Sandra Wachter

University of Oxford - Oxford Internet Institute

1 St. Giles

University of Oxford

Oxford OX1 3PG Oxfordshire, Oxfordshire OX1 3JS

United Kingdom

SCHOLARLY PAPERS

20

DOWNLOADS
Rank 706

SSRN RANKINGS

Top 706

in Total Papers Downloads

47,846

SSRN CITATIONS
Rank 5,856

SSRN RANKINGS

Top 5,856

in Total Papers Citations

184

CROSSREF CITATIONS

41

Scholarly Papers (20)

1.

A Right to Reasonable Inferences: Re-Thinking Data Protection Law in the Age of Big Data and AI

Columbia Business Law Review, 2019(2)
Number of pages: 130 Posted: 05 Oct 2018 Last Revised: 25 Jun 2019
Sandra Wachter and Brent Mittelstadt
University of Oxford - Oxford Internet Institute and University of Oxford - Oxford Internet Institute
Downloads 9,473 (842)
Citation 18

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Accountability, Artificial Intelligence, Automated Decision-Making, Big Data, Copyright, Data Analytics, Data Protection, Discrimination, General Data Protection Regulation, Inferences, Intellectual Property, Privacy, Trade Secrets

2.

Why a Right to Explanation of Automated Decision-Making Does Not Exist in the General Data Protection Regulation

International Data Privacy Law, 2017
Number of pages: 47 Posted: 24 Jan 2017 Last Revised: 25 Feb 2022
Sandra Wachter, Brent Mittelstadt and Luciano Floridi
University of Oxford - Oxford Internet Institute, University of Oxford - Oxford Internet Institute and University of Oxford - Oxford Internet Institute
Downloads 9,185 (883)
Citation 60

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artificial intelligence, algorithms, automated decision-making, data protection, General Data Protection Regulation, right to explanation, right of access

3.

Counterfactual Explanations Without Opening the Black Box: Automated Decisions and the GDPR

Harvard Journal of Law & Technology, 31 (2), 2018
Number of pages: 47 Posted: 02 Nov 2017 Last Revised: 22 Apr 2019
Sandra Wachter, Brent Mittelstadt and Chris Russell
University of Oxford - Oxford Internet Institute, University of Oxford - Oxford Internet Institute and Amazon Web Services, Inc.
Downloads 4,968 (2,549)
Citation 33

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accountability, algorithms, artificial intelligence, auditing, automated decision-making, counterfactuals, data ethics, data protection, explainability, GDPR, interpretability, machine learning, right to explanation, transparency

4.

Why Fairness Cannot Be Automated: Bridging the Gap Between EU Non-Discrimination Law and AI

Computer Law & Security Review 41 (2021): 105567.
Number of pages: 72 Posted: 27 Mar 2020 Last Revised: 28 Sep 2021
Sandra Wachter, Brent Mittelstadt and Chris Russell
University of Oxford - Oxford Internet Institute, University of Oxford - Oxford Internet Institute and Amazon Web Services, Inc.
Downloads 4,536 (3,003)
Citation 7

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AI, EU, Non-Discrimination Law, Fairness, Discrimination, Bias, Algorithms, Law, Demographic Parity, Machine Learning, Artificial Intelligence, Algorithms

5.

Affinity Profiling and Discrimination by Association in Online Behavioural Advertising

Berkeley Technology Law Journal, Vol. 35, No. 2, 2020
Number of pages: 74 Posted: 13 Jun 2019 Last Revised: 25 Sep 2022
Sandra Wachter
University of Oxford - Oxford Internet Institute
Downloads 3,852 (3,931)
Citation 9

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advertising, algorithmic bias, artificial intelligence, data protection, discrimination, discrimination by association, equality, European Union, fairness, General Data Protection Regulation, group privacy, machine learning, non-discrimination law, privacy, profiling

6.

Bias Preservation in Machine Learning: The Legality of Fairness Metrics Under EU Non-Discrimination Law

West Virginia Law Review, Vol. 123, No. 3, 2021
Number of pages: 51 Posted: 03 Mar 2021 Last Revised: 19 Aug 2021
Sandra Wachter, Brent Mittelstadt and Chris Russell
University of Oxford - Oxford Internet Institute, University of Oxford - Oxford Internet Institute and Amazon Web Services, Inc.
Downloads 3,128 (5,624)
Citation 7

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artificial intelligence, machine learning, law, discrimination, non-discrimination, anti-discrimination, algorithms, European Union, bias, fairness, automated decision-making, fairness metrics, equality, substantive equality, formal equality, auditing

7.

The Ethics of Algorithms: Mapping the Debate

Big Data & Society, Vol. 3(2), DOI: 10.1177/2053951716679679, 2016
Number of pages: 68 Posted: 07 Feb 2017
University of Oxford - Oxford Internet Institute, University of Oxford - Oxford Internet Institute, University of Oxford - Oxford Internet Institute, University of Oxford - Oxford Internet Institute and University of Oxford - Oxford Internet Institute
Downloads 2,451 (8,271)
Citation 33

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Algorithms, Artificial Intelligence, Automation, Big Data, Data Analytics, Data Mining, Ethics, Machine Learning

8.

Artificial Intelligence and the 'Good Society': The US, EU, and UK Approach

Number of pages: 24 Posted: 27 Jan 2017 Last Revised: 08 Apr 2020
University of Oxford - Oxford Internet Institute, University of Oxford - Oxford Internet Institute, University of Oxford - Oxford Internet Institute, University of Oxford - Oxford Internet Institute and University of Oxford - Oxford Internet Institute
Downloads 2,249 (9,481)
Citation 18

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Algorithms, Artificial Intelligence, Data Ethics, Good Society, Human Dignity, Politics, Law, Economics

9.

Data Protection in the Age of Big Data

Nature Electronics Vol. 2, 6–7 (2019), DOI: 10.1038/s41928-018-0193-y
Number of pages: 4 Posted: 12 Apr 2019
Sandra Wachter
University of Oxford - Oxford Internet Institute
Downloads 1,328 (21,680)

Abstract:

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algorithmic accountability, AI, data protection,GDPR, a right to reasonable inferences

10.

Normative Challenges of Identification in the Internet of Things: Privacy, Profiling, Discrimination, and the GDPR

Computer Law & Security Review, 34 (3), 436-449, 2018
Number of pages: 22 Posted: 07 Dec 2017 Last Revised: 16 Jun 2018
Sandra Wachter
University of Oxford - Oxford Internet Institute
Downloads 1,295 (22,528)
Citation 3

Abstract:

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Data Protection, Digital Ethics, Identity, Identification, Internet of Things, Privacy, Profiling, Discrimination, GDPR, Review

11.

The Theory of Artificial Immutability: Protecting Algorithmic Groups under Anti-Discrimination Law

Tulane Law Review, Forthcoming
Number of pages: 50 Posted: 06 May 2022
Sandra Wachter
University of Oxford - Oxford Internet Institute
Downloads 1,161 (26,478)

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law, legal theory, artificial intelligence, machine learning, bias, fairness, discrimination, equality, anti-discrimination, non-discrimination, protected groups, protected classes, computer science

12.

The GDPR and the Internet of Things: A Three-Step Transparency Model

Law, Innovation and Technology doi.org/10.1080/17579961.2018.1527479
Number of pages: 32 Posted: 06 Mar 2018 Last Revised: 09 Oct 2018
Sandra Wachter
University of Oxford - Oxford Internet Institute
Downloads 1,136 (27,234)
Citation 6

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Data protection, Ethics, Privacy, Internet of things, Profiling

13.

Explaining Explanations in AI

Proceedings of FAT* ’19: Conference on Fairness, Accountability, and Transparency (FAT* ’19), January 29–31, 2019, Atlanta, GA, USA. ACM, New York, NY, USA, doi/10.1145/3287560.3287574, ISBN: 978-1-4503-6125-5
Number of pages: 10 Posted: 27 Nov 2018
Brent Mittelstadt, Chris Russell and Sandra Wachter
University of Oxford - Oxford Internet Institute, Amazon Web Services, Inc. and University of Oxford - Oxford Internet Institute
Downloads 920 (36,875)
Citation 16

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interpretability, explanations, accountability, philosophy of science, data ethics, machine learning, artificial intelligence, automated decision-making

14.

Privacy: Primus Inter Pares ― Privacy as a Precondition for Self-Development, Personal Fulfilment and the Free Enjoyment of Fundamental Human Rights

Number of pages: 26 Posted: 24 Jan 2017
Sandra Wachter
University of Oxford - Oxford Internet Institute
Downloads 624 (61,910)
Citation 2

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Data Protection, European Convention of Human Rights, Information Technologies, Legal Theory, Personal Fulfilment, Privacy, Self-Development

15.

Transparent, Explainable, and Accountable AI for Robotics

Science Robotics, Vol. 2, Issue 6, eaan6080, 31 May 2017, DOI:10.1126/scirobotics.aan6080
Number of pages: 5 Posted: 03 Aug 2017 Last Revised: 02 Dec 2017
Sandra Wachter, Brent Mittelstadt and Luciano Floridi
University of Oxford - Oxford Internet Institute, University of Oxford - Oxford Internet Institute and University of Oxford - Oxford Internet Institute
Downloads 591 (66,185)
Citation 3

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Ethics; Philosophy; Computer Science; Artificial Intelligence; Robotics; Data Protection

16.

Neutralizing Online Behavioural Advertising: Algorithmic Targeting with Market Power as an Unfair Commercial Practice

Common Market Law Review, 58(3), 2021
Number of pages: 31 Posted: 12 Apr 2021 Last Revised: 25 Sep 2022
Johann Laux, Sandra Wachter and Brent Mittelstadt
University of Oxford - Oxford Internet Institute, University of Oxford - Oxford Internet Institute and University of Oxford - Oxford Internet Institute
Downloads 525 (76,781)
Citation 1

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Online behavioural advertising, digital single market, consumer law, competition law, Unfair Commercial Practices Directive, market regulation, law and economics, platform economy, Digital Markets Act, Digital Services Act, EU, European Union

17.

How Fair AI Can Make Us Richer

Wachter, S. How Fair AI Can Make Us Richer. European Data Protection Law Review. Volume 7, Issue 3 (2021). pp. 367 - 372. DOI: https://doi.org/10.21552/edpl/2021/3/5
Number of pages: 6 Posted: 06 May 2022
Sandra Wachter
University of Oxford - Oxford Internet Institute
Downloads 214 (201,970)

Abstract:

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artificial intelligence, fairness, bias, discrimination, equality, non-discrimination, law, EU, equality duties

18.

The Concentration-after-Personalisation Index (CAPI): Governing Effects of Personalisation Using the Example of Targeted Online Advertising

Number of pages: 30 Posted: 19 Apr 2022
University of Oxford - Oxford Internet Institute, University of Oxford - Oxford Internet Institute, affiliation not provided to SSRN, University of Oxford - Oxford Internet Institute and University of Oxford - Oxford Internet Institute
Downloads 136 (296,422)

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targeted advertising, personalisation, consumer welfare, consumer protection, consumer law, competition law; EU law, platform regulation, Digital Services Act, AI Act, Unfair Commercial Practices Directive, digital markets, law and economics, novel metrics

19.

Taming the Few: Platform Regulation, Independent Audits, and the Risks of Capture Created by the DMA and DSA

Number of pages: 28 Posted: 03 May 2022
Johann Laux, Sandra Wachter and Brent Mittelstadt
University of Oxford - Oxford Internet Institute, University of Oxford - Oxford Internet Institute and University of Oxford - Oxford Internet Institute
Downloads 72 (447,585)

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Digital Markets Act, Digital Services Act, Platform Economy, Platform Regulation, Digital Markets, Auditing, Market Power, Regulatory Capture, Incentives, Data Access, European Union Law, Targeted Advertising, Recommender Systems, Social Media

20.

Trustworthy Artificial Intelligence and the European Union AI Act: On the Conflation of Trustworthiness and the Acceptability of Risk

Number of pages: 35
Johann Laux, Sandra Wachter and Brent Mittelstadt
University of Oxford - Oxford Internet Institute, University of Oxford - Oxford Internet Institute and University of Oxford - Oxford Internet Institute
Downloads 2

Abstract:

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Artificial Intelligence, AI Act, Trust, Regulation, Risk, Law, European Union, Policy, Literature Review