Rebecca Crootof

University of Richmond School of Law

28 Westhampton Way

Richmond, VA 23173

United States

Yale University - Yale Information Society Project

Executive Director

127 Wall Street

New Haven, CT 06511

United States

SCHOLARLY PAPERS

25

DOWNLOADS
Rank 4,018

SSRN RANKINGS

Top 4,018

in Total Papers Downloads

17,535

SSRN CITATIONS
Rank 18,672

SSRN RANKINGS

Top 18,672

in Total Papers Citations

48

CROSSREF CITATIONS

23

Scholarly Papers (25)

1.

The Killer Robots Are Here: Legal and Policy Implications

36 Cardozo L. Rev. 1837 (2015)
Number of pages: 79 Posted: 08 Dec 2014 Last Revised: 05 Aug 2015
Rebecca Crootof
University of Richmond School of LawYale University - Yale Information Society Project
Downloads 2,745 (9,110)

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law of war, law of armed conflict, international humanitarian law, IHL, human rights, robot, autonomous weapon system, autonomous lethal weapon, automation, autonomy, machine learning, artificial intelligence, weapons review, Article 36, ban

2.

The Law of Cyber-Attack

California Law Review, Vol. 100, No. 4, 2012, Yale Law & Economics Research Paper No. 453, Yale Law School, Public Law Working Paper No. 258
Number of pages: 70 Posted: 23 Aug 2012 Last Revised: 07 Sep 2012
Yale University - Law School, University of Richmond School of LawYale University - Yale Information Society Project, Yale Law School, University of Missouri at Columbia - University of Missouri School of Law, Yale University - Law School, Independent and Independent
Downloads 2,627 (9,777)
Citation 1

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cyber-attack, cyber-crime, cyber-warfare, jus ad bellum, jus in bello, national security, war, stuxnet

3.

Humans in the Loop

76 Vanderbilt Law Review 429 (2023), U of Colorado Law Legal Studies Research Paper No. 22-10, U of Michigan Public Law Research Paper No. 22-011
Number of pages: 82 Posted: 27 Mar 2022 Last Revised: 05 Apr 2023
University of Richmond School of LawYale University - Yale Information Society Project, University of Colorado Law SchoolYale University - Yale Information Society Project and University of Michigan Law School
Downloads 1,933 (15,890)
Citation 7

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AI, regulation, hybrid systems, MABA-MABA, humans in the loop, artificial intelligence

4.

Structuring Techlaw

34 Harvard Journal of Law & Technology 347 (2021), Univ. of Wisconsin Legal Studies Research Paper No. 1761
Number of pages: 71 Posted: 14 Sep 2020 Last Revised: 29 Nov 2022
Rebecca Crootof and BJ Ard
University of Richmond School of LawYale University - Yale Information Society Project and University of Wisconsin Law School
Downloads 1,078 (38,223)
Citation 17

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5.

War Torts: Accountability for Autonomous Weapons

University of Pennsylvania Law Review, Forthcoming
Number of pages: 56 Posted: 10 Sep 2015 Last Revised: 07 Sep 2016
Rebecca Crootof
University of Richmond School of LawYale University - Yale Information Society Project
Downloads 946 (45,904)
Citation 2

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Autonomous Weapon Systems, Killer Robots, Killer Robots, Tort Law, Criminal Law, International Humanitarian Law, Law of Armed Conflict, Accountability

6.

Autonomous Weapon Systems and the Limits of Analogy

9 Harvard National Security Journal 51, 2018
Number of pages: 33 Posted: 13 Aug 2016 Last Revised: 28 Jun 2018
Rebecca Crootof
University of Richmond School of LawYale University - Yale Information Society Project
Downloads 856 (52,729)
Citation 10

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autonomous weapon systems, international humanitarian law, law of armed conflict, analogy, weapons, combatants, child soldiers, animals, killer robot

7.

The Varied Law of Autonomous Weapon Systems

NATO ALLIED COMMAND TRANSFORMATION, AUTONOMOUS SYSTEMS: ISSUES FOR DEFENCE POLICY MAKERS (Andrew Williams & Paul Scharre, eds.) (2015, Forthcoming)
Number of pages: 29 Posted: 26 Feb 2015 Last Revised: 19 Nov 2015
Rebecca Crootof
University of Richmond School of LawYale University - Yale Information Society Project
Downloads 735 (64,773)

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autonomous weapon system, autonomous lethal weapon, automation, autonomy, robot, law of war, law of armed conflict, international humanitarian law, IHL, human rights, law of the sea, space law, state responsibility, treaty, customary international law, soft law

8.

War, Responsibility, and Killer Robots

North Carolina Journal of International Law and Commercial Regulation, Vol. 40, No. 4, 2015
Number of pages: 24 Posted: 26 Feb 2015 Last Revised: 23 Dec 2015
Rebecca Crootof
University of Richmond School of LawYale University - Yale Information Society Project
Downloads 705 (68,199)
Citation 1

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law of war, law of armed conflict, international humanitarian law, IHL, human rights, robot, autonomous weapon system, autonomous lethal weapon, automation, autonomy, machine learning, artificial intelligence, war power, constitutional law, humanitarian intervention

9.

The Internet of Torts: Expanding Civil Liability Standards to Address Corporate Remote Interference

Duke Law Journal, Vol. 69, 2019
Number of pages: 85 Posted: 18 Mar 2019 Last Revised: 13 Aug 2023
Rebecca Crootof
University of Richmond School of LawYale University - Yale Information Society Project
Downloads 692 (69,868)
Citation 1

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civil liability, torts, contracts, internet of things, IOT, consumer protection, products liability

10.

Change Without Consent: How Customary International Law Modifies Treaties

Yale Journal of International Law, Vol. 41, 2016
Number of pages: 65 Posted: 10 Sep 2015 Last Revised: 17 Oct 2017
Rebecca Crootof
University of Richmond School of LawYale University - Yale Information Society Project
Downloads 652 (75,415)
Citation 1

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Customary International Law, Treaties, Treaty Interpretation, Treaty Modification, Subsequent Practice, Humanitarian Intervention

11.

A Meaningful Floor for 'Meaningful Human Control'

Temple International & Comparative Law Journal, Vol. 30, 2016
Number of pages: 10 Posted: 22 Dec 2015 Last Revised: 22 Dec 2016
Rebecca Crootof
University of Richmond School of LawYale University - Yale Information Society Project
Downloads 638 (77,513)

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autonomous weapon systems, meaningful human control, international humanitarian law

12.

War Torts

New York University Law Review, Vol. 97, 2022
Number of pages: 80 Posted: 25 Feb 2022 Last Revised: 13 Aug 2023
Rebecca Crootof
University of Richmond School of LawYale University - Yale Information Society Project
Downloads 615 (81,267)

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13.

International Cybertorts: Expanding State Accountability in Cyberspace

103 CORNELL L. REV. 565 (2018)
Number of pages: 80 Posted: 13 Mar 2017 Last Revised: 03 May 2018
Rebecca Crootof
University of Richmond School of LawYale University - Yale Information Society Project
Downloads 551 (93,203)
Citation 1

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Cyberspace, Cyberwarfare, Cybercrime, Cybertorts, State Responsibility, State Liability, Accountability

14.

Regulating New Weapons Technology

The Impact of Emerging Technologies on the Law of Armed Conflict (Eric Talbot Jensen & Ronald T.P. Alcala, eds., Oxford University Press) (2019 Forthcoming)
Number of pages: 30 Posted: 02 Jul 2018 Last Revised: 04 Apr 2019
Rebecca Crootof
University of Richmond School of LawYale University - Yale Information Society Project
Downloads 493 (106,921)

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weapons, bans, international humanitarian law, law of armed conflict, tech law, analogical reasoning

15.

'Cyborg Justice' and the Risk of Technological-Legal Lock-In

Columbia Law Review Forum, 2019
Number of pages: 19 Posted: 15 Oct 2019 Last Revised: 20 Dec 2019
Rebecca Crootof
University of Richmond School of LawYale University - Yale Information Society Project
Downloads 461 (116,105)
Citation 3

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AI, common law, judging, adjudication, cyborg, human/AI teaming

16.

Consent Is Not Enough: Why States Must Respect the Intensity Threshold in Transnational Conflict

University of Pennsylvania Law Review, Vol. 165, No. 1, 2016, Yale Law School, Public Law Research Paper No. 584
Number of pages: 47 Posted: 12 Oct 2016 Last Revised: 20 Dec 2016
Yale University - Law School, University of Richmond School of LawYale University - Yale Information Society Project, Independent, Yale University - Law School and Yale University - Law School
Downloads 364 (151,802)

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international humanitarian law, IHL, law of armed conflict, human rights law, non-international armed conflict, intervention

17.

Which Law Governs During Armed Conflict? The Relationship Between International Humanitarian Law and Human Rights Law

Minnesota Law Review, Vol. 96, No. 1883, 2012
Number of pages: 62 Posted: 28 Jul 2016 Last Revised: 04 Oct 2016
Yale University - Law School, University of Richmond School of LawYale University - Yale Information Society Project, Yale Law School, University of Missouri at Columbia - University of Missouri School of Law, Independent, Independent and Independent
Downloads 267 (210,431)

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international humanitarian law, law of armed conflict, human rights law, jursiprudence, conflict of law

18.
Downloads 234 (239,643)

Implementing War Torts

Forthcoming, Virginia Journal of International Law, No. 63, 2023
Number of pages: 77 Posted: 08 Nov 2022 Last Revised: 02 Jan 2023
Rebecca Crootof
University of Richmond School of LawYale University - Yale Information Society Project
Downloads 219 (254,260)

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international humanitarian law, international criminal law, torts, law of armed conflict, international organizations

Implementing War Torts

63 Virginia Journal of International Law 320 2023
Number of pages: 78 Posted: 08 Nov 2022
Rebecca Crootof
University of Richmond School of LawYale University - Yale Information Society Project
Downloads 15 (1,027,246)

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international humanitarian law, international criminal law, torts, law of armed conflict, international organizations

19.

Judicious Influence: Non-Self-Executing Treaties and the Charming Betsy Canon

120 Yale L.J. 1784 (2011)
Number of pages: 36 Posted: 06 Apr 2011 Last Revised: 30 Jul 2015
Rebecca Crootof
University of Richmond School of LawYale University - Yale Information Society Project
Downloads 227 (246,723)

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Charming Betsy, Self-executing, Non-self-executing, Treaty, Treaties, Medellin, Statutory Interpretation, Statutory Construction

20.

Constitutional Convergence and Customary International Law

54 Harv. Int'l L.J. Online 195 (2013)
Number of pages: 9 Posted: 13 Jun 2013 Last Revised: 30 Jul 2015
Rebecca Crootof
University of Richmond School of LawYale University - Yale Information Society Project
Downloads 177 (309,477)

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convergence, customary international law, norms, jus cogens

21.

Jurisprudential Space Junk: Treaties and New Technologies

RESOLVING CONFLICTS IN THE LAW: ESSAYS IN HONOUR OF LEA BRILMAYER (Chiara Giorgetti & Natalie Klein, editors) (2019) ISBN: 978-90-04-31653-9
Number of pages: 24 Posted: 07 Apr 2019
Rebecca Crootof
University of Richmond School of LawYale University - Yale Information Society Project
Downloads 172 (317,470)
Citation 1

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international law, treaties, technology

22.

AI and the Actual IHL Accountability Gap

AI and the Actual Accountability Gap, in THE ETHICS OF AUTOMATED WARFARE AND ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE, CENTRE FOR INTERNATIONAL GOVERNANCE INNOVATION (2022)
Number of pages: 8 Posted: 15 Dec 2022
Rebecca Crootof
University of Richmond School of LawYale University - Yale Information Society Project
Downloads 155 (348,735)

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international humanitarian law, law of armed conflict, artificial intelligence, accountability, weapons, accidents

23.

Legal Responses to Techlaw Uncertainties

Legal Responses to Techlaw Uncertainties, in Research Handbook on Law and Technology (Bartosz Brożek, Olia Kanevskaia & Przemyslaw Palka, eds.) (Edward Elgar, Forthcoming), Univ. of Wisconsin Legal Studies Research Paper No. 1785
Number of pages: 21 Posted: 20 Aug 2023 Last Revised: 17 Sep 2023
BJ Ard and Rebecca Crootof
University of Wisconsin Law School and University of Richmond School of LawYale University - Yale Information Society Project
Downloads 127 (406,246)

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Technology Law, Legal Responses, Legal Uncertainties, Analogy, Tech-Neutral, Tech-Specific

Amicus Curiae Brief of Amici Professors of International Law to Provide the Court with Additional Context for Interpreting the War Exclusion

Merck & Co., Inc. v. Ace American Ins. Co., __ A.3d __ (N.J. Super. Ct. App. Div., May 1, 2023).
Number of pages: 42 Posted: 31 May 2023
University of California Davis School of Law, University of Richmond School of LawYale University - Yale Information Society Project, Santa Clara University - School of Law and Notre Dame Law School
Downloads 42 (777,921)

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Amicus Curiae Brief of Amici Professors of International Law to Provide the Court with Additional Context for Interpreting the War Exclusion

Merck & Co., Inc. v. Ace American Ins. Co., __ A.3d __ (N.J., Jan. 26, 2024).
Number of pages: 39 Posted: 15 Mar 2024
University of Richmond School of LawYale University - Yale Information Society Project, University of California Davis School of Law, Notre Dame Law School and Santa Clara University - School of Law
Downloads 13 (1,048,968)

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cyber insurance, war exclusion, armed attack, NotPetya

25.

Remote Repossession

DePaul Law Review, Vol. 73, forthcoming 2024
Number of pages: 28 Posted: 28 Dec 2023
Rebecca Crootof
University of Richmond School of LawYale University - Yale Information Society Project
Downloads 30 (850,941)

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technology law, torts, repossession, automated decisionmaking, corporate interference, torts, contract, property