Tom W. Bell

Chapman University, The Dale E. Fowler School of Law

Professor

One University Drive

Orange, CA 92866-1099

United States

http://www.tomwbell.com

SCHOLARLY PAPERS

43

DOWNLOADS
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Top 7,892

in Total Papers Downloads

10,396

SSRN CITATIONS
Rank 31,180

SSRN RANKINGS

Top 31,180

in Total Papers Citations

18

CROSSREF CITATIONS

15

Scholarly Papers (43)

1.

Special Economic Zones in the United States: From Colonial Charters, to Foreign-Trade Zones, Toward USSEZs

Buffalo Law Review Vol. 64, No. 5 (2016)
Number of pages: 49 Posted: 08 Mar 2016 Last Revised: 26 Jan 2017
Tom W. Bell
Chapman University, The Dale E. Fowler School of Law
Downloads 1,579 (21,106)
Citation 1

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special economic zone, SEZ, foreign-trade zone, FTZ, economic development, international trade, taxes, public policy, federalism, federal lands, customs, duties, polycentric law

2.

Copyrights, Privacy, and the Blockchain

Ohio North University Law Review, Vol. 42, 2016, Chapman University, Fowler Law Research Paper No. 16-09
Number of pages: 33 Posted: 30 Jul 2016
Tom W. Bell
Chapman University, The Dale E. Fowler School of Law
Downloads 805 (55,615)
Citation 1

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privacy, copyright, block chain, encryption, anonymity, and pseudonymity

3.

The Constitution as if Consent Mattered

16 Chapman L. Rev. 269
Number of pages: 24 Posted: 30 Jan 2013 Last Revised: 24 Feb 2014
Tom W. Bell
Chapman University, The Dale E. Fowler School of Law
Downloads 746 (61,639)

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Constitution, consent, libertarian, originalism, living constitutionalism

4.

'Property' in the Constitution: The View from the Third Amendment

William & Mary Bill of Rights, Vol. 20, 2012, Chapman University Law Research Paper No. 11-29
Number of pages: 34 Posted: 16 Oct 2011 Last Revised: 18 Aug 2012
Tom W. Bell
Chapman University, The Dale E. Fowler School of Law
Downloads 591 (82,872)

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Third Amendment, quartering, property, Takings Clause, takings, property, constitution

5.

Copyright as Intellectual Property Privilege

Syracuse Law Review, Vol. 58, 2007, Chapman University Law Research Paper No. 08-37
Number of pages: 24 Posted: 23 Oct 2007 Last Revised: 06 Sep 2012
Tom W. Bell
Chapman University, The Dale E. Fowler School of Law
Downloads 483 (106,547)
Citation 2

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copyright, property theory, privilege theory

6.

Prediction Markets for Promoting the Progress of Science and the Useful Arts

George Mason Law Review, Vol. 14, p. 37, 2006
Number of pages: 56 Posted: 23 Aug 2006 Last Revised: 03 Aug 2014
Tom W. Bell
Chapman University, The Dale E. Fowler School of Law
Downloads 421 (125,187)
Citation 2

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prediction markets, information markets, decision markets patents, copyrights

7.

Private Prediction Markets and the Law

3 Journal of Prediction Markets (2009)
Number of pages: 22 Posted: 18 May 2008 Last Revised: 21 Nov 2014
Tom W. Bell
Chapman University, The Dale E. Fowler School of Law
Downloads 407 (130,173)

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prediction market, private prediction market, idea futures, gambling, commodity futures, CFTC, securities

8.

Pornography, Privacy, and Digital Self-Help

Pornography, Privacy, and Digital Self-Help, 19 J. Marshall J. Computer & Info. L. 133 (2000)
Number of pages: 19 Posted: 15 Feb 2001 Last Revised: 29 Mar 2016
Tom W. Bell
Chapman University, The Dale E. Fowler School of Law
Downloads 405 (130,913)

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9.

The Scale of Consent

Chapman University Law Research Paper No. 09-01
Number of pages: 21 Posted: 13 Feb 2009
Tom W. Bell
Chapman University, The Dale E. Fowler School of Law
Downloads 352 (152,996)
Citation 1

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consent, consent theory, scale of consent, graduated consent, unconsent, express consent, implied consent, hypothetical consent, justification, contracts, torts

Treason, Technology, and Freedom of Expression

Number of pages: 38 Posted: 16 Apr 2005
Tom W. Bell
Chapman University, The Dale E. Fowler School of Law
Downloads 189 (283,281)

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Treason, technology, freedom of expression, freedom of speech, freedom of the press, First Amendment, blogging

Treason, Technology, and Freedom of Expression

Arizona State Law Journal, Vol. 37, p. 999, 2005
Number of pages: 47 Posted: 12 Oct 2006
Tom W. Bell
Chapman University, The Dale E. Fowler School of Law
Downloads 155 (337,263)

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Treason, technology, freedom of expression, freedom of speech, freedom of the press, First Amendment, blogging

11.

Authors' Welfare: Copyright as a Statutory Mechanism for Redistributing Rights

Number of pages: 44 Posted: 02 Feb 2004
Tom W. Bell
Chapman University, The Dale E. Fowler School of Law
Downloads 304 (179,004)

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Copyright, social welfare, redistribution, market failure, public policy

12.

Graduated Consent Theory, Explained and Applied

Chapman University Law Research Paper No. 09-13
Number of pages: 63 Posted: 12 Mar 2009
Tom W. Bell
Chapman University, The Dale E. Fowler School of Law
Downloads 284 (192,139)
Citation 1

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consent, consent theory, scale of consent, graduated consent, unconsent, express consent, implied consent, hypothetical consent, justification, contracts, torts, constitutional interpretation, constitutional construction, citizen courts

13.

Escape from Copyright: Market Success vs. Statutory Failure in the Protection of Expressive Works

University of Cincinnati Law Review, Vol. 69, 2001
Number of pages: 65 Posted: 22 Apr 2002 Last Revised: 27 Jan 2014
Tom W. Bell
Chapman University, The Dale E. Fowler School of Law
Downloads 270 (202,299)
Citation 4

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Escape from Copyright, copyright, market success, statutory failure, expressive works, intellectual property, preemption

14.

Graduated Consent in Contract and Tort Law: Toward a Theory of Justification

Case Western Reserve Law Review, Vol. 61, No. 1, 2011
Number of pages: 68 Posted: 27 Feb 2012 Last Revised: 25 Jan 2017
Tom W. Bell
Chapman University, The Dale E. Fowler School of Law
Downloads 266 (205,284)

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consent, justification, tort, contract, graduated, consent theory

15.

The Specter of Copyism v. Blockheaded Authors: How User-Generated Content Affects Copyright Policy

10 Vanderbilt Journal of Entertainment & Technology Law 841 (2008)
Number of pages: 21 Posted: 06 Feb 2008 Last Revised: 21 Nov 2014
Tom W. Bell
Chapman University, The Dale E. Fowler School of Law
Downloads 239 (228,285)
Citation 1

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copyright, user-generated content

16.

Codifying Copyright's Misuse Defense

Utah Law Review, p. 573, 2007
Number of pages: 14 Posted: 03 May 2007 Last Revised: 15 Apr 2008
Tom W. Bell
Chapman University, The Dale E. Fowler School of Law
Downloads 233 (233,976)

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copyright, misuse, codification, fair use

17.

Ulex: Open Source Law for Non-Territorial Governance

Ulex: Open Source Law for Non-Territorial Governance, 1 J. SPECIAL JURISDICTIONS 1 (2020)
Number of pages: 22 Posted: 15 Jun 2020
Tom W. Bell
Chapman University, The Dale E. Fowler School of Law
Downloads 193 (281,158)

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Non-Territorial Governance, Ulex, Open Source, Blockchain, Distributed Protocol, Private Law, Polycentric Law

18.

The Third Amendment: Forgotten but Not Gone

William & Mary Bill of Rights, Vol. 2, Issue 1, 1993
Number of pages: 35 Posted: 20 Oct 2011
Tom W. Bell
Chapman University, The Dale E. Fowler School of Law
Downloads 193 (278,603)

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Third Amendment, Quartering, BIll of Rights, Purveyance, Soldiers, Takings

19.

Gambling for the Good, Trading for the Future: The Legality of Markets in Science Claims

Chapman Law Review, Vol. 5, p. 159, 2002
Number of pages: 22 Posted: 17 Dec 2006
Tom W. Bell
Chapman University, The Dale E. Fowler School of Law
Downloads 190 (282,459)

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prediction market, prediction exchange, idea futures, science claims, gambling, commodity futures, CFTC

20.

The Catawba Digital Economic Zone: A Native American SEZ

3 J. Special Jurisdictions 25 (2022)
Number of pages: 23 Posted: 13 Dec 2022
Tom W. Bell
Chapman University, The Dale E. Fowler School of Law
Downloads 182 (293,557)

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Special jurisdiction; special economic zone; SEZ; American Indian; Native American; Catawba; digital commerce; fintech; cryptocurrency; blockchain

21.

Free Speech, Strict Scrutiny, and Self-Help: How Technology Upgrades Constitutional Jurisprudence

Number of pages: 36 Posted: 03 Sep 2003
Tom W. Bell
Chapman University, The Dale E. Fowler School of Law
Downloads 167 (316,353)

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free speech, strict scrutiny, self-help, first amendment

22.

Indelicate Imbalancing in Copyright and Patent Law

COPY FIGHTS: THE FUTURE OF INTELLECTUAL PROPERTY IN THE INFORMATION AGE AT 1, Adam Thierer, Wayne Crews, eds., Cato Institute, 2002
Number of pages: 16 Posted: 04 May 2007
Tom W. Bell
Chapman University, The Dale E. Fowler School of Law
Downloads 158 (331,667)

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23.

Government Prediction Markets: Why, Who, and How

Penn State Law Review, Vol. 116, No. 2, 2011
Number of pages: 34 Posted: 22 Apr 2011 Last Revised: 21 Nov 2014
Tom W. Bell
Chapman University, The Dale E. Fowler School of Law
Downloads 157 (333,429)

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markets, prediction markets, executive branch, gambling, commodities futures trading, securities

24.

Principles of Contracts for Governing Services

21 Griffith L. Rev. 472 (2012)
Number of pages: 27 Posted: 22 May 2013 Last Revised: 20 Jun 2015
Tom W. Bell
Chapman University, The Dale E. Fowler School of Law
Downloads 155 (337,074)

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governing services, free cities, charter cities

25.

Special International Zones in Practice and Theory

Chapman Law Review, Vol. 21, 2018
Number of pages: 30 Posted: 19 Nov 2018
Tom W. Bell
Chapman University, The Dale E. Fowler School of Law
Downloads 150 (346,156)

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Special International Zones, SIZ, Trade, Immigration, Pre-Asylum, International Transit Zones, Duty-Free, Special Economic Zone, SEZ, Foreign Law

26.

Copyright Porn Trolls, Wasting Taxi Medallions, and the Propriety of 'Property'

Chapman Law Review, Vol. 18, 2015, Forthcoming, Chapman University, Fowler Law Research Paper No. 14-12
Number of pages: 15 Posted: 20 Nov 2014
Tom W. Bell
Chapman University, The Dale E. Fowler School of Law
Downloads 118 (416,826)

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copyright, property, troll, taxi medallion, file sharing

27.

What Can Corporations Teach Governments About Democratic Equality?

31 Social Philosophy & Policy 230 (2015), Chapman University, Fowler Law Research Paper No. 15-08
Number of pages: 23 Posted: 24 Jul 2015 Last Revised: 21 Aug 2015
Tom W. Bell
Chapman University, The Dale E. Fowler School of Law
Downloads 113 (430,371)

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democracy, equality, common interest community, homeowner association, residential co-op, startup city

28.
Downloads 107 (447,792)

The Common Law in Cyberspace

Michigan Law Review, Vol. 97, p. 1746, 1999
Number of pages: 25 Posted: 16 Aug 2006
Tom W. Bell
Chapman University, The Dale E. Fowler School of Law
Downloads 107 (450,399)

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common law, cyberspace, Huber, antitrust, interconnection, spectrum reform, copyright

The Common Law in Cyberspace

Posted: 22 Nov 1999
Tom W. Bell
Chapman University, The Dale E. Fowler School of Law

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29.

The Impact of Blogging on the Practice of Law: Hit the Snooze Button

Nexus Law Journal, Vol. 11, p. 75, 2006
Number of pages: 4 Posted: 08 Aug 2006
Tom W. Bell
Chapman University, The Dale E. Fowler School of Law
Downloads 103 (463,415)
Citation 1

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blogging, practice of law, ethics, professional responsibility

30.

Common Law Zones: An Illustrated Review

1:2 Journal of Special Jurisdictions 57 (2021)
Number of pages: 50 Posted: 28 Jun 2022 Last Revised: 24 Jul 2023
Tom W. Bell
Chapman University, The Dale E. Fowler School of Law
Downloads 87 (513,807)

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special jurisdiction, special economic zone, SEZ, private adjudication, common law, DIFC, ADGM, ZEDE, Próspera

31.

Internet Privacy and Self-Regulation: Lessons from the Porn Wars

Cato Institute Briefing Paper No. 65
Number of pages: 14 Posted: 29 Jul 2015
Tom W. Bell
Chapman University, The Dale E. Fowler School of Law
Downloads 85 (521,195)

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Privacy, internet, regulation, pornography, porn wars, speech, civil liberties

32.

Misunderestimating Dastar: How the Supreme Court Unwittingly Revolutionized Copyright Preemption

Maryland Law Review, Vol. 65, No. 1, 2006
Number of pages: 41 Posted: 12 Jul 2013
Tom W. Bell
Chapman University, The Dale E. Fowler School of Law
Downloads 78 (548,585)
Citation 1

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copyright, preemption, Dastar, Lanham Act

33.

Virtual Trade Dress: A Very Real Problem

Maryland Law Review, Vol. 56, 1997
Number of pages: 54 Posted: 29 Jul 2015
Tom W. Bell
Chapman University, The Dale E. Fowler School of Law
Downloads 65 (605,538)

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Trade dress, virtual trade dress, intellectual property, rights in services, trademark, Lanham Act

34.

Unconstitutional Quartering, Governmental Immunity, and Van Halen's Brown M&M Test

Tennessee Law Review, Vol. 82, 2015, Chapman University, Fowler Law Research Paper No. 15-21
Number of pages: 40 Posted: 04 Dec 2015 Last Revised: 23 Jul 2020
Tom W. Bell
Chapman University, The Dale E. Fowler School of Law
Downloads 64 (610,386)

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Third Amendment, quartering, governmental immunity, sovereign immunity, qualified sovereign immunity

35.

Pirates in the Family Room: How Performances from Abroad, to U.S. Consumers, Might Evade Copyright Law

18 Southwestern Journal International Law 245 (2011)
Number of pages: 8 Posted: 23 Apr 2011 Last Revised: 10 Oct 2012
Tom W. Bell
Chapman University, The Dale E. Fowler School of Law
Downloads 62 (620,269)

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copyright, performances, cross-border transmissions, piracy, bandwidth

36.

Fintech Regulation in the Catawba Digital Economic Zone

Chapman Law Review, Vol. 26, No. 2, 2023
Number of pages: 26 Posted: 26 Jul 2023
Tom W. Bell
Chapman University, The Dale E. Fowler School of Law
Downloads 57 (646,331)

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special jurisdiction, special economic zone, SEZ, fintech, blockchain, digital assets, cryptocurrencies, UCC Article 12, Catawba, CDEZ, Native American, American Indian

37.

Internet Gambling: Popular, Inexorable, and (Eventually) Legal

Policy Analysis, No. 336, 1999
Number of pages: 26 Posted: 29 Jul 2015
Tom W. Bell
Chapman University, The Dale E. Fowler School of Law
Downloads 52 (674,047)

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Internet, gambling, regulation

38.

Five Reforms for Copyright

Originally published in Copyright Unbalanced: From Incentive to Excess, edited by Jerry Brito (Mercatus Center at George Mason University) (2012)
Number of pages: 26 Posted: 19 May 2021
Tom W. Bell
Chapman University, The Dale E. Fowler School of Law
Downloads 44 (723,116)

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copyright reform, Copyright Act, intellectual property, intellectual privilege, Berne Convention, misuse doctrine, common law

39.

Outgrowing Copyright: The Effect of Market Size on Copyright Policy

Chapman University, Fowler Law Research Paper
Number of pages: 29 Posted: 29 Jul 2015
Tom W. Bell
Chapman University, The Dale E. Fowler School of Law
Downloads 37 (771,400)

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Intellectual property, copyright, policy, technology

40.

Distributed Self-Government in Protocol Communities: An Introduction and Index of Examples

Independent Review, 25(2), 293–317
Number of pages: 25 Posted: 21 Mar 2022
Tom W. Bell
Chapman University, The Dale E. Fowler School of Law
Downloads 24 (876,854)

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blockchain, cryptocurrency, governance, decentralization, distributed protocol

41.

Commentary on Predicting Crime

Arizona Law Review, Vol. 52, 2010
Number of pages: 9 Posted: 29 Jul 2015
Tom W. Bell
Chapman University, The Dale E. Fowler School of Law
Downloads 24 (876,854)

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Prediction markets, regulation, First Amendment, crime rates

42.

Special Jurisdictions as Laboratories for Governance

4 Journal of Special Jurisdictions 1 (2024)
Number of pages: 21 Posted: 20 Feb 2024
Tom W. Bell
Chapman University, The Dale E. Fowler School of Law
Downloads 2 (1,078,080)

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special jurisdiction, special economic zones, SEZs, competitive governance, experimental science, political science, fintech

43.

Fair Use Vs. Fared Use: The Impact of Automated Rights Management on Copyright's Fair Use Doctrine

Posted: 10 Dec 1996
Tom W. Bell
Chapman University, The Dale E. Fowler School of Law

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