Richard Heeks

University of Manchester

Oxford Road

Manchester, N/A M13 9PL

United Kingdom

SCHOLARLY PAPERS

75

DOWNLOADS
Rank 2,132

SSRN RANKINGS

Top 2,132

in Total Papers Downloads

21,603

SSRN CITATIONS
Rank 13,815

SSRN RANKINGS

Top 13,815

in Total Papers Citations

61

CROSSREF CITATIONS

23

Scholarly Papers (75)

1.

Defining, Conceptualising and Measuring the Digital Economy

Development Informatics Working Paper no. 68
Number of pages: 26 Posted: 07 Aug 2019
Rumana Bukht and Richard Heeks
University of Manchester - Alliance Manchester Business School and University of Manchester
Downloads 7,882 (1,107)
Citation 87

Abstract:

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2.

Understanding e-Governance for Development

iGovernment Working Paper no. 11
Number of pages: 27 Posted: 16 Mar 2020
Richard Heeks
University of Manchester
Downloads 1,980 (11,373)
Citation 93

Abstract:

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3.

Decent Work and the Digital Gig Economy: A Developing Country Perspective on Employment Impacts and Standards in Online Outsourcing, Crowdwork, Etc

Development Informatics Working Paper no. 71, 2017
Number of pages: 82 Posted: 06 Aug 2019
Richard Heeks
University of Manchester
Downloads 1,955 (11,582)
Citation 20

Abstract:

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4.

Information and Communication Technologies, Poverty and Development

Development Informatics Working Paper no. 5
Number of pages: 21 Posted: 09 Nov 2019
Richard Heeks
University of Manchester
Downloads 1,434 (18,728)
Citation 59

Abstract:

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5.

Digital Economy and Digital Labour Terminology: Making Sense of the 'Gig Economy', 'Online Labour', 'Crowd Work', 'Microwork', 'Platform Labour', Etc.

Development Informatics Working Paper no. 70
Number of pages: 17 Posted: 07 Aug 2019
Richard Heeks
University of Manchester
Downloads 856 (39,517)
Citation 5

Abstract:

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6.

Inclusive Innovation: Definition, Conceptualisation and Future Research Priorities

Development Informatics Working Paper no. 53, 2013
Number of pages: 30 Posted: 20 Aug 2019
Richard Heeks, Mirta Amalia, Robert Kintu and Nishant Shah
University of Manchester, University of Manchester - Division of Operations, Technology and Innovation Management, Independent and Leuphana University of Lueneburg
Downloads 796 (43,597)
Citation 26

Abstract:

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7.

Most eGovernment-for-Development Projects Fail: How Can Risks be Reduced?

iGovernment Working Paper no. 14
Number of pages: 19 Posted: 16 Mar 2020
Richard Heeks
University of Manchester
Downloads 527 (74,231)
Citation 140

Abstract:

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8.

Impact Assessment of ICT-for-Development Projects: A Compendium of Approaches

Development Informatics Working Paper no. 36, 2009
Number of pages: 162 Posted: 08 Nov 2019
Richard Heeks and Molla Alemayehu
University of Manchester and affiliation not provided to SSRN
Downloads 413 (99,215)
Citation 52

Abstract:

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9.

Failure, Success and Improvisation of Information Systems Projects in Developing Countries

Development Informatics Working Paper no. 11
Number of pages: 22 Posted: 09 Nov 2019
Richard Heeks
University of Manchester
Downloads 391 (105,665)
Citation 36

Abstract:

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10.

Digital Economy Policy in Developing Countries

DIODE Working Paper no. 6, 2018
Number of pages: 31 Posted: 16 Mar 2020
Richard Heeks and Rumana Bukht
University of Manchester and University of Manchester - Alliance Manchester Business School
Downloads 383 (108,514)
Citation 2

Abstract:

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11.

The ICT4D 2.0 Manifesto: Where Next for ICTs and International Development?

Development Informatics Working Paper no. 42, 2009
Number of pages: 35 Posted: 08 Nov 2019
Richard Heeks
University of Manchester
Downloads 354 (118,167)
Citation 22

Abstract:

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12.

Why Health Care Information Systems Succeed or Fail

Information Systems for Public Sector Management Working Paper no. 9
Number of pages: 27 Posted: 16 Mar 2020
Richard Heeks, David Mundy and Angel Salazar
University of Manchester, affiliation not provided to SSRN and World Innovation and Change Management
Downloads 253 (167,587)
Citation 35

Abstract:

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13.

Centralised vs. Decentralised Management of Public Information Systems: A Core-Periphery Solution

Information Systems for Public Sector Management Working Paper no. 7
Number of pages: 25 Posted: 16 Mar 2020
Richard Heeks
University of Manchester
Downloads 222 (189,760)
Citation 4

Abstract:

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14.

Information Technology and Public Sector Corruption

Information Systems for Public Sector Management Working Paper no. 4
Number of pages: 15 Posted: 16 Mar 2020
Richard Heeks
University of Manchester
Downloads 204 (205,436)
Citation 20

Abstract:

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15.

Understanding the Development Implications of Online Outsourcing: A Study of Digital Labour Platforms in Pakistan

Development Informatics Working Paper no. 73
Number of pages: 19 Posted: 30 Jul 2019
Fareesa Malik, Brian Nicholson and Richard Heeks
National University of Science and Technology, Pakistan - NUST Business School, University of Manchester - Alliance Manchester Business School and University of Manchester
Downloads 199 (210,132)
Citation 1

Abstract:

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16.

Digital Labour Platforms in the Global South: Filling or Creating Institutional Voids?

Digital Development Working Paper no. 86, 2020
Number of pages: 16 Posted: 04 Aug 2020
University of Manchester, affiliation not provided to SSRN, Pontificia Universidad Javeriana, Bogotá, National University of Science and Technology, Pakistan - NUST Business School and University of Manchester - Alliance Manchester Business School
Downloads 188 (220,971)
Citation 5

Abstract:

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17.

Impact of ICTs-in-Agriculture on Rural Resilience in Developing Countries

Development Informatics Working Paper no. 84
Number of pages: 69 Posted: 03 Feb 2020
William Hanson and Richard Heeks
University of Manchester, Global Development Institute, Students and University of Manchester
Downloads 187 (221,979)

Abstract:

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18.

Public Sector Management Information Systems

Information Systems for Public Sector Management Working Paper no. 5
Number of pages: 24 Posted: 16 Mar 2020
Richard Heeks
University of Manchester
Downloads 152 (264,306)
Citation 5

Abstract:

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19.

Policies to Support Inclusive Innovation

Development Informatics Working Paper no. 61
Number of pages: 16 Posted: 12 Aug 2019
Christopher Foster and Richard Heeks
University of Sheffield - Information School and University of Manchester
Downloads 151 (265,661)
Citation 7

Abstract:

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20.

Current Analysis and Future Research Agenda on 'Gold Farming': Real-World Production in Developing Countries for the Virtual Economies of Online Games

Development Informatics Working Paper no. 32, 2008
Number of pages: 87 Posted: 08 Nov 2019
Richard Heeks
University of Manchester
Downloads 145 (274,565)
Citation 12

Abstract:

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21.

ICT Initiatives, Women and Work in Developing Countries: Reinforcing or Changing Gender Inequalities in South India?

Development Informatics Working Paper no. 20
Number of pages: 23 Posted: 09 Nov 2019
Shoba Arun, Richard Heeks and Sharon Morgan
Manchester Metropolitan University, University of Manchester and affiliation not provided to SSRN
Downloads 126 (305,603)
Citation 3

Abstract:

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22.

Examining 'Digital Development': The Shape of Things to Come?

Development Informatics Working Paper no. 64, 2016, ISBN: 978-1-905469-57-4
Number of pages: 85 Posted: 07 Aug 2019
Richard Heeks
University of Manchester
Downloads 125 (307,436)
Citation 7

Abstract:

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23.

Building e-Governance for Development: A Framework for National and Donor Action

iGovernment Working Paper no. 12
Number of pages: 33 Posted: 16 Mar 2020
Richard Heeks
University of Manchester
Downloads 122 (312,937)
Citation 15

Abstract:

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24.

Software Export Success Factors and Strategies in Developing and Transitional Economies

Development Informatics Working Paper no. 12
Number of pages: 27 Posted: 09 Nov 2019
Richard Heeks and Brian Nicholson
University of Manchester and University of Manchester - Alliance Manchester Business School
Downloads 122 (312,937)
Citation 19

Abstract:

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25.

Digital Economies and Development: A Research Agenda

DIODE Briefing no. 2
Number of pages: 16 Posted: 10 Apr 2020
Richard Heeks
University of Manchester
Downloads 121 (314,847)
Citation 3

Abstract:

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26.

The Tyranny of Participation in Information Systems: Learning from Development Projects

Development Informatics Working Paper no. 4
Number of pages: 16 Posted: 09 Nov 2019
Richard Heeks
University of Manchester
Downloads 115 (326,259)
Citation 20

Abstract:

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27.

A Structural Model and Manifesto for Data Justice for International Development

Development Informatics Working Paper no. 69
Number of pages: 18 Posted: 07 Aug 2019
Richard Heeks
University of Manchester
Downloads 114 (328,329)
Citation 8

Abstract:

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28.

Explaining ERP Failure in Developing Countries: A Jordanian Case Study

Development Informatics Working Paper no. 45, 2010
Number of pages: 31 Posted: 08 Nov 2019
Ala'a Hawari and Richard Heeks
affiliation not provided to SSRN and University of Manchester
Downloads 112 (332,366)
Citation 2

Abstract:

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29.

Information Systems and Public Sector Accountability

Information Systems for Public Sector Management Working Paper no. 1
Number of pages: 29 Posted: 16 Mar 2020
Richard Heeks
University of Manchester
Downloads 103 (351,690)
Citation 9

Abstract:

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30.

Information, ICTs and Small Enterprise: Findings from Botswana

Development Informatics Working Paper no. 7
Number of pages: 18 Posted: 09 Nov 2019
Richard A. Duncombe and Richard Heeks
University of Manchester and University of Manchester
Downloads 103 (351,690)
Citation 9

Abstract:

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31.

Digital Economy Policy: The Case Example of Thailand

DIODE Working Paper no. 7, 2018
Number of pages: 21 Posted: 16 Mar 2020
Richard Heeks and Rumana Bukht
University of Manchester and University of Manchester - Alliance Manchester Business School
Downloads 102 (354,050)
Citation 1

Abstract:

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32.

Measuring the Barriers to Big Data for Development: Design-Reality Gap Analysis in Colombia's Public Sector

Development Informatics Working Paper no. 62
Number of pages: 13 Posted: 07 Aug 2019
Liliana Fernández Gómez and Richard Heeks
University of Manchester - Centre for Development Informatics and University of Manchester
Downloads 102 (354,050)
Citation 2

Abstract:

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33.

ICT4D 2016: New Priorities for ICT4D Policy, Practice and WSIS in a Post-2015 World

Development Informatics Working Paper no. 59, 2014
Number of pages: 58 Posted: 20 Aug 2019
Richard Heeks
University of Manchester
Downloads 97 (365,707)
Citation 11

Abstract:

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34.

Future Priorities for Development Informatics Research from the Post-2015 Development Agenda

Development Informatics Working Paper no. 57, 2014
Number of pages: 46 Posted: 20 Aug 2019
Richard Heeks
University of Manchester
Downloads 86 (393,993)
Citation 17

Abstract:

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35.

ICTs and Poverty Eradication: Comparing Economic, Livelihoods and Capabilities Models

Development Informatics Working Paper no. 58, 2014
Number of pages: 40 Posted: 20 Aug 2019 Last Revised: 11 Sep 2019
Richard Heeks
University of Manchester
Downloads 86 (393,993)
Citation 9

Abstract:

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36.

ICTs and Social Movements under Authoritarian Regimes: An Actor-Network Perspective

Development Informatics Working Paper no. 51, 2013
Number of pages: 27 Posted: 08 Nov 2019
Richard Heeks and Ryo Seo-Zindy
University of Manchester and affiliation not provided to SSRN
Downloads 77 (420,058)
Citation 3

Abstract:

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37.

The Urban Data Justice Case Study Collection

Digital Development Working Paper no. 88
Number of pages: 274 Posted: 23 Nov 2020
University of Manchester, University of Manchester, University of Oxford - Oxford Internet Institute and Tilburg Institute for Law, Technology and Society
Downloads 72 (435,900)

Abstract:

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38.

Analysing the Software Sector in Developing Countries Using Competitive Advantage Theory

Development Informatics Working Paper no. 25
Number of pages: 48 Posted: 09 Nov 2019
Richard Heeks
University of Manchester
Downloads 67 (452,736)
Citation 1

Abstract:

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39.

Systematic Evaluation of Platform Work Against Decent Work Standards: Development of a New Framework and Application in the Global South

Digital Development Working Paper no. 85, 2020
Number of pages: 22 Posted: 04 Aug 2020
University of Manchester, University of Oxford - Oxford Internet Institute, University of Cape Town (UCT), University of Cape Town (UCT) and affiliation not provided to SSRN
Downloads 66 (456,207)

Abstract:

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40.

Development Studies Research and Actor-Network Theory

Actor-Network Theory for Development Working Paper no. 1
Number of pages: 29 Posted: 16 Mar 2020
Richard Heeks
University of Manchester
Downloads 62 (478,328)
Citation 4

Abstract:

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41.

Big Data and Urban Transportation in India: A Bengaluru Bus Corporation Case Study

Manchester Centre for Development Informatics Working Paper 72, 2018
Number of pages: 23 Posted: 30 Jul 2019
Centre for Internet and Society (CIS), University of Manchester, University of Sheffield - Information School and Centre for Internet and Society (CIS)
Downloads 54 (501,980)
Citation 1

Abstract:

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42.

An Applied Data Justice Framework: Analysing Datafication and Marginalised Communities in Cities of the Global South

Development Informatics Working Paper no. 74 (2018); ISBN: 978-1-905469-88-8
Number of pages: 27 Posted: 26 Jul 2019
Richard Heeks and Satyarupa Swain
University of Manchester and Citizen Consumer and Civic Action Group
Downloads 49 (523,467)
Citation 2

Abstract:

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43.

Researching ICT-Based Enterprise in Developing Countries: Analytical Tools and Models

Development Informatics Working Paper no. 30, 2008
Number of pages: 45 Posted: 08 Nov 2019
Richard Heeks
University of Manchester
Downloads 48 (527,971)
Citation 6

Abstract:

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44.

From Digital Divide to Digital Justice in the Global South: Conceptualising Adverse Digital Incorporation

Digital Development Working Paper no. 90
Number of pages: 15 Posted: 20 Aug 2021
Richard Heeks
University of Manchester
Downloads 47 (532,415)

Abstract:

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ICT4D, Digital Development, Digital Divide

45.

Exploring Big Data for Development: An Electricity Sector Case Study from India

Development Informatics Working Paper no. 66
Number of pages: 32 Posted: 07 Aug 2019 Last Revised: 09 Jun 2020
Centre for Studies in Social Sciences, Calcutta, University of Manchester, Centre for Internet and Society (CIS) and University of Sheffield - Information School
Downloads 45 (541,720)
Citation 2

Abstract:

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46.

Data Justice For Development: What Would It Mean?

Development Informatics Working Paper no. 63, 2016, ISBN: 978-1-905469-58-1
Number of pages: 20 Posted: 07 Aug 2019
Richard Heeks and Jaco Renken
University of Manchester and University of Manchester - Global Development Institute
Downloads 45 (541,720)
Citation 3

Abstract:

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47.

From the MDGs to the Post-2015 Agenda: Analysing Changing Development Priorities

Development Informatics Working Paper no. 56, 2014
Number of pages: 50 Posted: 20 Aug 2019
Richard Heeks
University of Manchester
Downloads 44 (546,512)
Citation 12

Abstract:

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48.

Digital Start-Ups in the Global South: Embeddedness, Digitality and Peripherality in Latin America

Development Informatics Working Paper no. 67
Number of pages: 19 Posted: 07 Aug 2019
Gerardo Quinones, Richard Heeks and Brian Nicholson
University of Manchester, University of Manchester and University of Manchester - Alliance Manchester Business School
Downloads 40 (566,539)
Citation 1

Abstract:

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49.

Can a Process Approach Improve ICT4D Project Success?

Development Informatics Working Paper no. 47, 2011
Number of pages: 35 Posted: 08 Nov 2019
Matthew Walton and Richard Heeks
University of Oxford - Saint Antony’s College and University of Manchester
Downloads 36 (587,668)
Citation 7

Abstract:

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50.

Government Data: Understanding the Barriers to Citizen Access and Use

Information Systems for Public Sector Management Working Paper no. 10
Number of pages: 18 Posted: 16 Mar 2020
Richard Heeks
University of Manchester
Downloads 34 (598,757)

Abstract:

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51.

Knowledge and Learning in Online Communities in Development: A Social Capital Perspective

Development Informatics Working Paper no. 16
Number of pages: 26 Posted: 09 Nov 2019
Sarah Cummings, Richard Heeks and Marleen Huysman
VU University Amsterdam - Athena Institute, University of Manchester and VU University Amsterdam
Downloads 31 (616,511)
Citation 5

Abstract:

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52.

Mobile Telephony and Developing Country Micro-Enterprise: A Nigerian Case Study

Development Informatics Working Paper no. 29, 2007
Number of pages: 29 Posted: 08 Nov 2019
Abi Jagun, Richard Heeks and Jason Whalley
affiliation not provided to SSRN, University of Manchester and affiliation not provided to SSRN
Downloads 31 (616,511)
Citation 8

Abstract:

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53.

Benchmarking eGovernment: Improving the National and International Measurement, Evaluation and Comparison of eGovernment

iGovernment Working Paper no. 18 (2006)
Number of pages: 51 Posted: 16 Mar 2020
Richard Heeks
University of Manchester
Downloads 30 (622,805)
Citation 10

Abstract:

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54.

Understanding Adoption of e-Government: Principals, Agents and Institutional Dualism

iGovernment Working Paper no. 19 (2009)
Number of pages: 27 Posted: 16 Mar 2020
Richard Heeks and Rita Santos
University of Manchester and affiliation not provided to SSRN
Downloads 29 (629,076)
Citation 10

Abstract:

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55.

Measuring Resilience in Marginalised Urban Communities: A South African Township Pilot Study

RABIT Working Paper no.1
Number of pages: 33 Posted: 07 Apr 2021
Justin Haley, Richard Heeks and Jean-Paul Van Belle
affiliation not provided to SSRN, University of Manchester and University of Cape Town (UCT)
Downloads 26 (649,186)

Abstract:

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resilience, urban, marginalised communities, informal settlements, South Africa

56.

Information Age Reform of the Public Sector: The Potential and Problems of IT for India

Information Systems for Public Sector Management Working Paper no. 6
Number of pages: 23 Posted: 16 Mar 2020
Richard Heeks
University of Manchester
Downloads 26 (649,186)
Citation 10

Abstract:

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57.

A Profile of Nigeria's Software Industry

Development Informatics Working Paper no. 21
Number of pages: 18 Posted: 09 Nov 2019
H. Abimbola Soriyan and Richard Heeks
Obafemi Awolowo University and University of Manchester
Downloads 26 (649,186)
Citation 5

Abstract:

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58.

Conceptualising Information Culture in Developing Countries

Development Informatics Working Paper no. 34, 2008
Number of pages: 26 Posted: 20 Dec 2019
Yingqin Zheng and Richard Heeks
De Montfort University and University of Manchester
Downloads 25 (656,055)
Citation 3

Abstract:

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59.

The Uneven Profile of Indian Software Exports

Development Informatics Working Paper no. 3
Number of pages: 18 Posted: 09 Nov 2019
Richard Heeks
University of Manchester
Downloads 24 (663,254)
Citation 8

Abstract:

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60.

Romania's Hardware and Software Industry: Building IT Policy and Capabilities in a Transitional Economy

Development Informatics Working Paper no. 2
Number of pages: 63 Posted: 09 Nov 2019
Mihaiela Grundey and Richard Heeks
affiliation not provided to SSRN and University of Manchester
Downloads 22 (678,130)
Citation 4

Abstract:

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61.

Understanding Urban Climate Change and Digital Infrastructure Interventions from a Resilience Perspective

Development Informatics Working Paper no. 54, 2013
Number of pages: 38 Posted: 20 Aug 2019
Richard Heeks and Angelica V Ospina
University of Manchester and Independent
Downloads 22 (678,130)
Citation 3

Abstract:

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62.

Measuring the Global Broadband Divide Using Aggregated Crowdsourced Big Data

Digital Development Working Paper no. 87
Number of pages: 35 Posted: 08 Nov 2021
University of Manchester - Global Development Institute, University of Manchester and University of Manchester - Global Development Institute
Downloads 21 (685,617)

Abstract:

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63.

Understanding E-Waste Management in Developing Countries: Building Sustainability in the Indian ICT Sector

Development Informatics Working Paper no. 52
Number of pages: 19 Posted: 20 Aug 2019
Richard Heeks, Logakanthi Subramanian and Carys Jones
University of Manchester, University of Manchester - Centre for Development Informatics and University of Manchester - Department of Planning and Environmental Management
Downloads 21 (685,617)
Citation 2

Abstract:

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64.

eGovernment in Africa: Promise and Practice

iGovernment Working Paper no. 13
Number of pages: 28 Posted: 16 Mar 2020
Richard Heeks
University of Manchester
Downloads 19 (700,902)
Citation 28

Abstract:

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65.

Evaluation of Donor-Funded Information Technology Transfer Projects in China: A Lifecycle Approach

Development Informatics Working Paper no. 1
Number of pages: 35 Posted: 09 Nov 2019
Erik Baark and Richard Heeks
affiliation not provided to SSRN and University of Manchester
Downloads 19 (700,902)
Citation 7

Abstract:

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66.

Remoteness, Exclusion and Telecentres in Mountain Regions: Analysing ICT-Based 'Information Chains' in Pazos, Peru

Development Informatics Working Paper no. 38, 2009
Number of pages: 28 Posted: 08 Nov 2019
Richard Heeks and Laura Leon Kanashiro
University of Manchester and affiliation not provided to SSRN
Downloads 19 (700,902)
Citation 3

Abstract:

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67.

The Economics of ICTs and Global Inequality: Convergence or Divergence for Developing Countries?

Development Informatics Working Paper no. 10a
Number of pages: 22 Posted: 09 Nov 2019
Richard Heeks and Charles Kenny
University of Manchester and Center for Global Development
Downloads 18 (708,818)
Citation 2

Abstract:

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68.

Analysing the Organisational Risk and Change of CMM Software Process Improvement in a Nearshoring Firm

Development Informatics Working Paper no. 28
Number of pages: 14 Posted: 09 Nov 2019
Martha Macias-Garza and Richard Heeks
University of Manchester - Institute for Development Policy and Management and University of Manchester
Downloads 18 (708,818)
Citation 2

Abstract:

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69.

Software Strategies in Developing Countries

Development Informatics Working Paper no. 6
Number of pages: 16 Posted: 09 Nov 2019
Richard Heeks
University of Manchester
Downloads 17 (716,872)
Citation 14

Abstract:

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70.

Uncertainty and Coordination in Global Software Projects: A UK/India-Centred Case Study

Development Informatics Working Paper no. 17
Number of pages: 21 Posted: 09 Nov 2019
Su-Ying Lai, Richard Heeks and Brian Nicholson
affiliation not provided to SSRN, University of Manchester and University of Manchester - Alliance Manchester Business School
Downloads 16 (724,964)
Citation 1

Abstract:

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71.

Analysing eGovernment Research: Perspectives, Philosophies, Theories, Methods and Practice

iGovernment Working Paper no. 16
Number of pages: 27 Posted: 16 Mar 2020
Richard Heeks and Savita Bailur
University of Manchester and affiliation not provided to SSRN
Downloads 13 (750,996)
Citation 5

Abstract:

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72.

Synching or Sinking: Trajectories and Strategies in Global Software Outsourcing Relationships

Development Informatics Working Paper no. 9
Number of pages: 18 Posted: 09 Nov 2019
University of Manchester, Indian Institute of Management (IIMB), Bangalore, University of Manchester - Alliance Manchester Business School and affiliation not provided to SSRN
Downloads 12 (760,042)
Citation 4

Abstract:

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73.

An Information Systems Perspective on Ethical Trade and Self-Regulation

Development Informatics Working Paper no. 13
Number of pages: 21 Posted: 09 Nov 2019
Richard A. Duncombe and Richard Heeks
University of Manchester and University of Manchester
Downloads 9 (787,526)

Abstract:

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74.

Technological Change in Developing Countries: Opening the Black Box of Process using Actor-Network Theory

Actor-Network Theory for Development Working Paper no. 5
Number of pages: 34 Posted: 16 Mar 2020
Richard Heeks and Carolyne Stanforth
University of Manchester and affiliation not provided to SSRN
Downloads 8 (797,188)

Abstract:

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75.

eGovernment as a Carrier of Context

iGovernment Working Paper no. 15
Number of pages: 24 Posted: 16 Mar 2020
Richard Heeks
University of Manchester
Downloads 7 (806,903)
Citation 6

Abstract:

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