Brent Mittelstadt

University of Oxford - Oxford Internet Institute

1 St. Giles

University of Oxford

Oxford OX1 3PG Oxfordshire, Oxfordshire OX1 3JS

United Kingdom

SCHOLARLY PAPERS

25

DOWNLOADS
Rank 672

SSRN RANKINGS

Top 672

in Total Papers Downloads

59,022

SSRN CITATIONS
Rank 3,994

SSRN RANKINGS

Top 3,994

in Total Papers Citations

402

CROSSREF CITATIONS

56

Scholarly Papers (25)

1.

A Right to Reasonable Inferences: Re-Thinking Data Protection Law in the Age of Big Data and AI

Columbia Business Law Review, 2019(2)
Number of pages: 130 Posted: 05 Oct 2018 Last Revised: 25 Jun 2019
Sandra Wachter and Brent Mittelstadt
University of Oxford - Oxford Internet Institute and University of Oxford - Oxford Internet Institute
Downloads 13,085 (667)
Citation 52

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Accountability, Artificial Intelligence, Automated Decision-Making, Big Data, Copyright, Data Analytics, Data Protection, Discrimination, General Data Protection Regulation, Inferences, Intellectual Property, Privacy, Trade Secrets

2.

Why a Right to Explanation of Automated Decision-Making Does Not Exist in the General Data Protection Regulation

International Data Privacy Law, 2017
Number of pages: 47 Posted: 24 Jan 2017 Last Revised: 25 Feb 2022
Sandra Wachter, Brent Mittelstadt and Luciano Floridi
University of Oxford - Oxford Internet Institute, University of Oxford - Oxford Internet Institute and Yale University - Digital Ethics Center
Downloads 10,812 (938)
Citation 60

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artificial intelligence, algorithms, automated decision-making, data protection, General Data Protection Regulation, right to explanation, right of access

3.

Why Fairness Cannot Be Automated: Bridging the Gap Between EU Non-Discrimination Law and AI

Computer Law & Security Review 41 (2021): 105567.
Number of pages: 72 Posted: 27 Mar 2020 Last Revised: 28 Sep 2021
Sandra Wachter, Brent Mittelstadt and Chris Russell
University of Oxford - Oxford Internet Institute, University of Oxford - Oxford Internet Institute and University of Oxford - Oxford Internet Institute
Downloads 6,601 (2,145)
Citation 7

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AI, EU, Non-Discrimination Law, Fairness, Discrimination, Bias, Algorithms, Law, Demographic Parity, Machine Learning, Artificial Intelligence, Algorithms

4.

Counterfactual Explanations Without Opening the Black Box: Automated Decisions and the GDPR

Harvard Journal of Law & Technology, 31 (2), 2018
Number of pages: 47 Posted: 02 Nov 2017 Last Revised: 22 Apr 2019
Sandra Wachter, Brent Mittelstadt and Chris Russell
University of Oxford - Oxford Internet Institute, University of Oxford - Oxford Internet Institute and University of Oxford - Oxford Internet Institute
Downloads 6,020 (2,517)
Citation 442

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accountability, algorithms, artificial intelligence, auditing, automated decision-making, counterfactuals, data ethics, data protection, explainability, GDPR, interpretability, machine learning, right to explanation, transparency

5.

Bias Preservation in Machine Learning: The Legality of Fairness Metrics Under EU Non-Discrimination Law

West Virginia Law Review, Vol. 123, No. 3, 2021
Number of pages: 51 Posted: 03 Mar 2021 Last Revised: 19 Aug 2021
Sandra Wachter, Brent Mittelstadt and Chris Russell
University of Oxford - Oxford Internet Institute, University of Oxford - Oxford Internet Institute and University of Oxford - Oxford Internet Institute
Downloads 4,527 (4,123)
Citation 35

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artificial intelligence, machine learning, law, discrimination, non-discrimination, anti-discrimination, algorithms, European Union, bias, fairness, automated decision-making, fairness metrics, equality, substantive equality, formal equality, auditing

6.

The Ethics of Algorithms: Mapping the Debate

Big Data & Society, Vol. 3(2), DOI: 10.1177/2053951716679679, 2016
Number of pages: 68 Posted: 07 Feb 2017
University of Oxford - Oxford Internet Institute, University of Oxford - Oxford Internet Institute, University of Oxford - Oxford Internet Institute, University of Oxford - Oxford Internet Institute and Yale University - Digital Ethics Center
Downloads 3,045 (7,868)
Citation 54

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Algorithms, Artificial Intelligence, Automation, Big Data, Data Analytics, Data Mining, Ethics, Machine Learning

7.

Principles Alone Cannot Guarantee Ethical AI

Nature Machine Intelligence, November 2019
Number of pages: 19 Posted: 13 Jun 2019 Last Revised: 05 Nov 2019
Brent Mittelstadt
University of Oxford - Oxford Internet Institute
Downloads 2,845 (8,754)
Citation 98

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artificial intelligence, ethics, governance, regulation, principilism, principles, value-sensitive design, machine learning

8.

Artificial Intelligence and the 'Good Society': The US, EU, and UK Approach

Number of pages: 24 Posted: 27 Jan 2017 Last Revised: 08 Apr 2020
University of Oxford - Oxford Internet Institute, University of Oxford - Oxford Internet Institute, University of Oxford - Oxford Internet Institute, University of Oxford - Oxford Internet Institute and Yale University - Digital Ethics Center
Downloads 2,670 (9,729)
Citation 30

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Algorithms, Artificial Intelligence, Data Ethics, Good Society, Human Dignity, Politics, Law, Economics

9.

Explaining Explanations in AI

Proceedings of FAT* ’19: Conference on Fairness, Accountability, and Transparency (FAT* ’19), January 29–31, 2019, Atlanta, GA, USA. ACM, New York, NY, USA, doi/10.1145/3287560.3287574, ISBN: 978-1-4503-6125-5
Number of pages: 10 Posted: 27 Nov 2018
Brent Mittelstadt, Chris Russell and Sandra Wachter
University of Oxford - Oxford Internet Institute, University of Oxford - Oxford Internet Institute and University of Oxford - Oxford Internet Institute
Downloads 1,087 (38,397)
Citation 26

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interpretability, explanations, accountability, philosophy of science, data ethics, machine learning, artificial intelligence, automated decision-making

10.

The Unfairness of Fair Machine Learning: Levelling down and strict egalitarianism by default

Michigan Technology Law Review (2023)
Number of pages: 49 Posted: 24 Jan 2023 Last Revised: 26 Apr 2024
Brent Mittelstadt, Sandra Wachter and Chris Russell
University of Oxford - Oxford Internet Institute, University of Oxford - Oxford Internet Institute and University of Oxford - Oxford Internet Institute
Downloads 1,020 (42,062)

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artificial intelligence, machine learning, fairness, bias, discrimination, distributive justice, philosophy, egalitarianism, equality law, anti-discrimination law

11.

Trustworthy Artificial Intelligence and the European Union AI Act: On the Conflation of Trustworthiness and the Acceptability of Risk

Number of pages: 35 Posted: 03 Oct 2022
Johann Laux, Sandra Wachter and Brent Mittelstadt
University of Oxford - Oxford Internet Institute, University of Oxford - Oxford Internet Institute and University of Oxford - Oxford Internet Institute
Downloads 917 (48,870)

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Artificial Intelligence, AI Act, Trust, Regulation, Risk, Law, European Union, Policy, Literature Review

12.

Three Pathways for Standardisation and Ethical Disclosure by Default under the European Union Artificial Intelligence Act

Laux, J., Wachter, S. and Mittelstadt, B. Three pathways for standardisation and ethical disclosure by default under the European Union Artificial Intelligence Act. Forthcoming in Computer Law & Security Review.
Number of pages: 33 Posted: 25 Feb 2023 Last Revised: 26 Mar 2024
Johann Laux, Sandra Wachter and Brent Mittelstadt
University of Oxford - Oxford Internet Institute, University of Oxford - Oxford Internet Institute and University of Oxford - Oxford Internet Institute
Downloads 881 (51,597)
Citation 10

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Artificial Intelligence, AI Act, Standardisation, AI Ethics, Regulation

13.

Do large language models have a legal duty to tell the truth?

Royal Society Open Science
Number of pages: 49 Posted: 15 Apr 2024 Last Revised: 16 May 2024
Sandra Wachter, Brent Mittelstadt and Chris Russell
University of Oxford - Oxford Internet Institute, University of Oxford - Oxford Internet Institute and University of Oxford - Oxford Internet Institute
Downloads 860 (57,108)

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artificial intelligence, generative AI, human rights, European Union, law, ethics, philosophy of science, hallucinations, large language models, truth, democracy, epistemology

14.

Neutralizing Online Behavioural Advertising: Algorithmic Targeting with Market Power as an Unfair Commercial Practice

Common Market Law Review, 58(3), 2021
Number of pages: 31 Posted: 12 Apr 2021 Last Revised: 25 Sep 2022
Johann Laux, Sandra Wachter and Brent Mittelstadt
University of Oxford - Oxford Internet Institute, University of Oxford - Oxford Internet Institute and University of Oxford - Oxford Internet Institute
Downloads 831 (55,817)
Citation 3

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Online behavioural advertising, digital single market, consumer law, competition law, Unfair Commercial Practices Directive, market regulation, law and economics, platform economy, Digital Markets Act, Digital Services Act, EU, European Union

15.

Transparent, Explainable, and Accountable AI for Robotics

Science Robotics, Vol. 2, Issue 6, eaan6080, 31 May 2017, DOI:10.1126/scirobotics.aan6080
Number of pages: 5 Posted: 03 Aug 2017 Last Revised: 02 Dec 2017
Sandra Wachter, Brent Mittelstadt and Luciano Floridi
University of Oxford - Oxford Internet Institute, University of Oxford - Oxford Internet Institute and Yale University - Digital Ethics Center
Downloads 754 (63,648)
Citation 3

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Ethics; Philosophy; Computer Science; Artificial Intelligence; Robotics; Data Protection

16.

Philosophy Meets Internet Engineering: Ethics in Networked Systems Research. (GTC Workshop Outcomes Paper)

Number of pages: 37 Posted: 30 Sep 2015
University of Oxford - Oxford Internet Institute, University of Oxford - Oxford Internet Institute, University of Oxford - Faculty of Philosophy, The Hague University of Applied Sciences, University of Oxford - Oxford Internet Institute, University of Oxford - Uehiro Centre for Practical Ethics and Google - Open Source Research
Downloads 655 (76,264)
Citation 7

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Practical ethics, computer ethics, technology law, Internet engineering

17.

Interpretability and Transparency in Artificial Intelligence

in Carissa Véliz (ed.), The Oxford Handbook of Digital Ethics (online edn, Oxford Academic, 10 Nov. 2021), https://doi.org/10.1093/oxfordhb/9780198857815.013.20
Number of pages: 53 Posted: 10 Jan 2023
Brent Mittelstadt
University of Oxford - Oxford Internet Institute
Downloads 623 (81,826)

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artificial intelligence, machine learning, algorithm, transparency, interpretability, explainable AI, XAI, accountability, philosophy of science, ethics

18.

Ethics of the Health-Related Internet of Things: A Narrative Review

Ethics and Information Technology, 2017
Number of pages: 19 Posted: 15 Mar 2017 Last Revised: 01 Aug 2017
Brent Mittelstadt
University of Oxford - Oxford Internet Institute
Downloads 523 (101,574)
Citation 2

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Internet of things, data ethics, medicine, data analytics, privacy, review, health, bioethics

19.

Taming the Few: Platform Regulation, Independent Audits, and the Risks of Capture Created by the DMA and DSA

Computer Law & Security Review, 43 (2021): 105613.
Number of pages: 28 Posted: 03 May 2022 Last Revised: 17 Nov 2022
Johann Laux, Sandra Wachter and Brent Mittelstadt
University of Oxford - Oxford Internet Institute, University of Oxford - Oxford Internet Institute and University of Oxford - Oxford Internet Institute
Downloads 315 (180,026)
Citation 7

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Digital Markets Act, Digital Services Act, Platform Economy, Platform Regulation, Digital Markets, Auditing, Market Power, Regulatory Capture, Incentives, Data Access, European Union Law, Targeted Advertising, Recommender Systems, Social Media

20.

The Concentration-after-Personalisation Index (CAPI): Governing Effects of Personalisation Using the Example of Targeted Online Advertising

Number of pages: 30 Posted: 19 Apr 2022
University of Oxford - Oxford Internet Institute, University of Oxford - Oxford Internet Institute, affiliation not provided to SSRN, University of Oxford - Oxford Internet Institute and University of Oxford - Oxford Internet Institute
Downloads 230 (247,256)

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targeted advertising, personalisation, consumer welfare, consumer protection, consumer law, competition law; EU law, platform regulation, Digital Services Act, AI Act, Unfair Commercial Practices Directive, digital markets, law and economics, novel metrics

21.

How AI Challenges the Medical Device Regulation: Patient Safety, Benefits, and Intended Uses

Daria Onitiu, Sandra Wachter, Brent Mittelstadt, How AI challenges the medical device regulation: patient safety, benefits, and intended uses, Journal of Law and the Biosciences (9 April 2024).
Number of pages: 50 Posted: 05 Dec 2023 Last Revised: 11 Apr 2024
Daria Onitiu, Sandra Wachter and Brent Mittelstadt
University of Oxford - Oxford Internet Institute, University of Oxford - Oxford Internet Institute and University of Oxford - Oxford Internet Institute
Downloads 207 (272,884)

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Artificial Intelligence, Medical Device Regulation, AI-based medical device

22.

Designing the Health-Related Internet of Things: Ethical Principles and Guidelines

Information 8(3)
Number of pages: 25 Posted: 31 Mar 2017 Last Revised: 01 Aug 2017
Brent Mittelstadt
University of Oxford - Oxford Internet Institute
Downloads 192 (292,194)
Citation 2

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Internet of Things; Data Ethics; Health; Data Analytics; Responsible Research and Innovation

23.

‘The Doctor Will Not See You Now’: The Algorithmic Displacement of Virtuous Medicine

Otto, P. and E. Gräf (eds) 3TH1CS - The Reinvention of Ethics in the Digital Age. 2017. iRights.Media, Berlin.
Number of pages: 8 Posted: 02 Jan 2019
Brent Mittelstadt
University of Oxford - Oxford Internet Institute
Downloads 114 (446,722)

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ethics, bioethics, health monitoring, quantified self, medical ethics, philosophy, telemedicine, telehealth, e-health

24.

Is There a Duty to Participate in Digital Epidemiology?

Forthcoming in Life Sciences, Society and Policy
Number of pages: 23 Posted: 01 May 2018
University of Oxford - Oxford Internet Institute, Robert Koch Institute, University of Edinburgh, University of Vienna - Department of Political Sciences and ETH Zurich
Downloads 110 (458,731)

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bioethics, digital epidemiology, social media, public health, surveillance, ethics

25.

Trust and Trustworthiness in Artificial Intelligence

Gillis, R., Laux, J. and Mittelstadt, B. 2024. Trust and Trustworthiness in Artificial Intelligence. In: Paul, R., Carmel, E. and J. Cobbe (eds.), Handbook on Artificial Intelligence and Public Policy, Cheltenham Spa: Edward Elgar
Number of pages: 21 Posted: 06 Feb 2024
Rory Gillis, Johann Laux and Brent Mittelstadt
University of Oxford - Oxford Internet Institute, University of Oxford - Oxford Internet Institute and University of Oxford - Oxford Internet Institute
Downloads 98 (497,223)
Citation 1

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Artificial Intelligence, Public Policy