Rebecca Crootof

University of Richmond School of Law

28 Westhampton Way

Richmond, VA 23173

United States

Yale University - Yale Information Society Project

Executive Director

127 Wall Street

New Haven, CT 06511

United States

SCHOLARLY PAPERS

17

DOWNLOADS
Rank 5,242

SSRN RANKINGS

Top 5,242

in Total Papers Downloads

8,275

SSRN CITATIONS
Rank 34,712

SSRN RANKINGS

Top 34,712

in Total Papers Citations

1

CROSSREF CITATIONS

17

Scholarly Papers (17)

1.

The Law of Cyber-Attack

California Law Review, Vol. 100, No. 4, 2012, Yale Law & Economics Research Paper No. 453, Yale Law School, Public Law Working Paper No. 258
Number of pages: 70 Posted: 23 Aug 2012 Last Revised: 07 Sep 2012
Yale University - Law School, University of Richmond School of Law, Yale Law School, U.S. Court of Appeals for the D.C. Circuit, Yale University - Law School, Independent and Independent
Downloads 2,188 (6,518)
Citation 1

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cyber-attack, cyber-crime, cyber-warfare, jus ad bellum, jus in bello, national security, war, stuxnet

2.

The Killer Robots Are Here: Legal and Policy Implications

36 Cardozo L. Rev. 1837 (2015)
Number of pages: 79 Posted: 08 Dec 2014 Last Revised: 05 Aug 2015
Rebecca Crootof
University of Richmond School of Law
Downloads 1,558 (11,453)

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law of war, law of armed conflict, international humanitarian law, IHL, human rights, robot, autonomous weapon system, autonomous lethal weapon, automation, autonomy, machine learning, artificial intelligence, weapons review, Article 36, ban

3.

War Torts: Accountability for Autonomous Weapons

University of Pennsylvania Law Review, Forthcoming
Number of pages: 56 Posted: 10 Sep 2015 Last Revised: 07 Sep 2016
Rebecca Crootof
University of Richmond School of Law
Downloads 652 (40,977)

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Autonomous Weapon Systems, Killer Robots, Killer Robots, Tort Law, Criminal Law, International Humanitarian Law, Law of Armed Conflict, Accountability

4.

Autonomous Weapon Systems and the Limits of Analogy

9 Harvard National Security Journal 51, 2018
Number of pages: 33 Posted: 13 Aug 2016 Last Revised: 28 Jun 2018
Rebecca Crootof
University of Richmond School of Law
Downloads 510 (56,361)

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autonomous weapon systems, international humanitarian law, law of armed conflict, analogy, weapons, combatants, child soldiers, animals, killer robot

5.

The Varied Law of Autonomous Weapon Systems

NATO ALLIED COMMAND TRANSFORMATION, AUTONOMOUS SYSTEMS: ISSUES FOR DEFENCE POLICY MAKERS (Andrew Williams & Paul Scharre, eds.) (2015, Forthcoming)
Number of pages: 29 Posted: 26 Feb 2015 Last Revised: 19 Nov 2015
Rebecca Crootof
University of Richmond School of Law
Downloads 463 (63,562)

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autonomous weapon system, autonomous lethal weapon, automation, autonomy, robot, law of war, law of armed conflict, international humanitarian law, IHL, human rights, law of the sea, space law, state responsibility, treaty, customary international law, soft law

6.

War, Responsibility, and Killer Robots

North Carolina Journal of International Law and Commercial Regulation, Vol. 40, No. 4, 2015
Number of pages: 24 Posted: 26 Feb 2015 Last Revised: 23 Dec 2015
Rebecca Crootof
University of Richmond School of Law
Downloads 432 (69,503)

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law of war, law of armed conflict, international humanitarian law, IHL, human rights, robot, autonomous weapon system, autonomous lethal weapon, automation, autonomy, machine learning, artificial intelligence, war power, constitutional law, humanitarian intervention

7.

Change Without Consent: How Customary International Law Modifies Treaties

Yale Journal of International Law, Vol. 41, 2016
Number of pages: 65 Posted: 10 Sep 2015 Last Revised: 17 Oct 2017
Rebecca Crootof
University of Richmond School of Law
Downloads 425 (70,496)

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Customary International Law, Treaties, Treaty Interpretation, Treaty Modification, Subsequent Practice, Humanitarian Intervention

8.

International Cybertorts: Expanding State Accountability in Cyberspace

103 CORNELL L. REV. 565 (2018)
Number of pages: 80 Posted: 13 Mar 2017 Last Revised: 03 May 2018
Rebecca Crootof
University of Richmond School of Law
Downloads 397 (76,446)

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Cyberspace, Cyberwarfare, Cybercrime, Cybertorts, State Responsibility, State Liability, Accountability

9.

A Meaningful Floor for 'Meaningful Human Control'

Temple International & Comparative Law Journal, Vol. 30, 2016
Number of pages: 10 Posted: 22 Dec 2015 Last Revised: 22 Dec 2016
Rebecca Crootof
University of Richmond School of Law
Downloads 379 (80,574)

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autonomous weapon systems, meaningful human control, international humanitarian law

10.

The Internet of Torts: Expanding Civil Liability Standards to Address Corporate Remote Interference

Duke Law Journal, Vol. 69, 2019
Number of pages: 85 Posted: 18 Mar 2019 Last Revised: 20 Dec 2019
Rebecca Crootof
University of Richmond School of Law
Downloads 328 (95,045)

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civil liability, torts, contracts, internet of things, IOT, consumer protection, products liability

11.

Consent Is Not Enough: Why States Must Respect the Intensity Threshold in Transnational Conflict

University of Pennsylvania Law Review, Vol. 165, No. 1, 2016, Yale Law School, Public Law Research Paper No. 584
Number of pages: 47 Posted: 12 Oct 2016 Last Revised: 20 Dec 2016
Yale University - Law School, University of Richmond School of Law, Independent, Yale University - Law School and Yale University - Law School
Downloads 221 (143,581)

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international humanitarian law, IHL, law of armed conflict, human rights law, non-international armed conflict, intervention

12.

Regulating New Weapons Technology

The Impact of Emerging Technologies on the Law of Armed Conflict (Eric Talbot Jensen & Ronald T.P. Alcala, eds., Oxford University Press) (2019 Forthcoming)
Number of pages: 30 Posted: 02 Jul 2018 Last Revised: 04 Apr 2019
Rebecca Crootof
University of Richmond School of Law
Downloads 185 (169,364)

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weapons, bans, international humanitarian law, law of armed conflict, tech law, analogical reasoning

13.

Judicious Influence: Non-Self-Executing Treaties and the Charming Betsy Canon

120 Yale L.J. 1784 (2011)
Number of pages: 36 Posted: 06 Apr 2011 Last Revised: 30 Jul 2015
Rebecca Crootof
University of Richmond School of Law
Downloads 161 (191,162)

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Charming Betsy, Self-executing, Non-self-executing, Treaty, Treaties, Medellin, Statutory Interpretation, Statutory Construction

14.

Which Law Governs During Armed Conflict? The Relationship Between International Humanitarian Law and Human Rights Law

Minnesota Law Review, Vol. 96, No. 1883, 2012
Number of pages: 62 Posted: 28 Jul 2016 Last Revised: 04 Oct 2016
Yale University - Law School, University of Richmond School of Law, Yale Law School, U.S. Court of Appeals for the D.C. Circuit, Independent, Independent and Independent
Downloads 153 (199,683)

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international humanitarian law, law of armed conflict, human rights law, jursiprudence, conflict of law

15.

Constitutional Convergence and Customary International Law

54 Harv. Int'l L.J. Online 195 (2013)
Number of pages: 9 Posted: 13 Jun 2013 Last Revised: 30 Jul 2015
Rebecca Crootof
University of Richmond School of Law
Downloads 91 (292,329)

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convergence, customary international law, norms, jus cogens

16.

'Cyborg Justice' and the Risk of Technological-Legal Lock-In

Columbia Law Review Forum, 2019
Number of pages: 19 Posted: 15 Oct 2019 Last Revised: 20 Dec 2019
Rebecca Crootof
University of Richmond School of Law
Downloads 88 (298,543)

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AI, common law, judging, adjudication, cyborg, human/AI teaming

17.

Jurisprudential Space Junk: Treaties and New Technologies

RESOLVING CONFLICTS IN THE LAW: ESSAYS IN HONOUR OF LEA BRILMAYER (Chiara Giorgetti & Natalie Klein, editors) (2019) ISBN: 978-90-04-31653-9
Number of pages: 24 Posted: 07 Apr 2019
Rebecca Crootof
University of Richmond School of Law
Downloads 44 (424,378)

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international law, treaties, technology