Raluca A. Roman

Federal Reserve Bank of Philadelphia

Ten Independence Mall

Philadelphia, PA 19106-1574

United States

SCHOLARLY PAPERS

33

DOWNLOADS
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Top 7,579

in Total Papers Downloads

10,945

SSRN CITATIONS
Rank 3,408

SSRN RANKINGS

Top 3,408

in Total Papers Citations

461

CROSSREF CITATIONS

56

Scholarly Papers (33)

1.

Is a Friend in Need a Friend Indeed? How Relationship Borrowers Fare during the COVID-19 Crisis

Kelley School of Business Research Paper No. 2021-01
Number of pages: 59 Posted: 28 Dec 2020 Last Revised: 08 Aug 2022
University of South Carolina - Darla Moore School of Business, Texas A&M University, Getulio Vargas Foundation (FGV) - Brazilian School of Public and Business Administration (EBAPE), Federal Reserve Bank of Philadelphia, Indiana University - Kelley School of Business - Department of Finance and Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System
Downloads 1,048 (39,667)
Citation 9

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Banks, bank loans, relationship lending, loan contract terms, financial crises, COVID-19, Paycheck Protection Program (PPP)

2.
Downloads 1,016 (41,493)
Citation 61

Internationalization and Bank Risk

Management Science
Number of pages: 57 Posted: 05 Nov 2014 Last Revised: 07 Mar 2023
University of South Carolina - Darla Moore School of Business, University of Alberta - Campus Saint-Jean, University of South Carolina - Moore School of Business and Federal Reserve Bank of Philadelphia
Downloads 755 (61,462)
Citation 12

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Risk, Internationalization, Banking, Financial Crises, Corporate Governance

Internationalization and Bank Risk

Federal Reserve Bank of Kansas City Working Paper No. 15-08
Number of pages: 56 Posted: 18 Sep 2015
University of South Carolina - Darla Moore School of Business, University of Alberta - Campus Saint-Jean, University of South Carolina - Moore School of Business and Federal Reserve Bank of Philadelphia
Downloads 134 (390,320)
Citation 15

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Risk, Internationalization, Banking, Financial Crises, Corporate Governance

Internationalization and Bank Risk

Federal Reserve Bank of Kansas City Working Paper No. 15-08
Number of pages: 56 Posted: 22 Nov 2015
Federal Reserve Bank of Philadelphia, University of South Carolina - Darla Moore School of Business, University of Alberta - Campus Saint-Jean and University of South Carolina - Moore School of Business
Downloads 127 (407,376)
Citation 16

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Risk, Internationalization, Banking, Financial Crises, Corporate Governance

3.

Piercing through Opacity: Relationships and Credit Card Lending to Consumers and Small Businesses during Normal Times and the COVID-19 Crisis

Journal of Political Economy (JPE), Forthcoming , European Corporate Governance Institute – Finance Working Paper No. 912/2023
Number of pages: 102 Posted: 20 Apr 2021 Last Revised: 09 Apr 2024
University of South Carolina - Darla Moore School of Business, Texas A&M University, Getulio Vargas Foundation (FGV) - Brazilian School of Public and Business Administration (EBAPE), Federal Reserve Bank of Philadelphia, Indiana University - Kelley School of Business - Department of Finance and Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System
Downloads 777 (60,079)

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Credit cards, household finance, consumers, small businesses, relationship lending, banks, credit terms, cross-sectional smoothing, financial crises, COVID-19, intertemporal smoothing

4.

Lending Implications of U.S. Bank Stress Tests: Costs or Benefits?

Journal of Financial Intermediation, Forthcoming
Number of pages: 62 Posted: 24 May 2017 Last Revised: 18 Aug 2017
New York University (NYU) - Leonard N. Stern School of Business, University of South Carolina - Darla Moore School of Business and Federal Reserve Bank of Philadelphia
Downloads 670 (72,804)
Citation 85

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Bank Stress Tests, SCAP, CCAR, Regulatory Disclosure, Lending, Risk

5.

Did TARP Banks Get Competitive Advantages?

Journal of Financial and Quantitative Analysis (JFQA), Forthcoming
Number of pages: 73 Posted: 28 May 2013 Last Revised: 15 Aug 2014
Allen N. Berger and Raluca A. Roman
University of South Carolina - Darla Moore School of Business and Federal Reserve Bank of Philadelphia
Downloads 616 (80,913)
Citation 43

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TARP, Banks, Bailouts, Capital support, Competition

6.
Downloads 582 (86,938)
Citation 1

Shareholder Activism in Banking

Federal Reserve Bank of Kansas City Working Paper No. 15-09
Number of pages: 79 Posted: 18 Sep 2015
Raluca A. Roman
Federal Reserve Bank of Philadelphia
Downloads 294 (189,485)
Citation 2

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banking, shareholder activism, financial stability, financial crises

Investor Activism Effects in Banking: Is Activism Beneficial for Bank Shareholders, Creditors, and the Public?

Number of pages: 78 Posted: 24 Sep 2014 Last Revised: 09 Feb 2016
Raluca A. Roman
Federal Reserve Bank of Philadelphia
Downloads 288 (193,661)

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banking, shareholder activism, corporate governance, financial stability, financial crises

7.

Did TARP Reduce or Increase Systemic Risk? The Effects of Government Aid on Financial System Stability

Journal of Financial Intermediation, Forthcoming
Number of pages: 63 Posted: 30 Sep 2016 Last Revised: 12 Jan 2019
Allen N. Berger, Raluca A. Roman and John Sedunov
University of South Carolina - Darla Moore School of Business, Federal Reserve Bank of Philadelphia and Villanova University - Department of Finance
Downloads 569 (89,468)
Citation 55

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Government Assistance, TARP, Banks, Systemic risk, Financial Crises.

8.

Did Saving Wall Street Really Save Main Street? The Real Effects of TARP on Local Economic Conditions

Journal of Financial and Quantitative Analysis (JFQA), Forthcoming
Number of pages: 77 Posted: 27 May 2014 Last Revised: 09 Feb 2016
Allen N. Berger and Raluca A. Roman
University of South Carolina - Darla Moore School of Business and Federal Reserve Bank of Philadelphia
Downloads 473 (112,265)
Citation 41

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TARP, Banks, Capital Support, Economic Conditions

9.

Lending by Servicing: Monetary Policy Transmission through Shadow Banks

Number of pages: 66 Posted: 23 May 2022 Last Revised: 25 May 2023
Isha Agarwal, Malin Hu, Raluca A. Roman and Keling Zheng
University of British Columbia, Vanderbilt University, Federal Reserve Bank of Philadelphia and University of British Columbia (UBC) - Division of Finance
Downloads 471 (112,823)

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Shadow Banks, Mortgage Servicing Rights, Monetary Policy, Liquidity, Prepayment Risk

10.

Bank Bailouts, Bail-Ins, or No Regulatory Intervention? A Dynamic Model and Empirical Tests of Optimal Regulation and Implications for Future Crises

Financial Management (FM), Forthcoming
Number of pages: 73 Posted: 24 May 2018 Last Revised: 08 Nov 2022
University of South Carolina - Darla Moore School of Business, Goldman, Sachs & Co., Federal Reserve Bank of Philadelphia and University of South Carolina - Darla Moore School of Business
Downloads 466 (114,288)
Citation 6

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Banks, Bailouts, Bail-Ins, OLA, Bankruptcy, Regulation, Capital Structure, Crises

11.

The Effects of Cultural Values on Bank Failures Around the World

Journal of Financial and Quantitative Analysis (JFQA), Forthcoming
Number of pages: 67 Posted: 25 Aug 2017 Last Revised: 08 Nov 2019
Allen N. Berger, Xinming Li, Charles Morris and Raluca A. Roman
University of South Carolina - Darla Moore School of Business, University of South Carolina, Darla Moore School of Business, Department of Finance, Federal Reserve Bank of Kansas City and Federal Reserve Bank of Philadelphia
Downloads 411 (132,387)
Citation 3

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Banking, Failure, Culture, Individualism, Masculinity, Risk

12.

Geographic Deregulation and Bank Capital Structure

Journal of Banking and Finance, Vol. 149, No. 106761, 2023
Number of pages: 51 Posted: 24 May 2018 Last Revised: 19 Aug 2023
Allen N. Berger, Özde Öztekin and Raluca A. Roman
University of South Carolina - Darla Moore School of Business, Florida International University (FIU) and Federal Reserve Bank of Philadelphia
Downloads 376 (146,339)
Citation 9

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Competition, Deregulation, Banking, Capital Structure, Adjustment Speed

Bank Stress Tests and Consumer Credit Markets: Credit and Real Impacts

Number of pages: 90 Posted: 05 Aug 2020 Last Revised: 22 Jan 2024
Sumit Agarwal, Xudong An, Larry Cordell and Raluca A. Roman
National University of Singapore, Federal Reserve Banks - Federal Reserve Bank of Philadelphia, Federal Reserve Banks - Federal Reserve Bank of Philadelphia and Federal Reserve Bank of Philadelphia
Downloads 162 (334,134)

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Bank stress tests, household finance, consumer credit supply, spending, debt management, payment behavior, consumer credit performance, credit cards, mortgages

Bank Stress Test Results and Their Impact on Consumer Credit Markets

FRB of Philadelphia Working Paper No. 20-30
Number of pages: 84 Posted: 03 Aug 2020
Sumit Agarwal, Xudong An, Larry Cordell and Raluca A. Roman
National University of Singapore, Federal Reserve Banks - Federal Reserve Bank of Philadelphia, Federal Reserve Banks - Federal Reserve Bank of Philadelphia and Federal Reserve Bank of Philadelphia
Downloads 157 (343,117)
Citation 3

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bank stress tests, credit supply, cost of credit, credit usage, credit performance, credit cards

14.

Geographic Deregulation and Banks’ Cost of Equity Capital

Journal of International Money and Finance
Number of pages: 60 Posted: 03 Dec 2018 Last Revised: 07 Mar 2023
University of South Carolina - Darla Moore School of Business, University of Alberta - Campus Saint-Jean, University of South Carolina - Moore School of Business and Federal Reserve Bank of Philadelphia
Downloads 300 (186,615)

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Bank Deregulation, Cost of Equity Capital, Risk, Acquisitions, M&As, Market Discipline.

15.

Whose Bailout Is It Anyway? The Roles of Politics in PPP Bailouts of Small Businesses vs. Banks

Journal of Financial Intermediation, Forthcoming
Number of pages: 54 Posted: 16 Sep 2021 Last Revised: 12 Jul 2023
Allen N. Berger, Mustafa U. Karakaplan and Raluca A. Roman
University of South Carolina - Darla Moore School of Business, University of South Carolina, Darla Moore School of Business and Federal Reserve Bank of Philadelphia
Downloads 290 (193,451)
Citation 4

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politics, political influences, political economy, mediation analysis, bailouts, PPP, small businesses, banks, bank profitability, COVID-19 crisis.

Climate Risks in the U.S. Banking Sector: Evidence from Operational Losses and Extreme Storms

Number of pages: 61 Posted: 11 Dec 2022
University of South Carolina - Darla Moore School of Business, Federal Reserve Bank of Richmond - Quantitative Supervision & Research, Federal Reserve Banks - Federal Reserve Bank of Richmond, University of Kansas and Federal Reserve Bank of Philadelphia
Downloads 227 (245,671)

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Operational Losses, Banking, Bank Holding Companies, Natural Disasters, Climate Risk, Hurricanes, Tornadoes, Severe Thunderstorms

Climate Risks in the U.S. Banking Sector: Evidence from Operational Losses and Extreme Storms

FRB of Philadelphia Working Paper No. 21-31
Number of pages: 62 Posted: 20 Dec 2023
University of South Carolina - Darla Moore School of Business, Federal Reserve Bank of Richmond - Quantitative Supervision & Research, Federal Reserve Banks - Federal Reserve Bank of Richmond, University of Kansas and Federal Reserve Bank of Philadelphia
Downloads 56 (684,119)

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Operational Losses, Banking, Bank Holding Companies, Natural Disasters, Climate Risk, Hurricanes, Tornadoes, Severe Thunderstorms

17.

Does Efficiency Help Banks Survive and Thrive during Financial Crises?

Journal of Banking and Finance, 2019, Vol. 106, 445-460.
Number of pages: 55 Posted: 18 May 2017 Last Revised: 29 Sep 2019
Albert Assaf, Allen N. Berger, Raluca A. Roman and Mike Tsionas
University of Massachusetts Amherst, University of South Carolina - Darla Moore School of Business, Federal Reserve Bank of Philadelphia and Lancaster University
Downloads 279 (201,253)
Citation 13

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Banking, Efficiency, Financial Crises, Performance, Survival, Risk, Profitability

Home Sweet Loan: The Impact of Social Capital on Home Loans from Approval to Repayment

Number of pages: 72 Posted: 22 Jul 2022 Last Revised: 26 Mar 2024
Federal Reserve Banks - Federal Reserve Bank of Philadelphia, University of Alberta - Campus Saint-Jean, University of South Carolina - Moore School of Business, Stanford University and Federal Reserve Bank of Philadelphia
Downloads 212 (262,069)

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Mortgage markets, mortgage approval, screening, consumer credit performance, social capital, trust.

Social Capital and Mortgages

FRB of Philadelphia Working Paper No. 23-23
Number of pages: 61 Posted: 17 Oct 2023
Federal Reserve Banks - Federal Reserve Bank of Philadelphia, University of Alberta - Campus Saint-Jean, University of South Carolina - Moore School of Business, Stanford University and Federal Reserve Bank of Philadelphia
Downloads 65 (633,667)

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consumer credit, mortgage approval, screening, loan performance, social capital, interpersonal connections, trust, banks, fintech

“Strings Attached” Versus “No Strings?” A Tale of Two Bailouts and Their Impacts on Subprime Consumer Debt

Number of pages: 57 Posted: 30 Aug 2021 Last Revised: 09 Mar 2024
Allen N. Berger, Onesime Epouhe and Raluca A. Roman
University of South Carolina - Darla Moore School of Business, Federal Reserve Banks - Federal Reserve Bank of Philadelphia and Federal Reserve Bank of Philadelphia
Downloads 180 (304,468)
Citation 1

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households, financial constraints, subprime debt, consumer finance, banking, bailouts, strings attached, TARP, PPP, Global Financial Crisis, COVID-19 Crisis

A Tale of Two Bailouts: Effects of TARP and PPP on Subprime Consumer Debt

FRB of Philadelphia Working Paper No. 21-32
Number of pages: 70 Posted: 24 Sep 2021
Allen N. Berger, Onesime Epouhe and Raluca A. Roman
University of South Carolina - Darla Moore School of Business, Federal Reserve Banks - Federal Reserve Bank of Philadelphia and Federal Reserve Bank of Philadelphia
Downloads 54 (696,275)

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Household Debt, Subprime Consumer Debt, Banking, Bailouts, TARP, PPP, Financial

20.

Supervisory Enforcement Actions against Banks and Systemic Risk

Journal of Banking and Finance, Forthcoming
Number of pages: 57 Posted: 10 Nov 2020 Last Revised: 06 Jul 2021
Allen N. Berger, Jin Cai, Raluca A. Roman and John Sedunov
University of South Carolina - Darla Moore School of Business, Sacred Heart University, Federal Reserve Bank of Philadelphia and Villanova University - Department of Finance
Downloads 231 (242,449)
Citation 13

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Enforcement actions, banks, systemic risk, leverage risk, financial crises

The Opioid Epidemic and Consumer Credit Supply: Evidence from Credit Cards

Number of pages: 66 Posted: 15 Aug 2022 Last Revised: 01 Nov 2023
Sumit Agarwal, Wenli Li, Raluca A. Roman and Nonna Sorokina
National University of Singapore, Federal Reserve Bank of Philadelphia, Federal Reserve Bank of Philadelphia and The Pennsylvania State University
Downloads 190 (289,972)

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Opioid Epidemic, Household Finance, Credit Supply, Spending, Risk

The Opioid Epidemic and Consumer Credit Supply: Evidence from Credit Cards

FRB of Philadelphia Working Paper No. 23-28
Number of pages: 66 Posted: 01 Dec 2023
Sumit Agarwal, Wenli Li, Raluca A. Roman and Nonna Sorokina
National University of Singapore, Federal Reserve Bank of Philadelphia, Federal Reserve Bank of Philadelphia and The Pennsylvania State University
Downloads 33 (849,418)

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Opioid Epidemic, Household Finance, Credit Supply, Spending, Risk

22.

Do Business Borrowers Benefit from Bank Bailouts? - The Effects of TARP on Loan Contract Terms

Financial Management, 2019, Vol. 48, 575-639.
Number of pages: 63 Posted: 24 Feb 2016 Last Revised: 10 Nov 2022
Allen N. Berger, Tanakorn Makaew and Raluca A. Roman
University of South Carolina - Darla Moore School of Business, University of Southern California and Federal Reserve Bank of Philadelphia
Downloads 210 (265,251)
Citation 12

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Bailouts, TARP, Bank Loans, Loan Contracting, Contract Terms, Financial Crisis

23.

Winners and Losers from Supervisory Enforcement Actions Against Banks

Journal of Corporate Finance, Forthcoming
Number of pages: 57 Posted: 21 Feb 2017 Last Revised: 29 Sep 2019
Raluca A. Roman
Federal Reserve Bank of Philadelphia
Downloads 160 (337,654)
Citation 2

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Enforcement Actions, Bank Lending, Financial Contracting, Financial Constraints, Small Businesses

24.

'Let Us Put Our Moneys Together:' Minority-Owned Banks and Resilience to Crises

Number of pages: 56 Posted: 30 Sep 2022 Last Revised: 29 Feb 2024
University of South Carolina - Darla Moore School of Business, Arizona State University (ASU), School of Public Affairs - Arizona State University and Federal Reserve Bank of Philadelphia
Downloads 151 (356,137)

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minority-owned banks, minorities, shared identity, minority employment, bank credit, crises, economic resilience

25.

Supply and Demand Effects of Bank Bailouts: Depositors Need Not Apply and Need Not Run

Journal of Money, Credit, and Banking (JMCB), Forthcoming
Number of pages: 61 Posted: 02 Dec 2020 Last Revised: 31 Oct 2022
University of South Carolina - Darla Moore School of Business, Ghent University - Faculty of Economics and Business Administration, Federal Reserve Bank of Philadelphia and Ghent University - Centre for Russian International Socio-Political and Economic Studies (CERISE)
Downloads 115 (437,234)

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Bailouts, Financial Crises, Global Financial Crisis, Market Discipline, Depositor Behavior, Bank Runs, Bank Deposit Funding.

26.

Bank Size and Household Financial Sentiment: Surprising Evidence from University of Michigan Surveys of Consumers

Leeds University Business School Working Paper No. 18-13, Journal of Money, Credit, and Banking (JMCB), 2020, Vol. 52, pp.149-191.
Number of pages: 57 Posted: 24 Jun 2018 Last Revised: 10 Nov 2022
Allen N. Berger, Felix Irresberger and Raluca A. Roman
University of South Carolina - Darla Moore School of Business, Durham University and Federal Reserve Bank of Philadelphia
Downloads 86 (532,467)
Citation 3

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Households, Financial Constraints, Financial Sentiment, Small Banks, Large Banks, Banking Market Structure

Piercing Through the Haze: Did PPP Increase Versus Decrease Bank Efficiency?

Number of pages: 49 Posted: 09 May 2023 Last Revised: 30 Sep 2023
Allen N. Berger, Cristina Ortega and Raluca A. Roman
University of South Carolina - Darla Moore School of Business, University of Malaga and Federal Reserve Bank of Philadelphia
Downloads 64 (639,052)

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Paycheck Protection Program, PPP, bank efficiency, profit efficiency, cost efficiency, bank deposits, lending, labor market.

Piercing Through the Haze Did PPP Increase Versus Decrease Bank Efficiency?

Number of pages: 51 Posted: 20 Jul 2023
Allen N. Berger, Cristina Ortega and Raluca A. Roman
University of South Carolina - Darla Moore School of Business, University of Malaga and Federal Reserve Bank of Philadelphia
Downloads 18 (994,393)

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Paycheck Protection Program, PPP, bank efficiency, profit efficiency, cost efficiency, bank deposits, lending, labor market.

28.

Bank Size and Household Financial Sentiment: Surprising Evidence from the University of Michigan Surveys of Consumers

FRB of Philadelphia Working Paper No. 19-4
Number of pages: 69 Posted: 15 Jan 2019 Last Revised: 21 Feb 2019
Allen N. Berger, Felix Irresberger and Raluca A. Roman
University of South Carolina - Darla Moore School of Business, Durham University and Federal Reserve Bank of Philadelphia
Downloads 74 (581,454)

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households, financial sentiment, small banks, large banks, banking market structure

29.

Lending by Servicing: Monetary Policy Transmission Through Shadow Banks

FRB of Philadelphia Working Paper No. 23-14
Number of pages: 67 Posted: 03 Aug 2023
Isha Agarwal, Malin Hu, Raluca A. Roman and Keling Zheng
University of British Columbia (UBC) - Sauder School of Business, Vanderbilt University, Federal Reserve Bank of Philadelphia and University of British Columbia (UBC) - Division of Finance
Downloads 73 (585,858)

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30.

Piercing Through Opacity: Relationships and Credit Card Lending to Consumers and Small Businesses During Normal Times and the Covid-19 Crisis

FRB of Philadelphia Working Paper No. 21-19
Number of pages: 77 Posted: 02 Jun 2021 Last Revised: 18 Jun 2022
affiliation not provided to SSRN, Texas A&M University, Getulio Vargas Foundation (FGV) - Brazilian School of Public and Business Administration (EBAPE), Federal Reserve Bank of Philadelphia, Indiana University - Kelley School of Business - Department of Finance and Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System
Downloads 35 (809,983)

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Credit cards, household finances, consumers, small businesses, relationship lending, banks

31.

"Let Us Put Our Moneys Together”: Minority-Owned Banks and Resilience to Crises

FRB of Philadelphia Working Paper No. 23-13
Number of pages: 63 Posted: 29 Jun 2023
University of South Carolina - Darla Moore School of Business, Arizona State University (ASU), School of Public Affairs - Arizona State University and Federal Reserve Bank of Philadelphia
Downloads 27 (876,423)

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minority-owned banks, minority employment, community banking, crises, economic resilience, small business credit, household credit, shared-minority identity

32.

How Not to Save the Planet – Do Not Enforce the Rules! Nonenforcement and Bank Credit to Deforest the Amazon

Number of pages: 54 Posted: 15 Apr 2024
University of South Carolina - Darla Moore School of Business, University of Malaga, Halle Institute for Economic Research and Federal Reserve Bank of Philadelphia
Downloads 21 (932,344)

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environmental law enforcement, climate risk, financial institutions, bank credit, Brazilian Amazon, sustainable finance, deforestation, environmental stewardship.

Climate Change and Consumer Finance: A Very Brief Literature Review

FRB of Philadelphia Payment Cards Center Discussion Paper No. 21-4
Posted: 11 Oct 2021
José J. Canals-Cerda and Raluca A. Roman
Federal Reserve Bank of Philadelphia and Federal Reserve Bank of Philadelphia

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climate change, natural disasters, sea-level rise, consumer finance, house prices