Sandra Wachter

University of Oxford - Oxford Internet Institute

1 St. Giles

University of Oxford

Oxford OX1 3PG Oxfordshire, Oxfordshire OX1 3JS

United Kingdom

SCHOLARLY PAPERS

15

DOWNLOADS
Rank 786

SSRN RANKINGS

Top 786

in Total Papers Downloads

37,140

SSRN CITATIONS
Rank 5,559

SSRN RANKINGS

Top 5,559

in Total Papers Citations

182

CROSSREF CITATIONS

61

Scholarly Papers (15)

1.

Why a Right to Explanation of Automated Decision-Making Does Not Exist in the General Data Protection Regulation

International Data Privacy Law, 2017
Number of pages: 47 Posted: 24 Jan 2017 Last Revised: 08 Apr 2020
Sandra Wachter, Brent Mittelstadt and Luciano Floridi
University of Oxford - Oxford Internet Institute, University of Oxford - Oxford Internet Institute and University of Oxford - Oxford Internet Institute
Downloads 8,107 (866)
Citation 60

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artificial intelligence, algorithms, automated decision-making, data protection, General Data Protection Regulation, right to explanation, right of access

2.

A Right to Reasonable Inferences: Re-Thinking Data Protection Law in the Age of Big Data and AI

Columbia Business Law Review, 2019(2)
Number of pages: 130 Posted: 05 Oct 2018 Last Revised: 25 Jun 2019
Sandra Wachter and Brent Mittelstadt
University of Oxford - Oxford Internet Institute and University of Oxford - Oxford Internet Institute
Downloads 7,486 (999)
Citation 17

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Accountability, Artificial Intelligence, Automated Decision-Making, Big Data, Copyright, Data Analytics, Data Protection, Discrimination, General Data Protection Regulation, Inferences, Intellectual Property, Privacy, Trade Secrets

3.

Counterfactual Explanations Without Opening the Black Box: Automated Decisions and the GDPR

Harvard Journal of Law & Technology, 31 (2), 2018
Number of pages: 47 Posted: 02 Nov 2017 Last Revised: 22 Apr 2019
Sandra Wachter, Brent Mittelstadt and Chris Russell
University of Oxford - Oxford Internet Institute, University of Oxford - Oxford Internet Institute and Amazon Web Services, Inc.
Downloads 4,258 (2,680)
Citation 114

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accountability, algorithms, artificial intelligence, auditing, automated decision-making, counterfactuals, data ethics, data protection, explainability, GDPR, interpretability, machine learning, right to explanation, transparency

4.

Why Fairness Cannot Be Automated: Bridging the Gap Between EU Non-Discrimination Law and AI

Computer Law & Security Review (forthcoming)
Number of pages: 72 Posted: 27 Mar 2020 Last Revised: 17 May 2021
Sandra Wachter, Brent Mittelstadt and Chris Russell
University of Oxford - Oxford Internet Institute, University of Oxford - Oxford Internet Institute and Amazon Web Services, Inc.
Downloads 3,197 (4,409)
Citation 7

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AI, EU, Non-Discrimination Law, Fairness, Discrimination, Bias, Algorithms, Law, Demographic Parity, Machine Learning, Artificial Intelligence, Algorithms

5.

Affinity Profiling and Discrimination by Association in Online Behavioural Advertising

Berkeley Technology Law Journal, Vol. 35, No. 2, 2020, Forthcoming
Number of pages: 74 Posted: 13 Jun 2019 Last Revised: 25 Mar 2020
Sandra Wachter
University of Oxford - Oxford Internet Institute
Downloads 2,986 (4,949)
Citation 9

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advertising, algorithmic bias, artificial intelligence, data protection, discrimination, discrimination by association, equality, European Union, fairness, General Data Protection Regulation, group privacy, machine learning, non-discrimination law, privacy, profiling

6.

The Ethics of Algorithms: Mapping the Debate

Big Data & Society, Vol. 3(2), DOI: 10.1177/2053951716679679, 2016
Number of pages: 68 Posted: 07 Feb 2017
University of Oxford - Oxford Internet Institute, University of Oxford - Oxford Internet Institute, University of Oxford - Oxford Internet Institute, University of Oxford - Oxford Internet Institute and University of Oxford - Oxford Internet Institute
Downloads 2,133 (8,568)
Citation 35

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Algorithms, Artificial Intelligence, Automation, Big Data, Data Analytics, Data Mining, Ethics, Machine Learning

7.

Artificial Intelligence and the 'Good Society': The US, EU, and UK Approach

Number of pages: 24 Posted: 27 Jan 2017 Last Revised: 08 Apr 2020
University of Oxford - Oxford Internet Institute, University of Oxford - Oxford Internet Institute, University of Oxford - Oxford Internet Institute, University of Oxford - Oxford Internet Institute and University of Oxford - Oxford Internet Institute
Downloads 2,024 (9,365)
Citation 18

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Algorithms, Artificial Intelligence, Data Ethics, Good Society, Human Dignity, Politics, Law, Economics

8.

Bias Preservation in Machine Learning: The Legality of Fairness Metrics Under EU Non-Discrimination Law

West Virginia Law Review, Forthcoming
Number of pages: 51 Posted: 03 Mar 2021
Sandra Wachter, Brent Mittelstadt and Chris Russell
University of Oxford - Oxford Internet Institute, University of Oxford - Oxford Internet Institute and Amazon Web Services, Inc.
Downloads 1,752 (11,806)
Citation 2

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artificial intelligence, machine learning, law, discrimination, non-discrimination, anti-discrimination, algorithms, European Union, bias, fairness, automated decision-making, fairness metrics, equality, substantive equality, formal equality, auditing

9.

Normative Challenges of Identification in the Internet of Things: Privacy, Profiling, Discrimination, and the GDPR

Computer Law & Security Review, 34 (3), 436-449, 2018
Number of pages: 22 Posted: 07 Dec 2017 Last Revised: 16 Jun 2018
Sandra Wachter
University of Oxford - Oxford Internet Institute
Downloads 1,131 (23,164)
Citation 3

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Data Protection, Digital Ethics, Identity, Identification, Internet of Things, Privacy, Profiling, Discrimination, GDPR, Review

10.

Data Protection in the Age of Big Data

Nature Electronics Vol. 2, 6–7 (2019), DOI: 10.1038/s41928-018-0193-y
Number of pages: 4 Posted: 12 Apr 2019
Sandra Wachter
University of Oxford - Oxford Internet Institute
Downloads 1,087 (24,553)

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algorithmic accountability, AI, data protection,GDPR, a right to reasonable inferences

11.

The GDPR and the Internet of Things: A Three-Step Transparency Model

Law, Innovation and Technology doi.org/10.1080/17579961.2018.1527479
Number of pages: 32 Posted: 06 Mar 2018 Last Revised: 09 Oct 2018
Sandra Wachter
University of Oxford - Oxford Internet Institute
Downloads 971 (28,847)
Citation 5

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Data protection, Ethics, Privacy, Internet of things, Profiling

12.

Explaining Explanations in AI

Proceedings of FAT* ’19: Conference on Fairness, Accountability, and Transparency (FAT* ’19), January 29–31, 2019, Atlanta, GA, USA. ACM, New York, NY, USA, doi/10.1145/3287560.3287574, ISBN: 978-1-4503-6125-5
Number of pages: 10 Posted: 27 Nov 2018
Brent Mittelstadt, Chris Russell and Sandra Wachter
University of Oxford - Oxford Internet Institute, Amazon Web Services, Inc. and University of Oxford - Oxford Internet Institute
Downloads 805 (37,443)
Citation 16

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interpretability, explanations, accountability, philosophy of science, data ethics, machine learning, artificial intelligence, automated decision-making

13.

Privacy: Primus Inter Pares ― Privacy as a Precondition for Self-Development, Personal Fulfilment and the Free Enjoyment of Fundamental Human Rights

Number of pages: 26 Posted: 24 Jan 2017
Sandra Wachter
University of Oxford - Oxford Internet Institute
Downloads 505 (68,796)
Citation 2

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Data Protection, European Convention of Human Rights, Information Technologies, Legal Theory, Personal Fulfilment, Privacy, Self-Development

14.

Transparent, Explainable, and Accountable AI for Robotics

Science Robotics, Vol. 2, Issue 6, eaan6080, 31 May 2017, DOI:10.1126/scirobotics.aan6080
Number of pages: 5 Posted: 03 Aug 2017 Last Revised: 02 Dec 2017
Sandra Wachter, Brent Mittelstadt and Luciano Floridi
University of Oxford - Oxford Internet Institute, University of Oxford - Oxford Internet Institute and University of Oxford - Oxford Internet Institute
Downloads 484 (72,504)
Citation 3

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Ethics; Philosophy; Computer Science; Artificial Intelligence; Robotics; Data Protection

15.

Neutralizing Online Behavioural Advertising: Algorithmic Targeting with Market Power as an Unfair Commercial Practice

Common Market Law Review, 58(3), 2021 (Forthcoming)
Number of pages: 31 Posted: 12 Apr 2021
Johann Laux, Sandra Wachter and Brent Mittelstadt
University of Oxford - Oxford Internet Institute, University of Oxford - Oxford Internet Institute and University of Oxford - Oxford Internet Institute
Downloads 214 (175,183)

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Online behavioural advertising, digital single market, consumer law, competition law, Unfair Commercial Practices Directive, market regulation, law and economics, platform economy, Digital Markets Act, Digital Services Act, EU, European Union