Tom W. Bell

Chapman University, The Dale E. Fowler School of Law

Professor

One University Drive

Orange, CA 92866-1099

United States

http://www.tomwbell.com

SCHOLARLY PAPERS

41

DOWNLOADS
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9,244

SSRN CITATIONS
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Top 28,409

in Total Papers Citations

16

CROSSREF CITATIONS

15

Scholarly Papers (41)

1.

Special Economic Zones in the United States: From Colonial Charters, to Foreign-Trade Zones, Toward USSEZs

Buffalo Law Review Vol. 64, No. 5 (2016)
Number of pages: 49 Posted: 08 Mar 2016 Last Revised: 26 Jan 2017
Tom W. Bell
Chapman University, The Dale E. Fowler School of Law
Downloads 1,327 (22,339)
Citation 1

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special economic zone, SEZ, foreign-trade zone, FTZ, economic development, international trade, taxes, public policy, federalism, federal lands, customs, duties, polycentric law

2.

Copyrights, Privacy, and the Blockchain

Ohio North University Law Review, Vol. 42, 2016, Chapman University, Fowler Law Research Paper No. 16-09
Number of pages: 33 Posted: 30 Jul 2016
Tom W. Bell
Chapman University, The Dale E. Fowler School of Law
Downloads 763 (48,812)
Citation 1

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privacy, copyright, block chain, encryption, anonymity, and pseudonymity

3.

The Constitution as if Consent Mattered

16 Chapman L. Rev. 269
Number of pages: 24 Posted: 30 Jan 2013 Last Revised: 24 Feb 2014
Tom W. Bell
Chapman University, The Dale E. Fowler School of Law
Downloads 732 (51,643)

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Constitution, consent, libertarian, originalism, living constitutionalism

4.

'Property' in the Constitution: The View from the Third Amendment

William & Mary Bill of Rights, Vol. 20, 2012, Chapman University Law Research Paper No. 11-29
Number of pages: 34 Posted: 16 Oct 2011 Last Revised: 18 Aug 2012
Tom W. Bell
Chapman University, The Dale E. Fowler School of Law
Downloads 566 (71,890)

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Third Amendment, quartering, property, Takings Clause, takings, property, constitution

5.

Copyright as Intellectual Property Privilege

Syracuse Law Review, Vol. 58, 2007, Chapman University Law Research Paper No. 08-37
Number of pages: 24 Posted: 23 Oct 2007 Last Revised: 06 Sep 2012
Tom W. Bell
Chapman University, The Dale E. Fowler School of Law
Downloads 460 (92,570)
Citation 2

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copyright, property theory, privilege theory

6.

Prediction Markets for Promoting the Progress of Science and the Useful Arts

George Mason Law Review, Vol. 14, p. 37, 2006
Number of pages: 56 Posted: 23 Aug 2006 Last Revised: 03 Aug 2014
Tom W. Bell
Chapman University, The Dale E. Fowler School of Law
Downloads 405 (107,306)
Citation 2

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prediction markets, information markets, decision markets patents, copyrights

7.

Pornography, Privacy, and Digital Self-Help

Pornography, Privacy, and Digital Self-Help, 19 J. Marshall J. Computer & Info. L. 133 (2000)
Number of pages: 19 Posted: 15 Feb 2001 Last Revised: 29 Mar 2016
Tom W. Bell
Chapman University, The Dale E. Fowler School of Law
Downloads 391 (111,734)

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8.

Private Prediction Markets and the Law

3 Journal of Prediction Markets (2009)
Number of pages: 22 Posted: 18 May 2008 Last Revised: 21 Nov 2014
Tom W. Bell
Chapman University, The Dale E. Fowler School of Law
Downloads 389 (112,387)

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prediction market, private prediction market, idea futures, gambling, commodity futures, CFTC, securities

9.

The Scale of Consent

Chapman University Law Research Paper No. 09-01
Number of pages: 21 Posted: 13 Feb 2009
Tom W. Bell
Chapman University, The Dale E. Fowler School of Law
Downloads 333 (133,457)
Citation 1

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consent, consent theory, scale of consent, graduated consent, unconsent, express consent, implied consent, hypothetical consent, justification, contracts, torts

Treason, Technology, and Freedom of Expression

Number of pages: 38 Posted: 16 Apr 2005
Tom W. Bell
Chapman University, The Dale E. Fowler School of Law
Downloads 168 (257,061)

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Treason, technology, freedom of expression, freedom of speech, freedom of the press, First Amendment, blogging

Treason, Technology, and Freedom of Expression

Arizona State Law Journal, Vol. 37, p. 999, 2005
Number of pages: 47 Posted: 12 Oct 2006
Tom W. Bell
Chapman University, The Dale E. Fowler School of Law
Downloads 137 (303,864)

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Treason, technology, freedom of expression, freedom of speech, freedom of the press, First Amendment, blogging

11.

Authors' Welfare: Copyright as a Statutory Mechanism for Redistributing Rights

Number of pages: 44 Posted: 02 Feb 2004
Tom W. Bell
Chapman University, The Dale E. Fowler School of Law
Downloads 297 (150,476)

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Copyright, social welfare, redistribution, market failure, public policy

12.

Graduated Consent Theory, Explained and Applied

Chapman University Law Research Paper No. 09-13
Number of pages: 63 Posted: 12 Mar 2009
Tom W. Bell
Chapman University, The Dale E. Fowler School of Law
Downloads 261 (171,628)
Citation 1

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consent, consent theory, scale of consent, graduated consent, unconsent, express consent, implied consent, hypothetical consent, justification, contracts, torts, constitutional interpretation, constitutional construction, citizen courts

13.

Escape from Copyright: Market Success vs. Statutory Failure in the Protection of Expressive Works

University of Cincinnati Law Review, Vol. 69, 2001
Number of pages: 65 Posted: 22 Apr 2002 Last Revised: 27 Jan 2014
Tom W. Bell
Chapman University, The Dale E. Fowler School of Law
Downloads 258 (174,253)
Citation 4

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Escape from Copyright, copyright, market success, statutory failure, expressive works, intellectual property, preemption

14.

Graduated Consent in Contract and Tort Law: Toward a Theory of Justification

Case Western Reserve Law Review, Vol. 61, No. 1, 2011
Number of pages: 68 Posted: 27 Feb 2012 Last Revised: 25 Jan 2017
Tom W. Bell
Chapman University, The Dale E. Fowler School of Law
Downloads 242 (184,734)

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consent, justification, tort, contract, graduated, consent theory

15.

The Specter of Copyism v. Blockheaded Authors: How User-Generated Content Affects Copyright Policy

10 Vanderbilt Journal of Entertainment & Technology Law 841 (2008)
Number of pages: 21 Posted: 06 Feb 2008 Last Revised: 21 Nov 2014
Tom W. Bell
Chapman University, The Dale E. Fowler School of Law
Downloads 228 (195,562)
Citation 1

Abstract:

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copyright, user-generated content

16.

Codifying Copyright's Misuse Defense

Utah Law Review, p. 573, 2007
Number of pages: 14 Posted: 03 May 2007 Last Revised: 15 Apr 2008
Tom W. Bell
Chapman University, The Dale E. Fowler School of Law
Downloads 225 (198,032)

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copyright, misuse, codification, fair use

17.

Gambling for the Good, Trading for the Future: The Legality of Markets in Science Claims

Chapman Law Review, Vol. 5, p. 159, 2002
Number of pages: 22 Posted: 17 Dec 2006
Tom W. Bell
Chapman University, The Dale E. Fowler School of Law
Downloads 185 (236,467)

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prediction market, prediction exchange, idea futures, science claims, gambling, commodity futures, CFTC

18.

The Third Amendment: Forgotten but Not Gone

William & Mary Bill of Rights, Vol. 2, Issue 1, 1993
Number of pages: 35 Posted: 20 Oct 2011
Tom W. Bell
Chapman University, The Dale E. Fowler School of Law
Downloads 178 (244,468)

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Third Amendment, Quartering, BIll of Rights, Purveyance, Soldiers, Takings

19.

Free Speech, Strict Scrutiny, and Self-Help: How Technology Upgrades Constitutional Jurisprudence

Number of pages: 36 Posted: 03 Sep 2003
Tom W. Bell
Chapman University, The Dale E. Fowler School of Law
Downloads 159 (268,842)

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free speech, strict scrutiny, self-help, first amendment

20.

Government Prediction Markets: Why, Who, and How

Penn State Law Review, Vol. 116, No. 2, 2011
Number of pages: 34 Posted: 22 Apr 2011 Last Revised: 21 Nov 2014
Tom W. Bell
Chapman University, The Dale E. Fowler School of Law
Downloads 142 (294,478)

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markets, prediction markets, executive branch, gambling, commodities futures trading, securities

21.

Indelicate Imbalancing in Copyright and Patent Law

COPY FIGHTS: THE FUTURE OF INTELLECTUAL PROPERTY IN THE INFORMATION AGE AT 1, Adam Thierer, Wayne Crews, eds., Cato Institute, 2002
Number of pages: 16 Posted: 04 May 2007
Tom W. Bell
Chapman University, The Dale E. Fowler School of Law
Downloads 139 (299,459)

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22.

Principles of Contracts for Governing Services

21 Griffith L. Rev. 472 (2012)
Number of pages: 27 Posted: 22 May 2013 Last Revised: 20 Jun 2015
Tom W. Bell
Chapman University, The Dale E. Fowler School of Law
Downloads 137 (302,861)

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governing services, free cities, charter cities

23.

Ulex: Open Source Law for Non-Territorial Governance

Ulex: Open Source Law for Non-Territorial Governance, 1 J. SPECIAL JURISDICTIONS 1 (2020)
Number of pages: 22 Posted: 15 Jun 2020
Tom W. Bell
Chapman University, The Dale E. Fowler School of Law
Downloads 131 (313,375)

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Non-Territorial Governance, Ulex, Open Source, Blockchain, Distributed Protocol, Private Law, Polycentric Law

24.

Special International Zones in Practice and Theory

Chapman Law Review, Vol. 21, 2018
Number of pages: 30 Posted: 19 Nov 2018
Tom W. Bell
Chapman University, The Dale E. Fowler School of Law
Downloads 127 (320,642)

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Special International Zones, SIZ, Trade, Immigration, Pre-Asylum, International Transit Zones, Duty-Free, Special Economic Zone, SEZ, Foreign Law

25.

Copyright Porn Trolls, Wasting Taxi Medallions, and the Propriety of 'Property'

Chapman Law Review, Vol. 18, 2015, Forthcoming, Chapman University, Fowler Law Research Paper No. 14-12
Number of pages: 15 Posted: 20 Nov 2014
Tom W. Bell
Chapman University, The Dale E. Fowler School of Law
Downloads 105 (366,471)

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copyright, property, troll, taxi medallion, file sharing

26.

What Can Corporations Teach Governments About Democratic Equality?

31 Social Philosophy & Policy 230 (2015), Chapman University, Fowler Law Research Paper No. 15-08
Number of pages: 23 Posted: 24 Jul 2015 Last Revised: 21 Aug 2015
Tom W. Bell
Chapman University, The Dale E. Fowler School of Law
Downloads 100 (378,523)

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democracy, equality, common interest community, homeowner association, residential co-op, startup city

27.
Downloads 98 (383,465)

The Common Law in Cyberspace

Michigan Law Review, Vol. 97, p. 1746, 1999
Number of pages: 25 Posted: 16 Aug 2006
Tom W. Bell
Chapman University, The Dale E. Fowler School of Law
Downloads 98 (386,378)

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common law, cyberspace, Huber, antitrust, interconnection, spectrum reform, copyright

The Common Law in Cyberspace

Posted: 22 Nov 1999
Tom W. Bell
Chapman University, The Dale E. Fowler School of Law

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28.

The Impact of Blogging on the Practice of Law: Hit the Snooze Button

Nexus Law Journal, Vol. 11, p. 75, 2006
Number of pages: 4 Posted: 08 Aug 2006
Tom W. Bell
Chapman University, The Dale E. Fowler School of Law
Downloads 95 (391,026)
Citation 1

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blogging, practice of law, ethics, professional responsibility

29.

Internet Privacy and Self-Regulation: Lessons from the Porn Wars

Cato Institute Briefing Paper No. 65
Number of pages: 14 Posted: 29 Jul 2015
Tom W. Bell
Chapman University, The Dale E. Fowler School of Law
Downloads 70 (467,311)

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Privacy, internet, regulation, pornography, porn wars, speech, civil liberties

30.

Misunderestimating Dastar: How the Supreme Court Unwittingly Revolutionized Copyright Preemption

Maryland Law Review, Vol. 65, No. 1, 2006
Number of pages: 41 Posted: 12 Jul 2013
Tom W. Bell
Chapman University, The Dale E. Fowler School of Law
Downloads 67 (478,080)
Citation 1

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copyright, preemption, Dastar, Lanham Act

31.

Unconstitutional Quartering, Governmental Immunity, and Van Halen's Brown M&M Test

Tennessee Law Review, Vol. 82, 2015, Chapman University, Fowler Law Research Paper No. 15-21
Number of pages: 40 Posted: 04 Dec 2015 Last Revised: 23 Jul 2020
Tom W. Bell
Chapman University, The Dale E. Fowler School of Law
Downloads 55 (526,128)

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Third Amendment, quartering, governmental immunity, sovereign immunity, qualified sovereign immunity

32.

Virtual Trade Dress: A Very Real Problem

Maryland Law Review, Vol. 56, 1997
Number of pages: 54 Posted: 29 Jul 2015
Tom W. Bell
Chapman University, The Dale E. Fowler School of Law
Downloads 55 (526,128)

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Trade dress, virtual trade dress, intellectual property, rights in services, trademark, Lanham Act

33.

Pirates in the Family Room: How Performances from Abroad, to U.S. Consumers, Might Evade Copyright Law

18 Southwestern Journal International Law 245 (2011)
Number of pages: 8 Posted: 23 Apr 2011 Last Revised: 10 Oct 2012
Tom W. Bell
Chapman University, The Dale E. Fowler School of Law
Downloads 54 (530,392)

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copyright, performances, cross-border transmissions, piracy, bandwidth

34.

Common Law Zones: An Illustrated Review

2 Journal of Special Jurisdictions 57 (2021)
Number of pages: 50 Posted: 28 Jun 2022
Tom W. Bell
Chapman University, The Dale E. Fowler School of Law
Downloads 43 (582,849)

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special jurisdiction, special economic zone, SEZ, private adjudication, common law, DIFC, ADGM, ZEDE, Próspera

35.

Internet Gambling: Popular, Inexorable, and (Eventually) Legal

Policy Analysis, No. 336, 1999
Number of pages: 26 Posted: 29 Jul 2015
Tom W. Bell
Chapman University, The Dale E. Fowler School of Law
Downloads 34 (633,607)

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Internet, gambling, regulation

36.

Five Reforms for Copyright

Originally published in Copyright Unbalanced: From Incentive to Excess, edited by Jerry Brito (Mercatus Center at George Mason University) (2012)
Number of pages: 26 Posted: 19 May 2021
Tom W. Bell
Chapman University, The Dale E. Fowler School of Law
Downloads 33 (639,781)

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copyright reform, Copyright Act, intellectual property, intellectual privilege, Berne Convention, misuse doctrine, common law

37.

Outgrowing Copyright: The Effect of Market Size on Copyright Policy

Chapman University, Fowler Law Research Paper
Number of pages: 29 Posted: 29 Jul 2015
Tom W. Bell
Chapman University, The Dale E. Fowler School of Law
Downloads 28 (673,463)

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Intellectual property, copyright, policy, technology

38.

Distributed Self-Government in Protocol Communities: An Introduction and Index of Examples

Independent Review, 25(2), 293–317
Number of pages: 25 Posted: 21 Mar 2022
Tom W. Bell
Chapman University, The Dale E. Fowler School of Law
Downloads 13 (799,579)

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blockchain, cryptocurrency, governance, decentralization, distributed protocol

39.

Commentary on Predicting Crime

Arizona Law Review, Vol. 52, 2010
Number of pages: 9 Posted: 29 Jul 2015
Tom W. Bell
Chapman University, The Dale E. Fowler School of Law
Downloads 13 (799,579)

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Prediction markets, regulation, First Amendment, crime rates

40.

The Catawba Digital Economic Zone: A Native American SEZ

3 J. Special Jurisdictions 25 (2022)
Number of pages: 23
Tom W. Bell
Chapman University, The Dale E. Fowler School of Law
Downloads 1

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Special jurisdiction; special economic zone; SEZ; American Indian; Native American; Catawba; digital commerce; fintech; cryptocurrency; blockchain

41.

Fair Use Vs. Fared Use: The Impact of Automated Rights Management on Copyright's Fair Use Doctrine

Posted: 10 Dec 1996
Tom W. Bell
Chapman University, The Dale E. Fowler School of Law

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