Andrew Toole

United States Patent and Trademark Office

Alexandria

VA 22313-1451

United States

SCHOLARLY PAPERS

29

DOWNLOADS
Rank 5,690

SSRN RANKINGS

Top 5,690

in Total Papers Downloads

13,691

SSRN CITATIONS
Rank 4,679

SSRN RANKINGS

Top 4,679

in Total Papers Citations

132

CROSSREF CITATIONS

246

Scholarly Papers (29)

1.

Patent Litigation Data from US District Court Electronic Records (1963-2015)

USPTO Economic Working Paper No. 2017-06
Number of pages: 40 Posted: 29 Mar 2017
Alan C. Marco, Asrat Tesfayesus and Andrew Toole
Georgia Institute of Technology - School of Public Policy, United States Patent and Trademark Office and United States Patent and Trademark Office
Downloads 4,480 (4,101)
Citation 8

Abstract:

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Patents, Litigation, Intellectual Property

2.

Identifying Artificial Intelligence (AI) Invention: A Novel AI Patent Dataset

USPTO Economic Working Paper No. 2021-2, The Journal of Technology Transfer
Number of pages: 62 Posted: 30 Jun 2021 Last Revised: 15 Nov 2021
United States Patent and Trademark Office, United States Patent and Trademark Office and United States Patent and Trademark Office
Downloads 3,472 (6,266)
Citation 8

Abstract:

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patent, patent landscape, artificial intelligence, AI, machine learning, patent dataset

3.

USPTO Patent Prosecution and Examiner Performance Appraisal

USPTO Economic Working Paper No. 2017-08
Number of pages: 19 Posted: 01 Jul 2017
Georgia Institute of Technology - School of Public Policy, United States Patent and Trademark Office, United States Patent and Trademark Office and United States Patent and Trademark Office
Downloads 1,117 (36,166)
Citation 4

Abstract:

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USPTO, patent examination, examiner incentives

4.

PatentsView: An Open Data Platform to Advance Science and Technology Policy

USPTO Economic Working Paper No. 2021-1
Number of pages: 12 Posted: 30 Jun 2021
United States Patent and Trademark Office, American Institutes for Research and American Institutes for Research
Downloads 580 (87,145)
Citation 1

Abstract:

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Patent data, big data, data science, innovation, science and technology policy

Individual versus Institutional Ownership of University-Discovered Inventions

USPTO Economic Working Paper No. 2017-07
Number of pages: 45 Posted: 01 Jul 2017
KU Leuven - Department of Managerial Economics, Strategy, and Innovation, ZEW – Leibniz Centre for European Economic Research, Universite du Luxembourg, ZEW – Leibniz Centre for European Economic Research and United States Patent and Trademark Office
Downloads 165 (328,356)
Citation 2

Abstract:

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Intellectual property, patents, technology transfer, policy evaluation

Individual versus Institutional Ownership of University-Discovered Inventions

ZEW - Centre for European Economic Research Discussion Paper No. 15-007
Number of pages: 67 Posted: 26 Feb 2015
KU Leuven - Department of Managerial Economics, Strategy, and Innovation, ZEW – Leibniz Centre for European Economic Research, Universite du Luxembourg, ZEW – Leibniz Centre for European Economic Research and United States Patent and Trademark Office
Downloads 141 (374,190)
Citation 6

Abstract:

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Intellectual property, patents, technology transfer, policy evaluation

Individual Versus Institutional Ownership of University-Discovered Inventions

Number of pages: 41 Posted: 29 Jan 2015
KU Leuven - Department of Managerial Economics, Strategy, and Innovation, ZEW – Leibniz Centre for European Economic Research, Universite du Luxembourg, ZEW – Leibniz Centre for European Economic Research and United States Patent and Trademark Office
Downloads 80 (561,889)
Citation 2

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Intellectual property, patents, technology transfer, policy evaluation

The Dynamic Relationship between Investments in Brand Equity and Firm Profitability: Evidence Using Trademark Registrations

USPTO Economic Working Paper 2016-1
Number of pages: 34 Posted: 06 Oct 2016
Dirk Crass, Dirk Czarnitzki and Andrew Toole
ZEW – Leibniz Centre for European Economic Research, KU Leuven - Department of Managerial Economics, Strategy, and Innovation and United States Patent and Trademark Office
Downloads 167 (324,858)

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Brand Equity, Firm Profitability, Intellectual Property Rights, Trademarks

The Dynamic Relationship between Investments in Brand Equity and Firm Profitability: Evidence Using Trademark Registrations

ZEW - Centre for European Economic Research Discussion Paper No. 16-04
Number of pages: 35 Posted: 05 Apr 2016
Dirk Crass, Dirk Czarnitzki and Andrew Toole
ZEW – Leibniz Centre for European Economic Research, KU Leuven - Department of Managerial Economics, Strategy, and Innovation and United States Patent and Trademark Office
Downloads 94 (506,985)
Citation 12

Abstract:

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Brand Equity, Firm Profitability, Intellectual Property Rights, Trademarks

The Dynamic Relationship between Investments in Brand Equity and Firm Profitability: Evidence Using Trademark Registrations

Number of pages: 35 Posted: 01 Feb 2016
Dirk Crass, Dirk Czarnitzki and Andrew Toole
ZEW – Leibniz Centre for European Economic Research, KU Leuven - Department of Managerial Economics, Strategy, and Innovation and United States Patent and Trademark Office
Downloads 77 (574,819)
Citation 3

Abstract:

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Brand Equity, Firm Profitability, Intellectual Property Rights, Trademarks

7.

The Promise of Machine Learning for Patent Landscaping

USPTO Economic Working Paper No. 2020-1, Santa Clara High Technology Law Journal 2020-1
Number of pages: 9 Posted: 17 Mar 2020 Last Revised: 08 Nov 2021
United States Patent and Trademark Office, United States Patent and Trademark Office, Google and United States Patent and Trademark Office
Downloads 310 (179,991)
Citation 1

Abstract:

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patent landscape, machine learning, keyword and classification search

8.

Using Intellectual Property Data to Measure Cross-border Knowledge Flows

USPTO Economic Working Paper No. 2019-02
Number of pages: 40 Posted: 14 May 2019
University of Denver, United States Patent and Trademark Office, United States Patent and Trademark Office and United States Patent and Trademark Office
Downloads 305 (183,110)

Abstract:

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intellectual property, measurement, technology transfer, international knowledge flows

9.

Exploring the Relationship Between Scientist Human Capital and Firm Performance: The Case of Biomedical Academic Entrepreneurs in the SBIR Program

ZEW - Centre for European Economic Research Discussion Paper No. 07-011
Number of pages: 33 Posted: 28 Feb 2007 Last Revised: 14 Jun 2014
Andrew Toole and Dirk Czarnitzki
United States Patent and Trademark Office and KU Leuven - Department of Managerial Economics, Strategy, and Innovation
Downloads 304 (183,730)
Citation 8

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Academic Entrepreneurship, SBIR Program, Human Capital, Biotechnology

10.

Closing the Gender Gap in Patenting: Evidence from a Randomized Control Trial at the USPTO

USPTO Economic Working Paper No. 1, 2022
Number of pages: 42 Posted: 14 Nov 2022 Last Revised: 03 Jan 2023
United States Patent and Trademark Office, United States Patent and Trademark Office, United States Patent and Trademark Office, EMLV and University of Washington, Information School
Downloads 294 (190,365)

Abstract:

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RCT, patent, gender gap, invention, innovation

11.

Patent Protection, Market Uncertainty, and R&D Investment

ZEW - Centre for European Economic Research Discussion Paper No. 06-056
Number of pages: 11 Posted: 22 Aug 2006 Last Revised: 26 Aug 2008
Dirk Czarnitzki and Andrew Toole
KU Leuven - Department of Managerial Economics, Strategy, and Innovation and United States Patent and Trademark Office
Downloads 259 (216,463)
Citation 15

Abstract:

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Real Options Theory, Uncertainty, R&D, Intellectual Property Protection, Censored Regression

12.

Innovation Activities and Business Cycles: Are Trademarks a Leading Indicator?

USPTO Economic Working Paper No. 2019-04
Number of pages: 41 Posted: 26 Jul 2019 Last Revised: 23 Sep 2019
Charles deGrazia, Amanda Myers and Andrew Toole
EMLV, United States Patent and Trademark Office and United States Patent and Trademark Office
Downloads 206 (269,586)

Abstract:

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trademark, leading economic indicator, innovation

13.

The R&D Investment-Uncertainty Relationship: Do Competition and Firm Size Matter?

ZEW - Centre for European Economic Research Discussion Paper No. 08-013
Number of pages: 23 Posted: 10 Mar 2008 Last Revised: 14 Aug 2008
Dirk Czarnitzki and Andrew Toole
KU Leuven - Department of Managerial Economics, Strategy, and Innovation and United States Patent and Trademark Office
Downloads 194 (284,624)
Citation 2

Abstract:

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Real Options Theory, Uncertainty, R&D, Competition, Firm Size

14.

The Impact of Public Basic Research on Industrial Innovation: Evidence from the Pharmaceutical Industry

ZEW - Centre for European Economic Research Discussion Paper No. 11-063
Number of pages: 43 Posted: 12 Jan 2012
Andrew Toole
United States Patent and Trademark Office
Downloads 167 (324,975)
Citation 20

Abstract:

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R&D, NIH, social return, biomedical, research lags, public science, new molecular entities

15.

Is Public R&D a Complement or Substitute for Private R&D? A Review of the Econometric Evidence

NBER Working Paper No. w7373
Number of pages: 72 Posted: 20 Mar 2000 Last Revised: 26 Aug 2022
Paul A. David, Bronwyn H. Hall and Andrew Toole
Stanford University - Department of Economics, University of California at Berkeley and United States Patent and Trademark Office
Downloads 152 (351,918)
Citation 29

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16.
Downloads 144 (367,589)
Citation 2

University Spinoffs and the 'Performance Premium'

ZEW - Centre for European Economic Research Discussion Paper No. 13-004
Number of pages: 34 Posted: 31 Jan 2013
Dirk Czarnitzki, Christian Rammer and Andrew Toole
KU Leuven - Department of Managerial Economics, Strategy, and Innovation, ZEW – Leibniz Centre for European Economic Research - Industrial Economics and International Management Research and United States Patent and Trademark Office
Downloads 88 (529,241)
Citation 4

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Academic Entrepreneurship, Startups, Firm Performance, Technology Transfer, Open Science, University Spinoff Policy, Human Capital, Social Capital

University Spinoffs and the 'Performance Premium'

Number of pages: 32 Posted: 26 Mar 2013
Dirk Czarnitzki, Christian Rammer and Andrew Toole
KU Leuven - Department of Managerial Economics, Strategy, and Innovation, ZEW – Leibniz Centre for European Economic Research - Industrial Economics and International Management Research and United States Patent and Trademark Office
Downloads 56 (683,120)
Citation 8

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Academic Entrepreneurship, Startups, Firm performance, Technology Transfer, Open Science, University Spinoff Policy, Human Capital, Social Capital

Knowledge Creates Markets: The Influence of Entrepreneurial Support and Patent Rights on Academic Entrepreneurship

USPTO Economic Working Paper 2016-2
Number of pages: 47 Posted: 06 Oct 2016
KU Leuven - Department of Managerial Economics, Strategy, and Innovation, ZEW – Leibniz Centre for European Economic Research, Universite du Luxembourg, ZEW – Leibniz Centre for European Economic Research and United States Patent and Trademark Office
Downloads 98 (493,129)

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Intellectual Property, Patents, Technology Transfer, Policy Evaluation

Knowledge Creates Markets: The Influence of Entrepreneurial Support and Patent Rights on Academic Entrepreneurship

European Economic Review, Forthcoming, KU Leuven, Faculty of Economics and Business, MSI_1604
Number of pages: 48 Posted: 21 May 2016
KU Leuven - Department of Managerial Economics, Strategy, and Innovation, ZEW – Leibniz Centre for European Economic Research, Universite du Luxembourg, ZEW – Leibniz Centre for European Economic Research and United States Patent and Trademark Office
Downloads 38 (807,197)

Abstract:

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Intellectual property, patents, technology transfer, policy evaluation

18.

Business R&D and the Interplay of R&D Subsidies and Market Uncertainty

Review of Industrial Organization, Vol. 31, No. 3, 2007, ZEW - Centre for European Economic Research Discussion Paper No. 06-055
Number of pages: 22 Posted: 22 Aug 2006 Last Revised: 26 Aug 2008
Dirk Czarnitzki and Andrew Toole
KU Leuven - Department of Managerial Economics, Strategy, and Innovation and United States Patent and Trademark Office
Downloads 129 (400,624)

Abstract:

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Real Options Theory, Uncertainty, R&D, Censored Regression

19.

How Does Initial Public Financing Influence Private Incentives for Follow-On Investment in Early-Stage Technologies?

Journal of Technology Transfer, Forthcoming
Number of pages: 29 Posted: 08 Dec 2007
Andrew Toole and Calum G. Turvey
United States Patent and Trademark Office and Cornell University - Charles H. Dyson School of Applied Economics and Management
Downloads 126 (407,917)
Citation 4

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R&D, real options, uncertainty, public subsidies, innovation

University Research Alliances, Absorptive Capacity, and the Contribution of Startups to Employment Growth

ZEW - Centre for European Economic Research Discussion Paper No. 14-094
Number of pages: 29 Posted: 04 Dec 2014
Andrew Toole, Dirk Czarnitzki and Christian Rammer
United States Patent and Trademark Office, KU Leuven - Department of Managerial Economics, Strategy, and Innovation and ZEW – Leibniz Centre for European Economic Research - Industrial Economics and International Management Research
Downloads 70 (607,578)

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Academic Entrepreneurship, Startups, Firm performance, Technology Transfer, University Spinoff Policy, Human Capital

University Research Alliances, Absorptive Capacity, and the Contribution of Startups to Employment Growth

Number of pages: 29 Posted: 25 Nov 2014
Andrew Toole, Dirk Czarnitzki and Christian Rammer
United States Patent and Trademark Office, KU Leuven - Department of Managerial Economics, Strategy, and Innovation and ZEW – Leibniz Centre for European Economic Research - Industrial Economics and International Management Research
Downloads 52 (707,594)

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Academic Entrepreneurship, Startups, Firm performance, Technology Transfer, University Spinoff Policy, Human Capital

Delay and Secrecy: Does Industry Sponsorship Jeopardize Disclosure of Academic Research?

ZEW - Centre for European Economic Research Discussion Paper No. 11-009
Number of pages: 31 Posted: 12 Feb 2011
KU Leuven - Department of Managerial Economics, Strategy, and Innovation, ZEW Centre for European Economic ResearchCopenhagen Business School - Department of Innovation and Organizational Economics and United States Patent and Trademark Office
Downloads 60 (659,956)
Citation 8

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Open Science, Research Funding, Industry Sponsorship, Disclosure, Secrecy

Delay and Secrecy: Does Industry Sponsorship Jeopardize Disclosure of Academic Research?

Number of pages: 29 Posted: 20 Mar 2011
KU Leuven - Department of Managerial Economics, Strategy, and Innovation, ZEW Centre for European Economic ResearchCopenhagen Business School - Department of Innovation and Organizational Economics and United States Patent and Trademark Office
Downloads 41 (784,121)
Citation 7

Abstract:

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open science, research funding, industry sponsorship, disclosure, secrecy

22.

The Miner Act of 2006: Innovating for Safety and Health in U.S. Mining

USPTO Economic Working Paper No. 2019-01
Number of pages: 19 Posted: 13 May 2019
Andrew Toole, James Forman and Asrat Tesfayesus
United States Patent and Trademark Office, Google and United States Patent and Trademark Office
Downloads 89 (520,494)
Citation 1

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23.

Industry-Science Connections in Agriculture: Do Public Science Collaborations and Knowledge Flows Contribute to Firm-Level Agricultural Research Productivity?

ZEW - Centre for European Economic Research Discussion Paper No. 11-064
Number of pages: 37 Posted: 12 Jan 2012
Andrew Toole and John L. King
United States Patent and Trademark Office and University of California, Davis
Downloads 70 (598,631)
Citation 3

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public science, research productivity, patents, citations, collaboration, R&D, bibliometrics

24.

Knowledge Creates Markets: The Influence of Entrepreneurial Support and Patent Rights on Academic Entrepreneurship

ZEW - Centre for European Economic Research Discussion Paper No. 16-036
Number of pages: 48 Posted: 28 Apr 2016
KU Leuven - Department of Managerial Economics, Strategy, and Innovation, ZEW – Leibniz Centre for European Economic Research, ZEW – Leibniz Centre for European Economic Research and United States Patent and Trademark Office
Downloads 61 (642,696)
Citation 3

Abstract:

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Intellectual property, patents, technology transfer, policy evaluation

25.

Biomedical Academic Entrepreneurship Through the Sbir Program

NBER Working Paper No. w11450
Number of pages: 36 Posted: 02 Aug 2005 Last Revised: 16 Oct 2022
Andrew Toole and Dirk Czarnitzki
United States Patent and Trademark Office and KU Leuven - Department of Managerial Economics, Strategy, and Innovation
Downloads 60 (647,973)
Citation 5

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26.

Technical Documentation for Patent Litigation Docket Reports Data, 1963-2020

USPTO Economic Working Paper No. 2024-1
Number of pages: 13 Posted: 02 Apr 2024
Andrew Toole, Richard Miller and Ted M. Sichelman
United States Patent and Trademark Office, United States Patent and Trademark Office and University of San Diego School of Law
Downloads 54 (686,824)

Abstract:

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patents, litigation, intellectual property

27.

Improving Health Through Nutrition Research: An Overview of the U.S. Nutrition Research System

USDA-ERS Economic Research Report Number 182
Number of pages: 33 Posted: 30 Dec 2015
Andrew Toole and Fred Kuchler
United States Patent and Trademark Office and U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA) - Economic Research Service (ERS)
Downloads 35 (808,787)
Citation 1

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Federal research, research and development, public investment, nutrition information system, Human Nutrition Research Information Management (HNRIM), formula funding, competitive funding

28.

Biomedical Academic Entrepreneurship Through the Sbir Program

Journal of Economic Behavior and Organization, 2006
Posted: 07 Jul 2006
Andrew Toole and Dirk Czarnitzki
United States Patent and Trademark Office and KU Leuven - Department of Managerial Economics, Strategy, and Innovation

Abstract:

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SBIR Program, entrepreneurship, real options, technology transfer, NIH

29.

Does Public Scientific Research Complement Private Research and Development Investment in the Pharmaceutical Industry?

Journal of Law and Economics, Vol. 50, No. 1, February 2007, ZEW - Centre for European Economic Research Discussion
Posted: 12 Apr 2006 Last Revised: 08 Feb 2014
Andrew Toole
United States Patent and Trademark Office

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R&D, pharmaceuticals, Uncertainty, NIH, Distributed lag models