Steven D. Levitt

National Bureau of Economic Research (NBER)

1050 Massachusetts Avenue

Cambridge, MA 02138

United States

American Bar Foundation

750 N. Lake Shore Drive

Chicago, IL 60611

United States

University of Chicago

Assistant Professor

1126 East 59th Street

Chicago, IL 60637

United States

SCHOLARLY PAPERS

56

DOWNLOADS
Rank 524

SSRN RANKINGS

Top 524

in Total Papers Downloads

30,704

CITATIONS
Rank 347

SSRN RANKINGS

Top 347

in Total Papers Citations

1,224

Scholarly Papers (56)

1.
Downloads 24,725 ( 52)
Citation 90

The Impact of Legalized Abortion on Crime

Quarterly Journal of Economics
Number of pages: 67 Posted: 12 Aug 1999
John J. Donohue III and Steven D. Levitt
Stanford Law School and University of Chicago
Downloads 24,526 (54)
Citation 90

Abstract:

The Impact of Legalized Abortion on Crime

NBER Working Paper No. w8004
Number of pages: 67 Posted: 12 Nov 2000
John J. Donohue III and Steven D. Levitt
Stanford Law School and University of Chicago
Downloads 199 (123,199)
Citation 90

Abstract:

Further Evidence that Legalized Abortion Lowered Crime: A Reply to Joyce

Stanford Law and Economics Olin Working Paper No. 251; Stanford Law School, Public Law Working Paper No. 56
Number of pages: 31 Posted: 06 Mar 2003
John J. Donohue III and Steven D. Levitt
Stanford Law School and University of Chicago
Downloads 466 (47,351)
Citation 24

Abstract:

Further Evidence that Legalized Abortion Lowered Crime: A Reply to Joyce

NBER Working Paper No. w9532
Number of pages: 32 Posted: 13 Mar 2003
John J. Donohue III and Steven D. Levitt
Stanford Law School and University of Chicago
Downloads 86 (241,206)
Citation 24

Abstract:

The Impact of Race on Policing, Arrest Patterns, and Crime

Stanford Law School, John M. Olin Program in Law and Economics, Working Paper No. 168
Number of pages: 63 Posted: 21 Mar 2000
John J. Donohue III and Steven D. Levitt
Stanford Law School and University of Chicago
Downloads 454 (48,912)
Citation 22

Abstract:

The Impact of Race on Policing, Arrest Patterns, and Crime

NBER Working Paper No. w6784
Number of pages: 38 Posted: 16 Nov 1998
John J. Donohue III and Steven D. Levitt
Stanford Law School and University of Chicago
Downloads 75 (262,505)
Citation 22

Abstract:

Estimating the Effect of Alcohol on Driver Risk Using Only Fatal Accident Statistics

Number of pages: 48 Posted: 02 Apr 1999
Steven D. Levitt and Jack Porter
University of Chicago and affiliation not provided to SSRN
Downloads 370 (62,733)
Citation 3

Abstract:

Estimating the Effect of Alcohol on Driver Risk Using Only Fatal Accident Statistics

NBER Working Paper No. w6944
Number of pages: 48 Posted: 26 Aug 2000
Steven D. Levitt and Jack Porter
University of Chicago and affiliation not provided to SSRN
Downloads 54 (313,193)
Citation 3

Abstract:

5.

An Economic Analysis of a Drug-Selling Gang's Finances

NBER Working Paper No. w6592
Number of pages: 45 Posted: 20 Jul 1999
Steven D. Levitt and Sudhir Alladi Venkatesh
University of Chicago and Columbia University - Department of Sociology
Downloads 282 (83,669)
Citation 48

Abstract:

6.

How Do Markets Function? An Empirical Analysis of Gambling on the National Football League

NBER Working Paper No. w9422
Number of pages: 42 Posted: 03 Jan 2003
Steven D. Levitt
University of Chicago
Downloads 274 (86,361)
Citation 4

Abstract:

Using Sentence Enhancements to Distinguish Between Deterrence and Incapacitation

Stanford Law School, John M. Olin Program in Law and Economics, Working Paper No. 157
Number of pages: 30 Posted: 03 Sep 1999
Daniel P. Kessler and Steven D. Levitt
Stanford Graduate School of Business and University of Chicago
Downloads 220 (111,528)
Citation 34

Abstract:

Using Sentence Enhancements to Distinguish between Deterrence and Incapacitation

NBER Working Paper No. w6484
Number of pages: 29 Posted: 11 Jun 2000
Daniel P. Kessler and Steven D. Levitt
Stanford Graduate School of Business and University of Chicago
Downloads 46 (337,307)
Citation 34

Abstract:

8.

Market Distortions When Agents are Better Informed: The Value of Information in Real Estate Transactions

NBER Working Paper No. w11053
Number of pages: 35 Posted: 10 Feb 2005
Steven D. Levitt and Chad Syverson
University of Chicago and University of Chicago Booth School of Business
Downloads 173 (137,575)
Citation 45

Abstract:

9.

Field Experiments in Economics: the Past, the Present, and the Future

NBER Working Paper No. w14356
Number of pages: 59 Posted: 23 Sep 2008
Steven D. Levitt and John A. List
University of Chicago and University of Chicago - Department of Economics
Downloads 165 (141,127)
Citation 22

Abstract:

The Behavioralist Goes to School: Leveraging Behavioral Economics to Improve Educational Performance

ZEW - Centre for European Economic Research Discussion Paper No. 12-038
Number of pages: 46 Posted: 16 Jun 2012
University of Chicago, University of Chicago - Department of Economics, University of Zurich - Department of Economics and University of California, San Diego (UCSD) - Rady School of Management
Downloads 90 (234,267)
Citation 1

Abstract:

The Behavioralist Goes to School: Leveraging Behavioral Economics to Improve Educational Performance

NBER Working Paper No. w18165
Number of pages: 49 Posted: 16 Jun 2012
University of Chicago, University of Chicago - Department of Economics, affiliation not provided to SSRN and University of California, San Diego (UCSD) - Rady School of Management
Downloads 70 (273,326)
Citation 1

Abstract:

11.

The Role of Skill Versus Luck in Poker: Evidence from the World Series of Poker

NBER Working Paper No. w17023
Number of pages: 19 Posted: 09 May 2011
Steven D. Levitt and Thomas J. Miles
University of Chicago and University of Chicago - Law School
Downloads 160 (132,094)

Abstract:

The Effect of Prison Population Size on Crime Rates: Evidence from Prison Overcrowding Litigation

NBER Working Paper No. w5119
Number of pages: 41 Posted: 25 May 2006
Steven D. Levitt
University of Chicago
Downloads 149 (160,187)
Citation 85

Abstract:

Abstract:

13.

Measuring the Impact of Crack Cocaine

NBER Working Paper No. w11318
Number of pages: 65 Posted: 10 Jun 2005
Harvard University - Department of Economics, University of Pennsylvania Law School, University of Chicago and University of Chicago
Downloads 122 (172,227)
Citation 22

Abstract:

14.
Downloads 116 (194,910)

Juvenile Crime and Punishment

NBER Working Paper No. w6191
Number of pages: 42 Posted: 26 Jul 2000
Steven D. Levitt
University of Chicago
Downloads 116 (195,739)
Citation 74

Abstract:

Juvenile Crime and Punishment

Journal of Political Economy, Vol. 106, No. 6, December 1998
Posted: 30 Nov 1998
Steven D. Levitt
University of Chicago

Abstract:

15.

Was There Really a Hawthorne Effect at the Hawthorne Plant? An Analysis of the Original Illumination Experiments

NBER Working Paper No. w15016
Number of pages: 19 Posted: 01 Jun 2009
Steven D. Levitt and John A. List
University of Chicago and University of Chicago - Department of Economics
Downloads 115 (182,983)
Citation 8

Abstract:

16.

The Causes and Consequences of Distinctively Black Names

NBER Working Paper No. w9938
Number of pages: 53 Posted: 05 Sep 2003
Roland G. Fryer Jr. and Steven D. Levitt
Harvard University - Department of Economics and University of Chicago
Downloads 115 (186,428)
Citation 46

Abstract:

17.

The Impact of School Choice on Student Outcomes: An Analysis of the Chicago Public Schools

NBER Working Paper No. w7888
Number of pages: 50 Posted: 11 Sep 2000
Julie Berry Cullen, Brian Jacob and Steven D. Levitt
University of California, San Diego (UCSD) - Department of Economics, Harvard University - Harvard Kennedy School (HKS) and University of Chicago
Downloads 115 (196,148)
Citation 1

Abstract:

18.

Winning Isn't Everything: Corruption in Sumo Wrestling

NBER Working Paper No. w7798
Number of pages: 46 Posted: 19 Jul 2000
Mark Duggan and Steven D. Levitt
University of Maryland - Department of Economics and University of Chicago
Downloads 114 (189,979)
Citation 44

Abstract:

19.

The Effect of School Choice on Student Outcomes: Evidence from Randomized Lotteries

NBER Working Paper No. w10113
Number of pages: 53 Posted: 05 Dec 2003
Julie Berry Cullen, Brian Jacob and Steven D. Levitt
University of California, San Diego (UCSD) - Department of Economics, Harvard University - Harvard Kennedy School (HKS) and University of Chicago
Downloads 113 (192,451)

Abstract:

20.

An Economist Sells Bagels: A Case Study in Profit Maximization

NBER Working Paper No. w12152
Number of pages: 43 Posted: 18 May 2006
Steven D. Levitt
University of Chicago
Downloads 111 (189,979)
Citation 6

Abstract:

21.

Catching Cheating Teachers: The Results of an Unusual Experiment in Implementing Theory

NBER Working Paper No. w9414
Number of pages: 34 Posted: 16 Jan 2003
Brian Jacob and Steven D. Levitt
Harvard University - Harvard Kennedy School (HKS) and University of Chicago
Downloads 108 (202,644)
Citation 6

Abstract:

22.
Downloads 103 (212,462)
Citation 27

The Black-White Test Score Gap Through Third Grade

NBER Working Paper No. w11049
Number of pages: 34 Posted: 10 Feb 2005
Roland G. Fryer Jr. and Steven D. Levitt
Harvard University - Department of Economics and University of Chicago
Downloads 103 (213,591)
Citation 27

Abstract:

The Black-White Test Score Gap Through Third Grade

American Law and Economics Review, Vol. 8, Issue 2, pp. 249-281, 2006
Posted: 29 Feb 2008
Roland G. Fryer Jr. and Steven D. Levitt
Harvard University - Department of Economics and University of Chicago

Abstract:

23.

Hatred and Profits: Getting Under the Hood of the Ku Klux Klan

NBER Working Paper No. w13417
Number of pages: 60 Posted: 18 Sep 2007
Roland G. Fryer Jr. and Steven D. Levitt
Harvard University - Department of Economics and University of Chicago
Downloads 99 (173,262)

Abstract:

24.

Understanding the Black-White Test Score Gap in the First Two Years of School

NBER Working Paper No. w8975
Number of pages: 60 Posted: 07 Jun 2002
Roland G. Fryer Jr. and Steven D. Levitt
Harvard University - Department of Economics and University of Chicago
Downloads 96 (222,876)
Citation 57

Abstract:

Measuring Positive Externalities from Unobservable Victim Precaution: An Empirical Analysis of Lojack

NBER Working Paper No. w5928
Number of pages: 52 Posted: 24 Jul 2000
Ian Ayres and Steven D. Levitt
Yale University - Yale Law School and University of Chicago
Downloads 95 (227,599)
Citation 48

Abstract:

Measuring Positive Externalities from Unobservable Victim Precaution: An Empirical Analysis of Lojack

John M. Olin Center for Law, Economics, and Business, Harvard Law School, Discussion Paper No. 197
Posted: 30 Oct 1996
Ian Ayres and Steven D. Levitt
Yale University - Yale Law School and University of Chicago

Abstract:

Using Electoral Cycles in Police Hiring to Estimate the Effect of Policeon Crime

NBER Working Paper No. w4991
Number of pages: 46 Posted: 11 Jun 2000
Steven D. Levitt
University of Chicago
Downloads 83 (246,770)
Citation 151

Abstract:

Using Electoral Cycles in Police Hiring to Estimate the Effect of Police on Crime

Posted: 11 Jun 1996
Steven D. Levitt
University of Chicago

Abstract:

Why Do Increased Arrest Rates Appear to Reduce Crime: Deterrence, Incapacitation, or Measurement Error?

NBER Working Paper No. w5268
Number of pages: 43 Posted: 10 Jun 2000
Steven D. Levitt
University of Chicago
Downloads 77 (258,359)
Citation 51

Abstract:

Why Do Increased Arrest Rates Appear to Reduce Crime: Deterrence, Incapacitation, or Measurement Error?

John M. Olin Center for Law, Economics, and Business, Harvard Law School, Discussion Paper No. 185
Posted: 08 Aug 1996
Steven D. Levitt
University of Chicago

Abstract:

Why Do Increased Arrest Rates Appear to Reduce Crime: Deterrence, Incapacitation, or Measurement Error?

Economic Inquiry, Vol. 34, No. 3 (1997).
Posted: 28 Jan 1997
Steven D. Levitt
University of Chicago

Abstract:

28.

Professionals Do Not Play Minimax: Evidence from Major League Baseball and the National Football League

NBER Working Paper No. w15347
Number of pages: 36 Posted: 15 Sep 2009
Kenneth Kovash and Steven D. Levitt
affiliation not provided to SSRN and University of Chicago
Downloads 76 (248,336)
Citation 2

Abstract:

29.

An Empirical Analysis of Imprisoning Drug Offenders

NBER Working Paper No. w8489
Number of pages: 37 Posted: 28 Sep 2001
Ilyana Kuziemko and Steven D. Levitt
Harvard University - Department of Economics and University of Chicago
Downloads 69 (266,190)
Citation 19

Abstract:

30.

Rotten Apples: An Investigation of the Prevalence and Predictors of Teacher Cheating

NBER Working Paper No. w9413
Number of pages: 69 Posted: 03 Jan 2003
Brian Jacob and Steven D. Levitt
Harvard University - Harvard Kennedy School (HKS) and University of Chicago
Downloads 64 (274,778)
Citation 98

Abstract:

Crime, Urban Flight, and the Consequences for Cities

NBER Working Paper No. w5737
Number of pages: 46 Posted: 29 Jul 2001
Julie Berry Cullen and Steven D. Levitt
University of California, San Diego (UCSD) - Department of Economics and University of Chicago
Downloads 62 (292,164)

Abstract:

Crime, Urban Flight, and the Consequences for Cities

John M. Olin Center for Law, Economics, and Business, Harvard Law School, Discussion Paper No. 199
Posted: 05 Feb 1997
Julie Berry Cullen and Steven D. Levitt
University of California, San Diego (UCSD) - Department of Economics and University of Chicago

Abstract:

32.

Enhancing the Efficacy of Teacher Incentives Through Loss Aversion: A Field Experiment

NBER Working Paper No. w18237
Number of pages: 36 Posted: 21 Jul 2012
Harvard University - Department of Economics, University of Chicago, University of Chicago - Department of Economics and University of California, San Diego (UCSD) - Rady School of Management
Downloads 50 (298,175)
Citation 2

Abstract:

33.

Checkmate: Exploring Backward Induction Among Chess Players

NBER Working Paper No. w15610
Number of pages: 32 Posted: 28 Dec 2009
Steven D. Levitt, John A. List and Sally Sadoff
University of Chicago, University of Chicago - Department of Economics and University of California, San Diego (UCSD) - Rady School of Management
Downloads 48 (305,926)
Citation 2

Abstract:

34.

Testing for Racial Differences in the Mental Ability of Young Children

NBER Working Paper No. w12066
Number of pages: 43 Posted: 09 May 2006
Roland G. Fryer Jr. and Steven D. Levitt
Harvard University - Department of Economics and University of Chicago
Downloads 46 (314,084)
Citation 8

Abstract:

35.

Sample Selection in the Estimation of Air Bag and Seat Belt Effectiveness

NBER Working Paper No. w7210
Number of pages: 42 Posted: 10 Feb 2000
Steven D. Levitt and Jack Porter
University of Chicago and affiliation not provided to SSRN
Downloads 45 (316,849)
Citation 7

Abstract:

36.

An Empirical Analysis of the Gender Gap in Mathematics

NBER Working Paper No. w15430
Number of pages: 49 Posted: 26 Oct 2009
Roland G. Fryer Jr. and Steven D. Levitt
Harvard University - Department of Economics and University of Chicago
Downloads 43 (316,849)
Citation 9

Abstract:

37.

Testing Theories of Discrimination: Evidence from 'Weakest Link'

NBER Working Paper No. W9449
Number of pages: 35 Posted: 16 Jan 2003
Steven D. Levitt
University of Chicago
Downloads 36 (347,124)
Citation 30

Abstract:

38.

Why are Gambling Markets Organized so Differently from Financial Markets?

Economic Journal, Vol. 114, No. 495, pp. 223-246, April 2004
Number of pages: 24 Posted: 19 May 2004
Steven D. Levitt
University of Chicago
Downloads 35 (367,729)
Citation 23
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Abstract:

39.

Evidence that Seat Belts are as Effective as Child Safety Seats in Preventing Death for Children Aged Two and Up

NBER Working Paper No. w11591
Number of pages: 32 Posted: 25 Oct 2005
Steven D. Levitt
University of Chicago
Downloads 32 (367,729)
Citation 3

Abstract:

40.

Measurement Error, Legalized Abortion, and the Decline in Crime: A Response to Foote and Goetz (2005)

NBER Working Paper No. w11987
Number of pages: 21 Posted: 20 Apr 2006
John J. Donohue III and Steven D. Levitt
Stanford Law School and University of Chicago
Downloads 30 (360,632)
Citation 20

Abstract:

Evaluating the Effectiveness of Child Safety Seats and Seat Belts in Protecting Children from Injury

NBER Working Paper No. w12519
Number of pages: 30 Posted: 19 Sep 2006
Joseph J. Doyle Jr. and Steven D. Levitt
Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) - Economics, Finance, Accounting (EFA) and University of Chicago
Downloads 24 (427,209)

Abstract:

42.

Toward an Understanding of Learning by Doing: Evidence from an Automobile Assembly Plant

NBER Working Paper No. w18017
Number of pages: 51 Posted: 28 Apr 2012
Steven D. Levitt, John A. List and Chad Syverson
University of Chicago, University of Chicago - Department of Economics and University of Chicago Booth School of Business
Downloads 24 (378,948)
Citation 1

Abstract:

43.

What Happens in the Field Stays in the Field: Exploring Whether Professionals Play Minimax in Laboratory Experiments

NBER Working Paper No. w15609
Number of pages: 24 Posted: 28 Dec 2009
Steven D. Levitt, John A. List and David Reiley
University of Chicago, University of Chicago - Department of Economics and Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) - Department of Economics
Downloads 24 (409,641)
Citation 13

Abstract:

The Impact of Federal Spending on House Election Outcomes

NBER Working Paper No. w5002
Number of pages: 34 Posted: 19 Jun 2000
Steven D. Levitt and James M. Snyder Jr.
University of Chicago and Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) - Department of Political Science & Department of Economics
Downloads 23 (432,777)
Citation 48

Abstract:

The Impact of Federal Spending on House Election Outcomes

JOURNAL OF POLITICAL ECONOMY, Vol. 105, No. 1, February 1997
Posted: 11 Feb 1997
Steven D. Levitt and James M. Snyder Jr.
University of Chicago and Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) - Department of Political Science & Department of Economics

Abstract:

45.

The Plight of Mixed Race Adolescents

NBER Working Paper No. w14192
Number of pages: 45 Posted: 04 Aug 2008
Harvard University - Department of Economics, Harvard University, Department of Economics, University of Chicago and Northwestern University - Department of Managerial Economics and Decision Sciences (MEDS)
Downloads 20 (400,179)

Abstract:

46.

Congressional Distributive Politics and State Economic Performance

NBER Working Paper No. w4721
Number of pages: 50 Posted: 01 Aug 2000
Steven D. Levitt and James M. Poterba
University of Chicago and Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) - Department of Economics
Downloads 16 (440,116)
Citation 16

Abstract:

47.

The Economic Impact of Hurricane Katrina on its Victims: Evidence from Individual Tax Returns

NBER Working Paper No. w20713
Number of pages: 47 Posted: 01 Dec 2014
Tatyana Deryugina, Laura Kawano and Steven D. Levitt
University of Illinois, University of Michigan and University of Chicago
Downloads 14 (450,276)
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Abstract:

48.

Parental Incentives and Early Childhood Achievement: A Field Experiment in Chicago Heights

NBER Working Paper No. w21477
Number of pages: 62 Posted: 25 Aug 2015
Roland G. Fryer Jr., Steven D. Levitt and John A. List
Harvard University - Department of Economics, University of Chicago and University of Chicago - Department of Economics
Downloads 4 (419,537)
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Abstract:

49.

Using Big Data to Estimate Consumer Surplus: The Case of Uber

NBER Working Paper No. w22627
Number of pages: 43 Posted: 12 Sep 2016
Uber Technologies Inc., University of Oxford, Smith School, Uber Technologies Inc., University of Chicago and University of Chicago - Becker Friedman Institute for Research in Economics
Downloads 0 (208,148)
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Abstract:

50.

Heads or Tails: The Impact of a Coin Toss on Major Life Decisions and Subsequent Happiness

NBER Working Paper No. w22487
Number of pages: 41 Posted: 08 Aug 2016
Steven D. Levitt
University of Chicago
Downloads 0 (239,229)
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Abstract:

51.

The Effect of Performance-Based Incentives on Educational Achievement: Evidence from a Randomized Experiment

NBER Working Paper No. w22107
Number of pages: 57 Posted: 28 Mar 2016
Steven D. Levitt, John A. List and Sally Sadoff
University of Chicago, University of Chicago - Department of Economics and University of California, San Diego (UCSD) - Rady School of Management
Downloads 0 (486,056)
Citation 1
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Abstract:

52.

A Glimpse into the World of High Capacity Givers: Experimental Evidence from a University Capital Campaign

NBER Working Paper No. w22099
Number of pages: 19 Posted: 21 Mar 2016
Tova Levin, Steven D. Levitt and John A. List
University of Chicago, University of Chicago and University of Chicago - Department of Economics
Downloads 0 (486,056)
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Abstract:

53.

Catching Cheating Students

NBER Working Paper No. w21628
Number of pages: 32 Posted: 12 Oct 2015
Steven D. Levitt and Ming-Jen Lin
University of Chicago and National Taiwan University - Department of Economics
Downloads 0 (434,919)
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Abstract:

54.

How Dangerous Are Drinking Drivers?

Journal of Political Economy, Vol. 109, December 2001
Posted: 06 Dec 2001
Steven D. Levitt and Jack Porter
University of Chicago and affiliation not provided to SSRN

Abstract:

55.

Guns, Violence, and the Efficiency of Illegal Markets

American Economic Review, 1998
Posted: 14 Jul 1998
John J. Donohue III and Steven D. Levitt
Stanford Law School and University of Chicago

Abstract:

56.

Incentive Compatibility Constraints as an Explanation for the Use of Prison Sentences Instead of Fines

John M. Olin Center for Law, Economics, and Business, Harvard Law School, Discussion Paper No. 187
Posted: 16 Oct 1996
Steven D. Levitt
University of Chicago

Abstract: