and Business, Vol. 2, p. 404, 2006, NYU, Law and Economics Research Paper No. 06-14
Number of pages: 26 Posted: 10 May 2006
Michal Gal
University of Haifa - Faculty of Law
Downloads 262 (120,319)

Abstract:

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22.

Antitrust in High-Technology Industries: A Symposium Introduction

Journal of Competition Law and Economics, 2012, Loyola University Chicago School of Law Research Paper No. 2012-015
Number of pages: 9 Posted: 18 Jul 2012
Michal Gal and Spencer Weber Waller
University of Haifa - Faculty of Law and Loyola University Chicago School of Law
Downloads 249 (126,900)
Citation 1

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antitrust, high-tech, high technology, innovation, intellectual property, network effects, Schumpeter, synamic efficiency, search neutrality, open source, market definition, behavioral economics, remedies, reverse payments, monopolization, abuse of dominance

23.

Aggregate Concentration: An Empirical Study of Competition Law Solutions

Journal of Antitrust Enforcement (September 2016), University of Hong Kong Faculty of Law Research Paper No. 2016/030
Number of pages: 44 Posted: 19 Sep 2016 Last Revised: 20 Jan 2018
Michal Gal and Thomas K. Cheng
University of Haifa - Faculty of Law and The University of Hong Kong - Faculty of Law
Downloads 237 (133,355)

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aggregate concentration, concentration, antitrust, competition, competition law, oligopolistic coordination, bargaining power, abuse of bargaining power

24.

Free Movement of Judgments: Increasing Deterrence of International Cartels Though Jurisdictional Reliance

Virginia Journal of International Law, Vol. 51(1), 57, 2010, NYU Law and Economics Research Paper No. 08-44
Number of pages: 37 Posted: 30 Oct 2008 Last Revised: 08 Oct 2017
Michal Gal
University of Haifa - Faculty of Law
Downloads 237 (133,355)
Citation 4

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Harmful Remedies: Optimal Reformation of Anti-Competitive Contracts

NYU, Law and Economics Working Paper No. 99-017; and Columbia Law School, Law-Econ Working Paper No. 162
Number of pages: 44 Posted: 04 May 1999
Michal Gal
University of Haifa - Faculty of Law
Downloads 232 (135,631)

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Harmful Remedies: Optimal Reformation of Anti-Competitive Contracts

Cardozo Law Review
Posted: 21 Jun 2002
Michal Gal
University of Haifa - Faculty of Law

Abstract:

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26.

Merger Policy for Small and Micro Jurisdictions

More Pros and Cons of Merger Policy (2013)
Number of pages: 34 Posted: 19 Jan 2013
Michal Gal
University of Haifa - Faculty of Law
Downloads 215 (146,494)

Abstract:

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antitrust, competition law, merger, small economies, micro economies

27.

The Follower Phenomenon: Implications for the Design of Monopolization Rules in a Global Economy

Antitrust Law Journal, Vol. 76, No. 3, 2010
Number of pages: 30 Posted: 21 Jul 2010
Jorge Padilla and Michal Gal
Compass Lexecon and University of Haifa - Faculty of Law
Downloads 203 (154,665)

Abstract:

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antitrust, competition, transplant of laws

28.

The Power of the Crowd in the Sharing Economy

Law and Ethics of Human Rights (2018)
Number of pages: 22 Posted: 11 Apr 2018
Michal Gal
University of Haifa - Faculty of Law
Downloads 192 (162,827)

Abstract:

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sharing economy, crowd, platforms, competition law, regulation

29.

Patent Challenge Clauses: A New Antitrust Offense?

Iowa Law Review, Vol. 102, No. 4, Forthcoming
Number of pages: 57 Posted: 13 Dec 2016 Last Revised: 18 Jun 2018
Michal Gal and Alan D. Miller
University of Haifa - Faculty of Law and Faculty of Law, Western University
Downloads 181 (171,801)
Citation 1

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Patents, Challenge Clauses, Antitrust, Actavis, Patent Validity, Licensing

30.

When the Going Gets Tight: Institutional Solutions When Antitrust Enforcement Resources are Scarce

Loyola University Chicago Law Journal, Vol. 41, 2010
Number of pages: 25 Posted: 21 Jul 2010
Michal Gal
University of Haifa - Faculty of Law
Downloads 179 (173,493)

Abstract:

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31.

3D Challenges: Ensuring Competition and Innovation in 3D Printing

Vanderbilt Journal of Entertainment & Technology Law, Vol. 20, No. 102, 2019
Number of pages: 32 Posted: 01 Apr 2019 Last Revised: 03 Dec 2019
Michal Gal
University of Haifa - Faculty of Law
Downloads 174 (177,891)

Abstract:

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3D printing, competition, innovation, dynamic efficiency

32.

The Case for Limiting Private Litigation of Excessive Pricing

Forthcoming, Journal of Competition Law and Economics (2020)
Number of pages: 25 Posted: 16 Oct 2019
Michal Gal
University of Haifa - Faculty of Law
Downloads 173 (178,795)
Citation 1

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Competition law, antitrust, excessive pricing, private litigation, Article 102 TFEU, Damages Directive, decision theory

33.

Viral Open Source: Competition vs. Synergy

Journal of Competition Law and Economics, September 2012.
Number of pages: 36 Posted: 02 Jan 2012 Last Revised: 22 Oct 2013
Michal Gal
University of Haifa - Faculty of Law
Downloads 157 (194,233)

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open source, virality, competition, synergy, dynamic efficiency

34.

Expansion and Contraction in Monopolization Law

Antitrust Law Journal , Vol. 76, No. 3, p. 653, 2010
Number of pages: 10 Posted: 27 Jun 2010
University of Haifa - Faculty of Law, Notre Dame Law School and Loyola University Chicago School of Law
Downloads 148 (204,099)

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Antitrust, Competition Law, Dominant Firm, Monopoly, Monopolization, Attempted Monopolization, Abuse of Dominance, European Union, Multinational Firms, Multinational Corporations

35.

Regional Agreements of Developing Jurisdictions: Unleashing the Potential

Edward Elgar, COMPLETION POLICY AND REGIONAL INTERGRATION IN DEVELOPING COUNTRIES, Mor Bakhoum, Josef Drexl, Michal Gal, David Gerber, Eleanor Fox eds., 2012
Number of pages: 22 Posted: 31 Aug 2011
Michal Gal and Inbal Faibish
University of Haifa - Faculty of Law and University of Haifa - Faculty of Law
Downloads 143 (209,915)
Citation 2

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antitrust, competition law, regional agreement, developing jurisdictions

36.

Six Principles for Limiting Government-Facilitated Restraints on Competition

Common Market Law Review, Vol. 44, 2007
Number of pages: 41 Posted: 27 Sep 2010
Michal Gal and Inbal Faibish
University of Haifa - Faculty of Law and University of Haifa - Faculty of Law
Downloads 139 (214,786)
Citation 1

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Competition Authorities, Antitrust, Comparative Advantage, Regulation

37.

New Powers - New Vulnerabilities? A Critical Analysis of Market Inquiries Performed by Competition Authorities

Competition Law as Regulation, Di Porto and Drexl eds., Edward Elgar, 2013
Number of pages: 20 Posted: 07 Oct 2013
Tamar Indig and Michal Gal
University of Haifa and University of Haifa - Faculty of Law
Downloads 137 (217,350)
Citation 1

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Market inquiries, market studies, competition law, antitrust, competition agencies

38.

Licensee Patent Challenges

Yale Journal on Regulation, Vol. 32, No. 1, 2015
Number of pages: 41 Posted: 09 Sep 2015
Alan D. Miller and Michal Gal
Faculty of Law, Western University and University of Haifa - Faculty of Law
Downloads 131 (225,179)

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Patents, Licensing, Antitrust, Challenges, Contracts

39.

Antitrust in a Globalized Economy: The Unique Enforcement Challenges Faced by Small and by Developing Jurisdictions

Fordham International Law Journal, Vol. 33, No. 101, 2009
Number of pages: 45 Posted: 02 Oct 2012
Michal Gal
University of Haifa - Faculty of Law
Downloads 124 (234,810)

Abstract:

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antitrust, competition, international, regional

40.

Review Essay: New Perspectives on International Antitrust

The American Journal of International Law, Vol. 106, pp. 401, 2011
Number of pages: 10 Posted: 17 Jun 2012
Michal Gal
University of Haifa - Faculty of Law
Downloads 117 (245,117)

Abstract:

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41.

Legal Obstacles to Private Enforcement of Competition Law

3(2) Markets and Competition Law Review 133 (2019)
Number of pages: 20 Posted: 13 Jan 2020
Michal Gal and Rivi Dahan
University of Haifa - Faculty of Law and University of Haifa, Faculty of Law, Students
Downloads 17 (556,694)

Abstract:

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Competition Law, Private Enforcement, Decision Theory, Damages Directive

42.

Superior Bargaining Power: Dealing With Aggregate Concentration Concerns

Abusive Practices in Competition Law (Di Porto and Podszun eds., 2018), University of Hong Kong Faculty of Law Research Paper No. 2019/116
Number of pages: 44 Posted: 14 Jan 2020 Last Revised: 17 Jan 2020
Thomas K. Cheng and Michal Gal
The University of Hong Kong - Faculty of Law and University of Haifa - Faculty of Law
Downloads 8 (614,601)

Abstract:

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bargaining power, antitrust, competition law, aggregate concentration

43.

Competition Policy for Small Market Economies

Gal, Michal S., COMPETITION POLICY FOR SMALL MARKET ECONOMIES, Harvard University Press, March 2003
Posted: 07 Oct 2003
Michal Gal
University of Haifa - Faculty of Law

Abstract:

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Other Papers (1)

Total Downloads: 7
1.

Illegal Pricing Algorithms

62(1) Communications of the ACM 1 (January 2019)
Number of pages: 3 Posted: 06 Feb 2019
Michal Gal
University of Haifa - Faculty of Law
Downloads 7

Abstract:

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algorithms, cartel, facilitating practices, antitrust, competition law