Christos Makridis

Stanford University

Stanford, CA 94305

United States

Institute for the Future (IFF), Department of Digital Innovation, School of Business, University of Nicosia

Nicosia, 2417

Cyprus

Arizona State University (ASU)

Farmer Building 440G PO Box 872011

Tempe, AZ 85287

United States

Department of Veterans Affairs (VA)

810 Vermont Avenue NW

Washington, DC 20420

United States

SCHOLARLY PAPERS

102

DOWNLOADS
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40,380

SSRN CITATIONS
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SSRN RANKINGS

Top 3,203

in Total Papers Citations

491

CROSSREF CITATIONS

70

Ideas:
“  My research focuses on producing ideas at the intersection of labor economics, the digital economy, and human flourishing.  ”

Scholarly Papers (102)

1.

Is Hybrid Work the Best of Both Worlds? Evidence from a Field Experiment

Harvard Business School Technology & Operations Mgt. Unit Working Paper No. 22-063, Harvard Business School Strategy Unit Working Paper No. 22-063
Number of pages: 49 Posted: 28 Mar 2022 Last Revised: 11 Dec 2023
Harvard University - Business School (HBS), Harvard University - Business School (HBS), Stanford University and Harvard Business School
Downloads 4,861 (3,630)
Citation 13

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Hybrid Work, Remote Work, Work-from-Home, Field Experiment

2.

Partisanship and Policy on an Emerging Issue: Mass and Elite Responses to COVID-19 as the Pandemic Evolved

Number of pages: 55 Posted: 30 Jun 2020 Last Revised: 12 Dec 2022
Princeton University - Department of Political SciencePrinceton University - Department of Political Science, Gallup and Stanford University
Downloads 4,579 (4,022)
Citation 53

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Beliefs, Coronavirus and COVID-19, Economic Disruption, Expectations, Partisanship, Political Affiliation, Social Distancing

3.

The Cost of COVID-19: A Rough Estimate of the 2020 US GDP Impact

Special Edition Policy Brief
Number of pages: 7 Posted: 07 Apr 2020
Christos Makridis and Jonathan Hartley
Stanford University and Stanford University
Downloads 2,292 (12,341)
Citation 18

Abstract:

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GDP, economic indicators, healthcare, coronavirus, coronavirus pandemic, COVID-19, public health, economics, quarantine, economy, economic crisis

4.

Do Right-to-Work Laws Work? Evidence from Individual Well-Being and Economic Sentiment

Number of pages: 57 Posted: 03 Jan 2018 Last Revised: 24 Jun 2019
Christos Makridis
Stanford University
Downloads 2,110 (14,118)
Citation 5

Abstract:

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right-to-work, sentiment, union, well-being, welfare

5.

Does Working from Home Increase Job Satisfaction and Retention? Evidence from the COVID-19 Pandemic

Georgetown McDonough School of Business Research Paper No. 4016657
Number of pages: 51 Posted: 25 Jan 2022 Last Revised: 13 May 2022
Christos Makridis and Jason D. Schloetzer
Stanford University and Georgetown University - Department of Accounting and Business Law
Downloads 1,921 (16,285)
Citation 4

Abstract:

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flexible work arrangements; remote work; job satisfaction; employee retention; employee turnover; corporate culture

6.
Downloads 1,825 (17,701)
Citation 82

Did the Paycheck Protection Program Hit the Target?

Number of pages: 121 Posted: 26 Apr 2020 Last Revised: 22 Sep 2021
Joao Granja, Christos Makridis, Constantine Yannelis and Eric Zwick
University of Chicago - Booth School of Business, Stanford University, University of Chicago and University of Chicago - Finance
Downloads 1,464 (24,377)
Citation 4

Abstract:

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PPP, stimulus, loan guarantees, CARES, COVID-19, coronavirus

Did the Paycheck Protection Program Hit the Target?

University of Chicago, Becker Friedman Institute for Economics Working Paper No. 2020-52
Number of pages: 122 Posted: 27 Apr 2020 Last Revised: 28 Sep 2021
Joao Granja, Christos Makridis, Constantine Yannelis and Eric Zwick
University of Chicago - Booth School of Business, Stanford University, University of Chicago and University of Chicago - Finance
Downloads 258 (219,328)
Citation 2

Abstract:

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Did the Paycheck Protection Program Hit the Target?

NBER Working Paper No. w27095
Number of pages: 122 Posted: 05 May 2020 Last Revised: 15 Jul 2023
Joao Granja, Christos Makridis, Constantine Yannelis and Eric Zwick
University of Chicago - Booth School of Business, Stanford University, University of Chicago and University of Chicago - Finance
Downloads 103 (483,148)
Citation 74

Abstract:

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7.

The Distribution of Non-Wage Benefits: Maternity Benefits and Gender Diversity

Kenan Institute of Private Enterprise Research Paper No. 3088067
Number of pages: 77 Posted: 19 Dec 2017 Last Revised: 28 Nov 2022
Tim Liu, Christos Makridis, Paige Ouimet and Elena Simintzi
University of Utah - David Eccles School of Business, Stanford University, University of North Carolina (UNC) at Chapel Hill - Kenan-Flagler Business School and Centre for Economic Policy Research (CEPR)
Downloads 1,465 (24,787)
Citation 27

Abstract:

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Non-Wage Compensation, Compensation, Corporate Finance

8.

Are School Reopening Decisions Related to Union Influence?

Number of pages: 25 Posted: 01 Sep 2020
Corey DeAngelis and Christos Makridis
American Federation for Children and Stanford University
Downloads 853 (53,752)
Citation 14

Abstract:

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Collective Bargaining, Coronavirus, COVID-19, Reopening, School Closures, Unions

9.

House Prices and Consumption: A New Instrumental Variables Approach

Number of pages: 58 Posted: 12 Dec 2018 Last Revised: 19 Jun 2021
James Graham and Christos Makridis
The University of Sydney - School of Economics and Stanford University
Downloads 782 (60,432)
Citation 15

Abstract:

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Consumption; House Prices; Marginal Propensity to Consume; Instrumental Variables; Bartik Instrument

10.

The Fiscal Cost of COVID-19: Evidence from the States

Number of pages: 31 Posted: 15 Jun 2020 Last Revised: 20 Jul 2020
Christos Makridis and Robert McNab
Stanford University and Department of Economics
Downloads 736 (65,559)
Citation 2

Abstract:

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Budgets, COVID-19, Employment, State and Local Tax Policy

11.

The Cost of COVID-19: A Rough Estimate of the 2020 U.S. GDP

Number of pages: 6 Posted: 23 Mar 2020 Last Revised: 27 Apr 2020
Christos Makridis and Jonathan Hartley
Stanford University and Stanford University
Downloads 692 (70,915)
Citation 4

Abstract:

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coronavirus, COVID-19, real GDP, economic growth

Ties that Bind (and Social Distance): How Social Capital Helps Communities Weather the COVID-19 Pandemic

Number of pages: 35 Posted: 04 May 2020 Last Revised: 13 Aug 2020
Christos Makridis and Cary Wu
Stanford University and York University
Downloads 550 (93,622)
Citation 16

Abstract:

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coronavirus, COVID-19, public health, social capital, social distancing, trust

Ties That Bind (and Social Distance): How Social Capital Helps Communities Weather the COVID-19 Pandemic

Number of pages: 19 Posted: 06 May 2020
Christos Makridis and Cary Wu
Stanford University and York University
Downloads 118 (436,410)
Citation 5

Abstract:

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COVID-19, expectations, social capital, social distancing

13.

Learning from Friends in a Pandemic: Social Networks and the Macroeconomic Response of Consumption

Number of pages: 74 Posted: 17 May 2020 Last Revised: 19 Jun 2023
Christos Makridis and Tao Wang
Stanford University and Department of Economics, Johns Hopkins University
Downloads 611 (82,932)
Citation 4

Abstract:

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Aggregate Demand, Consumption, Coronavirus, COVID-19, Expectations, Peer Effects, Social Networks

14.

The Rise of Decentralized Cryptocurrency Exchanges: Evaluating the Role of Airdrops and Governance Tokens

Number of pages: 37 Posted: 03 Oct 2021 Last Revised: 06 Dec 2022
Christos Makridis, Michael Froewis, Kiran Sridhar and Rainer Böhme
Stanford University, University of Innsbruck, Stanford University and University of Innsbruck
Downloads 601 (84,655)
Citation 10

Abstract:

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Airdrops, Blockchain, Decentralized Exchanges, Decentralized Finance, Expectations, Smart Contracts

15.

Earnings Are Greater and Increasing in Occupations That Require Intellectual Tenacity

Number of pages: 29 Posted: 25 Feb 2023 Last Revised: 11 Jan 2024
Christos Makridis and Louis Hickman
Stanford University and Virginia Tech
Downloads 586 (87,484)

Abstract:

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Earnings, Personality, Non-Cognitive, Human Capital, Future of Work

16.

Religious, Civil, and Economic Freedoms: What's the Chicken and What's the Egg?

Number of pages: 45 Posted: 01 May 2021
Christos Makridis
Stanford University
Downloads 586 (87,484)
Citation 1

Abstract:

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Economic Development, Economic Freedom, Human Flourishing, Religious Liberty

17.

Stuck in the Seventies: Gas Prices and Consumer Sentiment

Number of pages: 38 Posted: 26 Oct 2018 Last Revised: 28 Jan 2020
Carola Binder and Christos Makridis
Haverford College - Department of Economics and Stanford University
Downloads 534 (98,310)
Citation 13

Abstract:

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Consumer sentiment, macroeconomic expectations, selective attention, gas prices, behavioral macroeconomics

18.

Extreme Local Temperatures Lower Expressed Sentiment About U.S. Economic Conditions With Implications For The Stock Returns Of Local Firms

Journal of Behavioral and Experimental Finance
Number of pages: 39 Posted: 05 Jan 2018 Last Revised: 07 Jul 2022
Christos Makridis and Jason D. Schloetzer
Stanford University and Georgetown University - Department of Accounting and Business Law
Downloads 529 (99,405)
Citation 14

Abstract:

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Economic sentiment, Capital markets, Asset prices, Limited attention, Investor psychology, Climate

19.

(How) Does Artificial Intelligence Raise Well-being? Evidence from Cities in the United States

Number of pages: 34 Posted: 02 Oct 2020 Last Revised: 29 Dec 2020
Christos Makridis and Saurabh Mishra
Stanford University and Stanford University, Human-centered AI Institute
Downloads 516 (102,527)

Abstract:

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artificial intelligence, economic growth, industrial composition, subjective well-being, social welfare, structural change

20.

Measuring the Economic Effects of Data Breaches on Firm Outcomes: Challenges and Opportunities

Number of pages: 33 Posted: 02 Oct 2017 Last Revised: 30 Mar 2018
Christos Makridis and Benjamin Dean
Stanford University and Columbia University - School of International & Public Affairs (SIPA)
Downloads 486 (110,162)
Citation 4

Abstract:

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Cyber Crime, Data Breaches, Productivity, Information Security

21.

Understanding Reputation Damage to Firm Culture: Insights from Employee Perceptions Post Financial Misconduct

Number of pages: 53 Posted: 18 Oct 2019 Last Revised: 03 Oct 2023
Siew Hong Teoh, Yuqing Zhou and Christos Makridis
UCLA Anderson School of Management, The Chinese University of Hong Kong (CUHK) - CUHK Business School and Stanford University
Downloads 478 (112,432)
Citation 10

Abstract:

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Corporate Culture, Employee Satisfaction, Financial Misconduct, Reputation Damage

22.

The Effects of School Closures on Mental Health: Evidence from the COVID-19 Pandemic

Number of pages: 45 Posted: 10 Jan 2022 Last Revised: 12 Sep 2023
Christos Makridis, Clara Piano and Corey DeAngelis
Stanford University, Samford University and American Federation for Children
Downloads 466 (115,869)
Citation 1

Abstract:

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COVID-19, Homeschooling, Hybrid and Remote Instruction, Unions, School Closures

23.

Moving to Opportunity? The Geography of the Foreclosure Crisis and the Importance of Location

Journal of Economic Geography (2021)
Number of pages: 86 Posted: 02 May 2018 Last Revised: 06 Jul 2021
Christos Makridis and Michael Ohlrogge
Stanford University and New York University School of Law
Downloads 418 (131,593)
Citation 1

Abstract:

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foreclosure, financial crisis, mobility, unemployment

The Impact of COVID-19 on the U.S. Child Care Market: Evidence from Stay-at-Home Orders

Number of pages: 35 Posted: 14 May 2020 Last Revised: 24 Jul 2020
Umair Ali, Chris M. Herbst and Christos Makridis
Arizona State University (ASU) - School of Public Affairs, Arizona State University (ASU) - School of Public Affairs and Stanford University
Downloads 286 (197,615)
Citation 7

Abstract:

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Child care, Coronavirus, COVID-19, Early Care and Education, Stay-at-Home Orders

The Impact of Covid-19 on the U.S. Child Care Market: Evidence from Stay-at-Home Orders

IZA Discussion Paper No. 13261
Number of pages: 29 Posted: 23 May 2020
Umair Ali, Chris M. Herbst and Christos Makridis
Arizona State University (ASU) - School of Public Affairs, Arizona State University (ASU) - School of Public Affairs and Stanford University
Downloads 106 (473,018)
Citation 5

Abstract:

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child care, coronavirus, COVID-19, early care and education, stay-at-home orders

25.

Defining 'Reasonable' Cybersecurity: Lessons from the States

Number of pages: 51 Posted: 10 Sep 2021 Last Revised: 25 Feb 2022
Scott Shackelford, Anne Boustead and Christos Makridis
Indiana University - Kelley School of Business - Department of Business Law, University of Arizona - School of Government and Public Policy and Stanford University
Downloads 391 (142,027)

Abstract:

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cybersecurity, safe harbor

26.

Are School Reopening Decisions Related to Funding? Evidence from Over 12,000 Districts During the COVID-19 Pandemic

Number of pages: 22 Posted: 10 Mar 2021 Last Revised: 27 Sep 2021
Corey DeAngelis and Christos Makridis
American Federation for Children and Stanford University
Downloads 367 (152,397)

Abstract:

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school reopening, school closures, COVID-19, school funding, economics of education

27.

Does Culture Pay? Evidence from Crowdsourced Employee Engagement Data

Number of pages: 78 Posted: 24 Jun 2017 Last Revised: 26 Dec 2018
Christos Makridis
Stanford University
Downloads 365 (153,358)

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Organizational practices, job satisfaction, turnover, compensating differentials, productivity

28.

The Rise of Mobile Banking and the Displacement of Brick-and-Mortar Branches, 2014-2019

Number of pages: 26 Posted: 21 Apr 2021
Hugo Dante and Christos Makridis
George Mason University and Stanford University
Downloads 360 (155,690)
Citation 1

Abstract:

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bank closures, fintech, mobile banking, online banking

29.

Future of Work and Employee Empowerment: Evidence from a Decade of Technological Change

Number of pages: 40 Posted: 05 Feb 2020 Last Revised: 24 May 2021
Christos Makridis and Joo Han
Stanford University and Rutgers University
Downloads 346 (162,571)
Citation 4

Abstract:

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Employee Attitudes; Employee Engagement; Technological Change; Well-being

Identifying Critical Infrastructure in a World with Network Cybersecurity Risk

Georgia Tech Scheller College of Business Research Paper No. 3693544
Number of pages: 27 Posted: 05 Oct 2020 Last Revised: 03 Sep 2021
Deven R. Desai and Christos Makridis
Georgia Institute of Technology - Scheller College of Business and Stanford University
Downloads 170 (324,434)

Abstract:

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Cybersecurity, data breach, input-output linkages, supply chain

Identifying Critical Infrastructure in a World with Network Cybersecurity Risk

Georgia Tech Scheller College of Business Research Paper No. 3898193, TPRC49: The 49th Research Conference on Communication, Information and Internet Policy
Number of pages: 20 Posted: 05 Aug 2021
Christos Makridis and Deven R. Desai
Stanford University and Georgia Institute of Technology - Scheller College of Business
Downloads 171 (327,810)

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31.

The Effect of Economic Sentiment on Consumption: Evidence from Social Networks

Number of pages: 59 Posted: 28 Dec 2017 Last Revised: 04 Apr 2022
Christos Makridis
Stanford University
Downloads 329 (171,600)
Citation 13

Abstract:

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Beliefs, Business Cycles, Consumption, Economic Sentiment, Social Networks

32.

(Why) Is There a Public/Private Pay Gap?

Number of pages: 33 Posted: 02 Aug 2018 Last Revised: 20 Jan 2020
Christos Makridis
Stanford University
Downloads 326 (173,273)

Abstract:

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careers, development and training, earnings, management, public-private pay gap

33.

Will You Be Mine? Marriage as a Protective Factor During the Pandemic

Number of pages: 34 Posted: 04 Aug 2020
Clara Piano and Christos Makridis
Austin Peay State University and Stanford University
Downloads 287 (198,088)
Citation 1

Abstract:

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Coronavirus, Employment, Family, Marriage, Mental Health, Wages

34.

Data as Currency: A Reevaluation of the Consumer Welfare Standard for Digital Markets

Number of pages: 36 Posted: 25 Jul 2023
Christos Makridis and Joel Thayer
Stanford University and Digital Progress Institute
Downloads 279 (203,831)

Abstract:

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Market power, consumer welfare, technology, innovation, competition, data

35.

American Workers Spend Less Time on Labor and More on Leisure in the Remote Work Era

Number of pages: 37 Posted: 26 Jul 2023 Last Revised: 06 May 2024
Christos Makridis
Stanford University
Downloads 274 (207,643)
Citation 1

Abstract:

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leisure; remote work; time use; wages; working from home

36.

Do Data Breaches Damage Reputation? Evidence from 43 Companies Between 2002 and 2018

Number of pages: 23 Posted: 05 Jun 2020 Last Revised: 05 May 2021
Christos Makridis
Stanford University
Downloads 269 (211,517)

Abstract:

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Brand, Cyber-security, Data Breach, Intangible Capital, Reputation

37.

The Local Effects of Foreclosures

Number of pages: 108 Posted: 14 Jun 2017 Last Revised: 26 Dec 2019
Christos Makridis and Michael Ohlrogge
Stanford University and New York University School of Law
Downloads 269 (211,517)
Citation 1

Abstract:

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Employment, Foreclosures, Labor Markets, Mortgages, Uncertainty

38.

The Social Value of a Ridesharing Platform: A Hedonic Pricing Approach

TPRC48: The 48th Research Conference on Communication, Information and Internet Policy
Number of pages: 31 Posted: 02 Jan 2019 Last Revised: 16 Jun 2021
Christos Makridis and Yongwook Paik
Stanford University and KAIST College of Business, Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology (KAIST)
Downloads 254 (223,948)
Citation 1

Abstract:

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social value, platform, sharing economy, hedonic pricing, ridesharing, Uber

39.

Designing Airdrops

Number of pages: 28 Posted: 04 May 2023
Kristof Lommers, Christos Makridis and Lieven Verboven
University of Oxford, Said Business School, Stanford University and Independent
Downloads 241 (235,840)

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40.

The Labor Market Returns of Being An Artist: Evidence from the United States, 2006-2021

Number of pages: 31 Posted: 14 Sep 2023
Christos Makridis
Stanford University
Downloads 238 (238,769)

Abstract:

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Artists, culture, earnings, employment, wages

41.

Does Religious Affiliation Protect People's Well-being? Evidence from the Great Recession After Correcting for Selection Effects

Number of pages: 34 Posted: 03 Aug 2019 Last Revised: 15 Jul 2020
Christos Makridis, Byron Johnson and Harold Koenig
Stanford University, Baylor University - Institute for Studies of Religion and Duke University
Downloads 234 (242,717)
Citation 2

Abstract:

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Well-being, life satisfaction, social capital, business cycle, financial circumstances

Do Monetary Policy Announcements Shift Household Expectations?

FRB of New York Staff Report No. 897, September 2019
Number of pages: 67 Posted: 09 Sep 2019 Last Revised: 22 Jan 2020
Daniel J. Lewis, Christos Makridis, Karel Mertens and Karel Mertens
University College London, Stanford University and FRB DallasFederal Reserve Banks - Federal Reserve Bank of Dallas
Downloads 228 (247,840)
Citation 11

Abstract:

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monetary policy shocks, central bank communication, information rigidities, consumer confidence, high-frequency identification

Do Monetary Policy Announcements Shift Household Expectations?

CEPR Discussion Paper No. DP14360
Number of pages: 69 Posted: 11 Feb 2020
Karel Mertens, Karel Mertens, Daniel J. Lewis and Christos Makridis
FRB DallasFederal Reserve Banks - Federal Reserve Bank of Dallas, University College London and Stanford University
Downloads 2 (1,169,066)
Citation 4
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Abstract:

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central bank communication, consumer con dence, high frequency identi cation, informational rigidities, monetary policy shocks

43.

On the Cyclicality of Real Wages and Employment: New Evidence and Stylized Facts from Performance Pay and Fixed Wage Jobs

Number of pages: 80 Posted: 14 Aug 2017 Last Revised: 23 Oct 2020
Christos Makridis and Maury Gittleman
Stanford University and Bureau of Labor Statistics
Downloads 228 (248,825)
Citation 3

Abstract:

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business cycle, compensation, employment, incentives, pay for performance

44.

The Cost of Cybersecurity Exposures: Evidence from a Direct Measure of Firm Network Vulnerabilities

Number of pages: 64 Posted: 19 Feb 2021 Last Revised: 28 Mar 2024
Tim Liu, Christos Makridis and Erick Galinkin
University of Utah - David Eccles School of Business, Stanford University and Drexel University
Downloads 224 (253,018)

Abstract:

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Abnormal Returns, Asset Pricing, Cybersecurity, Data Breach

45.

The Role of Music and Other Arts in Early Childhood Education

Number of pages: 27 Posted: 23 Feb 2022
Stanford University, Yale University, Stanford University, University of Michigan at Ann Arbor and Living Opera
Downloads 204 (275,969)
Citation 1

Abstract:

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childhood development, early childhood, arts education, music education, cognitive skills, non-cognitive skills

46.

Rise of the 'Quants' in Financial Services: Regulation and Crowding Out of Routine Jobs

Number of pages: 53 Posted: 08 Aug 2018 Last Revised: 28 Aug 2020
Christos Makridis and Alberto G. Rossi
Stanford University and Georgetown University
Downloads 203 (277,177)

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fintech, financial services, STEM workers, regulation, STEM

47.

Refined by Fire: The Great Depression and Entrepreneurship

Number of pages: 46 Posted: 14 May 2019 Last Revised: 03 Apr 2020
Christos Makridis and Erin McGuire
Stanford University and Mondelez International
Downloads 199 (282,241)
Citation 3

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Entrepreneurship; Growth; Great Depression; Behavioral Finance

48.

Structural Transformation and the Rise of Information Technology

Prepared for the Carnegie-Rochester-NYU Conference Series on Public Policy, 2017
Number of pages: 71 Posted: 16 Oct 2017 Last Revised: 19 Feb 2018
Giovanni Gallipoli and Christos Makridis
Vancouver School of Economics, UBC and Stanford University
Downloads 196 (286,145)
Citation 13

Abstract:

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information technology, productivity, skill premia, structural transformation

49.

The Contribution of the Arts and Creative Economy to Social Capital: Evidence from the COVID-19 Pandemic

Number of pages: 26 Posted: 22 Nov 2021
Christos Makridis and Shoshanah Goldberg-Miller
Stanford University and Ohio State University (OSU)
Downloads 187 (298,515)

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Arts, Cities, Cultural Capital, Social Capital, COVID-19

50.

Do Product Market Reforms Raise Innovation? Evidence from Micro-data Across 12 Countries

Number of pages: 58 Posted: 01 May 2019 Last Revised: 07 Jul 2020
Anastasia Litina, Christos Makridis and Georgios Tsiachtsiras
University of Ioannina, Stanford University and University of Barcelona
Downloads 183 (304,212)
Citation 2

Abstract:

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competition; digital economy; product market reforms; innovation; regulation; research & development

51.

Foreclosure Spillovers and Individual Well-Being: Evidence from the Great Recession

Real Estate Economics
Number of pages: 60 Posted: 21 Jun 2017 Last Revised: 06 Jul 2021
Christos Makridis and Michael Ohlrogge
Stanford University and New York University School of Law
Downloads 183 (304,212)
Citation 4

Abstract:

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foreclosures, housing market, life satisfaction, well-being

52.

Determinants of Cyber Readiness

Number of pages: 22 Posted: 07 Aug 2018
Christos Makridis and Max Smeets
Stanford University and Stanford University - Freeman Spogli Institute for International Studies
Downloads 177 (313,362)

Abstract:

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cyber security, cyber readiness, information technology, productivity

53.

Perception of Digital Risks: Evidence from 54 Countries

Number of pages: 22 Posted: 08 Dec 2020 Last Revised: 23 Sep 2021
AJ Grotto and Christos Makridis
Stanford University - Freeman Spogli Institute for International Studies and Stanford University
Downloads 176 (314,992)
Citation 2

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Cybersecurity, Digital Economy, Digital Risk, Fraud, Misinformation, Online Bullying

54.

Balancing Returns and Responsibility: Evidence from Shrinkage-based Portfolios

Number of pages: 38 Posted: 07 Nov 2023 Last Revised: 26 Jan 2024
Christos Makridis and Majeed Simaan
Stanford University and Stevens Institute of Technology - School of Business
Downloads 174 (318,216)

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ESG-Efficiency, Bias-Variance Trade-Off, Covariance Shrinkage, Portfolio Selection

55.

Discrimination in the Spotlight: The Effects of Political and Religious Bias on Consumer Behavior and Labor Markets

Number of pages: 58 Posted: 28 Feb 2023 Last Revised: 09 Feb 2024
Christos Makridis
Stanford University
Downloads 167 (329,660)

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Consumer Behavior, Discrimination, Experiment, Politics, Religion

56.

From Bits to Bonds: The Economic Ripple of Local Cyberattacks on Municipalities

Kenan Institute of Private Enterprise Research Paper No. 4473545
Number of pages: 70 Posted: 18 Jun 2023 Last Revised: 06 Feb 2024
Cyprus University of Technology, Cyprus University of Technology, Cyprus University of Technology, University of North Carolina Kenan-Flagler Business School and Stanford University
Downloads 155 (351,236)

Abstract:

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Cyberattack, Media, Municipal Bonds, Public Finance, Public attention

57.

Do Data Breaches Damage Reputation? Evidence from 45 Companies Between 2002 and 2018

TPRC49: The 49th Research Conference on Communication, Information and Internet Policy
Number of pages: 23 Posted: 14 Jul 2021
Christos Makridis
Stanford University
Downloads 155 (351,236)
Citation 1

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Brand, cybersecurity, data breach, intangible capital, reputation

58.

Do Managers Matter? A Natural Experiment from 42 R&D Labs in India

Number of pages: 53 Posted: 27 Mar 2018 Last Revised: 22 May 2019
Prithwiraj Choudhury, Tarun Khanna and Christos Makridis
Harvard University - Business School (HBS), Harvard University - Strategy Unit and Stanford University
Downloads 153 (355,086)
Citation 1

Abstract:

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incentives, innovation, management, productivity, research and development

59.

(Why) Are Housing Costs Rising?

Number of pages: 29 Posted: 09 Feb 2019 Last Revised: 12 Feb 2019
Christos Makridis
Stanford University
Downloads 143 (374,882)

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housing affordability, labor costs, regulation, wages

60.

Housing Market Regulation and Labor Market Dynamism

Number of pages: 27 Posted: 20 May 2018 Last Revised: 15 Jul 2019
Christos Makridis
Stanford University
Downloads 136 (389,895)
Citation 1

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cost of living, housing market regulation, labor market dynamism, turnover

61.

From Crisis to Norm: Remote Work Trends and Employee Engagement Across Industries, Occupations, and Geography

Number of pages: 28 Posted: 09 Nov 2023 Last Revised: 14 Nov 2023
Christos Makridis and Jason D. Schloetzer
Stanford University and Georgetown University - Department of Accounting and Business Law
Downloads 126 (413,675)

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job autonomy, work from home, flexible work arrangements, job satisfaction, employee turnover, corporate culture

62.

Human Flourishing and Religious Liberty: Evidence from Over 150 Countries, 2006-2018

Number of pages: 41 Posted: 30 Oct 2019 Last Revised: 25 Nov 2019
Christos Makridis
Stanford University
Downloads 123 (421,079)

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economic development, human flourishing, religious liberty, subjective well being

63.

COVID-19 Information Treatments Shift Related Policy Preferences and Plans for Consumer Behavior

Number of pages: 56 Posted: 14 Jun 2021 Last Revised: 08 Feb 2022
Gallup, Stanford University, University of California, Los Angeles (UCLA) and Franklin Templeton Investments
Downloads 122 (423,706)
Citation 1

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Beliefs, Behavioral Economics, Consumption, COVID-19, Expectations, Information

64.

Collective Attention & Politicization of Information: Evidence from News articles on Climate Change

Number of pages: 26 Posted: 22 Mar 2021
Abhishek Samantray, Christos Makridis and Christos Nicolaides
affiliation not provided to SSRN, Stanford University and School of Economics and Management, University of Cyprus
Downloads 120 (429,006)
Citation 1

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attention, climate change, digital platforms, information, politicization, user engagement

65.

Is Recycling Effective? Evidence from California between 2004 and 2017

Number of pages: 33 Posted: 07 Aug 2018 Last Revised: 18 Feb 2020
Christos Makridis
Stanford University
Downloads 117 (437,316)

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Recycling and Conservation, Tiebout Sorting, Energy Consumption, Environmental Quality, Public Policy

66.

Split Personalities? Behavioral Effects of Temperature on Financial Decision-making

Number of pages: 45 Posted: 22 Apr 2021 Last Revised: 06 Jul 2021
Despina Gavresi, Anastasia Litina and Christos Makridis
University of Ioannina, University of Ioannina and Stanford University
Downloads 114 (445,816)

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Behavioral Finance; Expectations, Financial Decision-making, Optimism, Stocks, Temperature

67.

The Quality of Innovation 'Booms' During 'Busts'

Georgia Tech Scheller College of Business Research Paper No. 3664222
Number of pages: 42 Posted: 09 Aug 2020
Christos Makridis and Erin McGuire
Stanford University and Mondelez International
Downloads 112 (451,705)
Citation 1

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Business Cycles, Financial Constraints, Innovation, Patenting, Research and Development

68.

Labor Market Earnings of Veterans: Is Time in the Military More Valuable or Less than is Civilian Experience?

Number of pages: 32 Posted: 18 Oct 2019 Last Revised: 04 Aug 2021
Christos Makridis, Barry T. Hirsch and Barry T. Hirsch
Stanford University and IZA Institute of Labor EconomicsGeorgia State University
Downloads 110 (457,834)

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Military veterans, earnings levels and dispersion, work experience, licensing, public sector, occupation growth

69.

(When) Does Appearance Matter? Evidence from a Randomized Controlled Trial

Number of pages: 48 Posted: 01 Sep 2020 Last Revised: 14 Sep 2020
Harvard University - Business School (HBS), Harvard University - Business School (HBS), Stanford University and Cornell University
Downloads 103 (479,953)

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Behavioral Economics, Coronavirus, Discrmination, Homophily, Labor Market Mobility, Limited Attention, Resumes

70.

Borrower Expectations and Mortgage Performance: Evidence from the COVID-19 Pandemic

Number of pages: 66 Posted: 28 Jan 2024
William D. Larson, Christos Makridis and Chad Redmer
Department of the Treasury, Office of Financial Research, Stanford University and US Naval Academy
Downloads 101 (486,319)

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Behavioral Economics, Adverse Selection, Forbearance, Expectations

71.

Rise of the “Quants” in Financial Services: Regulation and Crowding Out of Routine Jobs

Mercatus Working Paper Series
Number of pages: 58 Posted: 14 Oct 2020
Christos Makridis and Alberto G. Rossi
Stanford University and Georgetown University
Downloads 100 (489,579)

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fintech, financial services, STEM workers, regulation, STEM

72.

Sectoral Digital Intensity and GDP Growth After a Large Employment Shock: A Simple Extrapolation Exercise

Number of pages: 43 Posted: 06 Aug 2020 Last Revised: 28 Aug 2020
Giovanni Gallipoli and Christos Makridis
Vancouver School of Economics, UBC and Stanford University
Downloads 96 (502,990)
Citation 7

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Output, Digital Intensity, Employment, Canada, Coronavirus, Structural Change

73.

Does Housing Make I.T. Boom? The Collateral Channel, Information Technology, and Skilled Labor

Number of pages: 35 Posted: 06 Sep 2017
Christos Makridis, Pei-Yu Chen and Bin Gu
Stanford University, Arizona State University (ASU) - Department of Information Systems and Boston University - Questrom School of Business
Downloads 94 (509,910)

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Housing prices, information technology, collateral channel, skill bias

74.

The Fiscal Cost of COVID-19: Evidence from the States

Mercatus COVID-19 Response Working Paper Series
Number of pages: 29 Posted: 02 Sep 2020
Christos Makridis and Robert McNab
Stanford University and Department of Economics
Downloads 89 (527,741)
Citation 1

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budgets, COVID-19, employment, state and local tax policy

75.

Democratizing Effects of Digital Ledger Technologies: Implications for Economic Mobility

Number of pages: 24 Posted: 23 Jun 2022
Christos Makridis
Stanford University
Downloads 83 (550,792)
Citation 1

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blockchain, distributed ledger technologies, economic mobility, inequality, labor markets

Minimum Quality Regulations and the Demand for Child Care Labor

Number of pages: 43 Posted: 07 Sep 2021
Umair Ali, Chris M. Herbst and Christos Makridis
Arizona State University (ASU) - School of Public Affairs, Arizona State University (ASU) - School of Public Affairs and Stanford University
Downloads 49 (737,137)
Citation 4

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Child Care; Covid-19; Employment; State Regulation; Women

Minimum Quality Regulations and the Demand for Child Care Labor

IZA Discussion Paper No. 14684
Number of pages: 45 Posted: 04 Sep 2021 Last Revised: 19 May 2022
Umair Ali, Chris M. Herbst and Christos Makridis
Arizona State University (ASU) - School of Public Affairs, Arizona State University (ASU) - School of Public Affairs and Stanford University
Downloads 34 (851,180)

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child care, COVID-19, employment, state regulation, women

77.

Designing COVID-19 Mortality Predictions to Advance Clinical Outcomes: Evidence from the Department of Veterans Affairs

Number of pages: 31 Posted: 21 Dec 2020 Last Revised: 16 Apr 2021
Stanford University, Department of Veterans Affairs (VA), Emory University - Rollins School of Public Health and Department of Veterans Affairs (VA)
Downloads 79 (567,142)

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Artificial Intelligence, Clinical Practice, Coronavirus, Machine Learning, Socio-Demographics, Veterans, Department of Veterans Affairs

78.

Do Monetary Policy Announcements Shift Household Expectations?

FRB of Dallas Working Paper No. 1906
Number of pages: 67 Posted: 22 Oct 2019 Last Revised: 29 Apr 2020
Daniel J. Lewis, Christos Makridis, Karel Mertens and Karel Mertens
University College London, Stanford University and FRB DallasFederal Reserve Banks - Federal Reserve Bank of Dallas
Downloads 78 (571,287)

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Monetary policy shocks, central bank communications, information rigidities, consumer confidence, high frequency identification

79.

Emergency Executive Powers: Not Needed Indefinitely

Mercatus Special Edition Policy Brief
Number of pages: 6 Posted: 05 May 2020
Weifeng Zhong, Christos Makridis and James Diddams
Mercatus Center at George Mason University, Stanford University and Independent
Downloads 74 (588,720)

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healthcare, coronavirus, lockdown, emergency powers, coronavirus pandemic, COVID-19, public health, economics, quarantine, economy, economic crisis

80.

Leveraging Machine Learning to Characterize the Role of Socio-economic Determinants of Physical Health and Well-being Among Veterans

Number of pages: 27 Posted: 14 May 2020 Last Revised: 04 Sep 2020
Christos Makridis, David Zhao, Cosmin (Adi) Bejan and Gil Alterovitz
Stanford University, Stanford University, School of Engineering, Computer Science, Students, Vanderbilt University and Department of Veterans Affairs (VA)
Downloads 73 (593,140)

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Artificial intelligence, machine learning, medical informatics, subjective well-being, veterans

81.

Time to Research? The Cyclicality of Time Use in R&D Among Private and Public Sector Workers

Number of pages: 38 Posted: 17 Dec 2017 Last Revised: 10 Jun 2019
Christos Makridis
Stanford University
Downloads 71 (602,192)
Citation 1

Abstract:

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cyclicality, innovation, public and private sector, research & development

82.

How Much Does the (Social) Environment Matter? Using Artificial Intelligence to Predict COVID-19 Outcomes with Socio-demographic Data

Number of pages: 8 Posted: 13 Oct 2020
Christos Makridis, Anish Mudide and Gil Alterovitz
Stanford University, Phillips Exeter Academy and Department of Veterans Affairs (VA)
Downloads 69 (611,538)
Citation 2

Abstract:

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Artificial Intelligence, Coronavirus, COVID-19, Machine Learning, Veterans

83.

Integrated Insiders or Alienated Outsiders? How Strong Norms in Organizations Relate to Contractors' Cultural Integration

Number of pages: 62 Posted: 21 Jan 2020
Matthew Corritore and Christos Makridis
McGill University - Desautels Faculty of Management and Stanford University
Downloads 68 (616,228)

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contractors, nonstandard work, organizations, culture

84.

Using Machine Learning to Understand Veterans' Receipt of Loans in the Paycheck Protection Program

Number of pages: 35 Posted: 08 Nov 2020
Christos Makridis, JD Kelly and Gil Alterovitz
Stanford University, Stanford University and Department of Veterans Affairs (VA)
Downloads 66 (625,956)

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Coronavirus, Entrepreneurship, Paycheck Protection Program, Socio-demographics, Veterans

85.

The (Non)Separability of Air Quality: Evidence from Millions of Households Across the United States

Number of pages: 41 Posted: 13 Nov 2019
Christos Makridis
Stanford University
Downloads 58 (667,648)

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elasticity of air quality; hedonic prices; non-separability; willingness to pay

86.

When Houses of Worship Go Empty: The Effects of State Restrictions on Well-being Among Religious Adherents

Number of pages: 54 Posted: 18 Nov 2021 Last Revised: 28 Aug 2022
Christos Makridis
Stanford University
Downloads 52 (702,020)

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COVID-19; Church Restrictions; Religion; State Policy; Well-being

87.

A Task-Interdependency Model of Complex Collaborative Work for Advancing Human-Centered Crowd Work

Number of pages: 57 Posted: 19 Jun 2023
David Lee and Christos Makridis
University of California, Santa Cruz and Stanford University
Downloads 49 (720,775)

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human computation and crowdsourcing, complex collaborative work, situated learning, humans and AI, task-interdependency networks, coordination intensity

88.

Ethical Applications of Artificial Intelligence: Evidence from Veterans' Health Research

Number of pages: 5 Posted: 29 Apr 2021
Christos Makridis, seth hurley, Molly Klote and Gil Alterovitz
Stanford University, affiliation not provided to SSRN, Department of Veterans Affairs (VA) and Department of Veterans Affairs (VA)
Downloads 46 (739,951)

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Artificial Intelligence, Ethics, Explainability, Risk, Trust, Veterans

89.

How Did Veterans Fare Over the COVID-19 Pandemic? The Role of Health Equity and Access to Care

Johns Hopkins Carey Business School Research Paper No. 22-10
Number of pages: 26 Posted: 24 May 2022 Last Revised: 03 Dec 2023
Christos Makridis, Michael Darden and Gil Alterovitz
Stanford University, Johns Hopkins University - Carey Business School and Department of Veterans Affairs (VA)
Downloads 44 (753,506)

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COVID-19, Earnings, Healthcare, Subjective Well-being, Veterans

90.

Narrowing the Gap: Implications of Arts Entrepreneurship Curricula on Artist Labor Market Outcomes

Number of pages: 24 Posted: 01 Mar 2023
Christos Makridis and Jonathan Kuuskoski
Stanford University and University of Michigan at Ann Arbor - School of Music, Theatre & Dance
Downloads 36 (812,021)

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arts, employment, earnings, entrepreneurship

91.

Split Personalities? Behavioral Effects of Temperature on Financial Decision-Making

Number of pages: 37 Posted: 11 Aug 2022
Anastasia Litina, Despina Gavresi and Christos Makridis
affiliation not provided to SSRN, University of Ioannina and Stanford University
Downloads 36 (812,021)

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Behavioral Finance, Expectations, Optimism, Stocks, Temperature

92.

The Labor Market and Public Policy Implications of Arts Entrepreneurship

Number of pages: 24 Posted: 17 Oct 2022 Last Revised: 27 Feb 2023
Christos Makridis and Jonathan Kuuskoski
Stanford University and University of Michigan at Ann Arbor - School of Music, Theatre & Dance
Downloads 30 (861,299)

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Arts; employment, earnings, entrepreneurship

93.

How State Occupational Licenses Affect Jobs and Salaries

Number of pages: 16 Posted: 23 Feb 2024
Christos Makridis and Patrick A. McLaughlin
Stanford University and Mercatus Center at George Mason University
Downloads 29 (869,906)

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employment, labor market, occupational licensing, regulation, wages

94.
Downloads 27 (887,765)

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Consumer protection; Dodd-Frank Act; regulation

95.

Leveraging Machine Learning to Characterize the Role of Socio-Economic Determinants on Physical Health and Well-Being Among Veterans

Number of pages: 28 Posted: 19 Oct 2020
Christos Makridis, David Zhao, Cosmin (Adi) Bejan and Gil Alterovitz
Stanford University, Stanford University, School of Engineering, Computer Science, Students, Vanderbilt University and Department of Veterans Affairs (VA)
Downloads 27 (887,765)
Citation 3

Abstract:

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Artificial intelligence, machine learning, medical informatics, subjective well-being, veterans

96.

The Labor Market Earnings of Veterans: Is Military Experience More or Less Valuable than Civilian Experience?

IZA Discussion Paper No. 14636
Number of pages: 33 Posted: 14 Aug 2021 Last Revised: 19 May 2022
Christos Makridis, Barry T. Hirsch and Barry T. Hirsch
Stanford University and IZA Institute of Labor EconomicsGeorgia State University
Downloads 22 (934,925)
Citation 2

Abstract:

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licensing, work experience, earnings levels and dispersion, military veterans, public sector, occupation growth

97.

How Many Americans Work Remotely? A Survey of Surveys and Their Measurement Issues

NBER Working Paper No. w31193
Number of pages: 49 Posted: 02 May 2023 Last Revised: 15 May 2023
National Bureau of Economic Research (NBER), New York University (NYU) - Department of Information, Operations, and Management Sciences, Stanford University, Princeton University - Industrial Relations Section, Economic Innovation Group, University of Pennsylvania - Operations & Information Management Department and MIT Sloan
Downloads 14 (1,016,644)
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98.

Counties With Growth in Religiosity Exhibited Greater Labor Market Resilience During Covid-19

Number of pages: 27 Posted: 14 May 2024
Christos Makridis and Byron Johnson
Stanford University and Baylor University - Institute for Studies of Religion
Downloads 9 (1,091,919)

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COVID-19, Christianity, Labor Market, Religiosity, Social Capital

99.

Pandemic Response Policies’ Democratizing Effects on Online Learning

Posted: 04 Nov 2020 Last Revised: 03 Feb 2021
René Kizilcec, Christos Makridis and Katharine Sadowski
Cornell University, Stanford University and Cornell University

Abstract:

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Coronavirus, COVID-19, Education, EdTech, Human Capital, Online Learning, Nonessential Business Closures, Stay at Home Orders

100.

Understanding the Impact of COVID-19 Intervention Policies on the Labor Market of the Hospitality and Retail Industries

Posted: 29 Jun 2020
University of Central Florida, Stanford University, University of Central Florida - Rosen College of Hospitality Management, University of Central Florida - Rosen College of Hospitality Management and University of Central Florida

Abstract:

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COVID-19, labor market, employment, coronavirus intervention policy, retail and hospitality sectors

101.

Beating the Heat: Temperature and Spatial Reallocation over the Short and Long-run

Posted: 11 Jan 2019
Christos Makridis and Tyler Ransom
Stanford University and University of Oklahoma

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climate, productivity, reallocation, weather, growth

102.

Work and Grow Rich: The Dynamic Effects of Performance Pay Contracts

Posted: 11 Jan 2019
Christos Makridis
Stanford University

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human capital, skill premium, earnings inequality, on the job learning, pay for performance