Bart Custers

Leiden University - Center for Law and Digital Technologies

(full) professor of law and data science/director of eLaw

2300 RA Leiden, NL-2300RA

Netherlands

SCHOLARLY PAPERS

76

DOWNLOADS

18,405

SSRN CITATIONS

92

CROSSREF CITATIONS

38

Scholarly Papers (76)

1.

Drone Technology: Types, Payloads, Applications, Frequency Spectrum Issues and Future Developments

Vergouw B., Nagel H., Bondt G. & Custers B.H.M. (2016), Drone Technology: Types, Payloads, Applications, Frequency Spectrum Issues and Future Developments. In: Custers B.H.M. (red.) The Future of Drone Use. Heidelberg: Springer.
Number of pages: 25 Posted: 05 Oct 2017 Last Revised: 30 Jun 2019
Bas Vergouw, Huub Nagel, Geert Bondt and Bart Custers
Government of the Netherlands - The Research and Documentation Centre (WODC), De Haagse Hogenschool-The Hague, De Haagse Hogenschool-The Hague and Leiden University - Center for Law and Digital Technologies
Downloads 1,833 (16,797)

Abstract:

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Autonomy, Propulsion, Fixed-Wing Drones, Multirotor Drones, Frequency Spectrum, Wireless Communication, Interference, Swarms, Miniaturisation, Sensors

2.

AI in Criminal Law: An Overview of AI Applications in Substantive and Procedural Criminal Law

Custers, B.H.M. (2022) AI in Criminal Law: An Overview of AI Applications in Substantive and Procedural Criminal Law, in: B.H.M. Custers & E. Fosch Villaronga (eds.) Law and Artificial Intelligence, Heidelberg: Springer, p. 205-223.
Number of pages: 18 Posted: 24 Jan 2023
Bart Custers
Leiden University - Center for Law and Digital Technologies
Downloads 1,278 (29,029)

Abstract:

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cyber agent technology, deepfake technologies, evidence-based sanctioning, law enforcement technology, predictive policing, risk taxation instruments

3.

Pricing Privacy – The Right to Know the Value of Your Personal Data

Malgieri, G., and Custers, B. (2017) Pricing privacy: the right to know the value of your personal data, Computer Law & Security Review.
Number of pages: 22 Posted: 04 Oct 2017 Last Revised: 18 Dec 2017
Gianclaudio Malgieri and Bart Custers
Universiteit Leiden, eLaw and Leiden University - Center for Law and Digital Technologies
Downloads 1,116 (35,237)
Citation 7

Abstract:

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Privacy, personal data, data subject rights, big data, digital identities, data economy

4.

A Comparison of Data Protection Legislation and Policies Across the EU

Custers, B., Dechesne, F., Sears, A., Tani, T., Van der Hof, S. (2017) A comparison of data protection legislation and policies across the EU, Computer Law & Security Review, DOI: 10.1016/j.clsr.2017.09.001
Number of pages: 10 Posted: 26 Dec 2017 Last Revised: 30 Jan 2019
Leiden University - Center for Law and Digital Technologies, Leiden University - Centre for Law and Digital Technologies, Center for Law and Digital Technologies (eLaw), Leiden Law School, Leiden University, Leiden University - Centre for Law and Digital Technologies and Leiden University - Leiden Law School
Downloads 884 (48,954)
Citation 6

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privacy, data protection, comparative law, personal data, data protection authorities

5.

Nepnieuws, filterbubbels en echokamers (Fake News, Filter Bubbels and Echo Chambers)

Custers, B.H.M. (2019) Nepnieuws, filterbubbels en echokamers, In: S.van der Hof, B.H.M. Custers, F. Dechesne en E.L.O. Keymolen (eds.) Recht uit het hart, Universiteit Leiden: Meijers Instituut.
Number of pages: 6 Posted: 12 Mar 2019
Bart Custers
Leiden University - Center for Law and Digital Technologies
Downloads 728 (63,707)

Abstract:

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fake news, filter bubbels, echo chambers

6.

Artificiële intelligentie in het Strafrecht: een overzicht van actuele ontwikkelingen (Artificial Intelligence in Criminal Law: An Overview of Current Developments)

Custers, B.H.M. (2021) Artificiële intelligentie in het Strafrecht: een overzicht van actuele ontwikkelingen, Computerrecht, Nr. 4, 2021/157, p. 330-339.
Number of pages: 17 Posted: 17 Mar 2022
Bart Custers
Leiden University - Center for Law and Digital Technologies
Downloads 710 (65,786)

Abstract:

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AI, deepfakes, cyber agent technology, criminal law, big data analytics, predictive policing

7.

Big Data in Wetenschappelijk Onderzoek (Big Data in Scientific Research)

Custers B.H.M. (2016), Big Data in wetenschappelijk onderzoek, Justitiële Verkenningen 2016(1): 8-21.
Number of pages: 14 Posted: 26 Jul 2018
Bart Custers
Leiden University - Center for Law and Digital Technologies
Downloads 538 (93,270)

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big data, redlining, discrimination by proxy

8.

Regulating Initial Coin Offerings and Cryptocurrencies: A Comparison of Different Approaches in Nine Jurisdictions Worldwide

European Journal of Law and Technology, Vol. 10, Issue 3, pp. 29, 2019
Number of pages: 29 Posted: 28 Feb 2020
Bart Custers and Lara Overwater
Leiden University - Center for Law and Digital Technologies and Leiden University, Leiden Law School, Students
Downloads 507 (100,322)
Citation 2

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COs, bitcoins, blockchain technology, cryptocurrencies

9.

Consent and Privacy

Custers B.H.M., Dechesne F., Pieters W., Schermer B. & Hof S. van der (2018), Consent and Privacy. In: Müller A., Schaber P. (red.) The Routledge Handbook of the Ethics of Consent. London: Routledge. 247-258.
Number of pages: 12 Posted: 30 May 2019
Leiden University - Center for Law and Digital Technologies, Leiden University - Centre for Law and Digital Technologies, Delft University of Technology, Leiden Law School and Leiden University - Leiden Law School
Downloads 488 (105,158)
Citation 1

Abstract:

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consent; privacy

10.

Nieuwe online opsporingsbevoegdheden en het recht op privacy; een analyse van de Wet computercriminaliteit III (New Online Criminal Investigation Methods and the Right to Privacy: An Analysis of the Dutch Computer Crime Act III)

Justitiële Verkenningen, Vol. 44, No. 5, p. 100-117 (2018)
Number of pages: 18 Posted: 12 Dec 2018
Bart Custers
Leiden University - Center for Law and Digital Technologies
Downloads 477 (108,019)

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cybercrime, Privacy, NTD, hacking competences, law enforcement

11.

The Power of Knowledge Ethical, Legal and Technological Aspects of Data Mining and Group Profiling in Epidemiology

Custers B.H.M. (2004), The Power of Knowledge: Ethical, Legal and Technological Aspects of Data Mining and Group Profiling in Epidemiology. Tilburg: Wolf Legal Publishers, ISBN: 90-5850-085-3
Number of pages: 297 Posted: 18 Jun 2018
Bart Custers
Leiden University - Center for Law and Digital Technologies
Downloads 470 (109,966)

Abstract:

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profiling, data mining, privacy, data science

12.

The Police Hack Back: Legitimacy, Necessity and Privacy Implications of the Next Step in Fighting Cybercrime

Pool R.L.D & Custers B.H.M. (2017), The Police Hack Back: Legitimacy, Necessity and Privacy Implications of The Next Step in Fighting Cybercrime, European Journal of Crime, Criminal Law and Criminal Justice 2017(25): 123-144
Number of pages: 14 Posted: 04 Oct 2017 Last Revised: 07 Oct 2017
Bart Custers and Ronald Pool
Leiden University - Center for Law and Digital Technologies and Government of the Netherlands - The Research and Documentation Centre (WODC)
Downloads 457 (113,609)

Abstract:

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cybercrime, echr, hacking, investigative powers, privacy, technology in policing

13.

Laundering the Profits of Ransomware: Money Laundering Methods for Vouchers and Cryptocurrencies

Custers, B.H.M., Oerlemans, J.J., Pool, R. Laundering the Profits of Ransomware: Money Laundering Methods for Vouchers and Cryptocurrencies, European Journal of Crime, Criminal Law and Criminal Justice, 28 (2020), p. 121-152
Number of pages: 24 Posted: 04 Nov 2020
Bart Custers, JanJaap Oerlemans and Ronald Pool
Leiden University - Center for Law and Digital Technologies, Leiden University - Centre for Law and Digital Technologies and Government of the Netherlands - The Research and Documentation Centre (WODC)
Downloads 415 (127,241)
Citation 1

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Ransomware, Cryptoware, Bitcoins, Cybercrime, Money Mules, Money Laundering.

14.

Lists of Ethical, Legal, Societal and Economic Issues of Big Data Technologies

Custers B.H.M., La Fors K., Jozwiak M., Keymolen E., Bachlechner D., Friedewald, M. & Aguzzi S. (2017) Lists of ethical, legal, societal and economic issues of big data technologies. Report. Leiden: Leiden University.
Number of pages: 109 Posted: 28 Jan 2018 Last Revised: 04 Jun 2018
Leiden University - Center for Law and Digital Technologies, Leiden University - Centre for Law and Digital Technologies, Tilburg University, TILT, Tilburg University, Fraunhofer Institut für Systemtechnik und Innovationsforschung, Fraunhofer Institute for Systems and Innovation Research ISI and IDC - IDC
Downloads 404 (131,191)
Citation 1

Abstract:

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big data, ethics, data protection

15.

Profiling As Inferred Data. Amplifier Effects and Positive Feedback Loops

In: Emre Bayamlıoğlu, Irina Baraluic, Liisa Janssens and Mireille Hildebrandt (eds), BEING PROFILED:COGITAS ERGO SUM. 10 Years of Profiling the European Citizen, 2018: Amsterdam University Press., 112-115. DOI 10.5117/9789463722124/CH19.
Number of pages: 4 Posted: 18 Oct 2019
Bart Custers
Leiden University - Center for Law and Digital Technologies
Downloads 379 (141,328)
Citation 2

Abstract:

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profiling, inferred data, data mining, GDPR, algorithms

16.

Using Sensitive Personal Data May Be Necessary for Avoiding Discrimination in Data-Driven Decision Models

Zliobaite I. & Custers B. (2016), Using sensitive personal data may be necessary for avoiding discrimination in data-driven decision models, Artificial Intelligence and Law (24): 183-201.
Number of pages: 20 Posted: 04 Oct 2017 Last Revised: 07 Oct 2017
Indre Zliobaite and Bart Custers
Independent and Leiden University - Center for Law and Digital Technologies
Downloads 374 (143,058)
Citation 9

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Non-discrimination,Fairness, Regression, Data mining

17.

Legal Big Data (Legal Big Data)

Custers B.H.M. & Leeuw F. (2017), Legal big data: Toepassingen voor de rechtspraktijk en juridisch onderzoek, Nederlands Juristenblad 2017(34): 2449-2456.
Number of pages: 8 Posted: 24 Jul 2018
Bart Custers and Frans L. Leeuw
Leiden University - Center for Law and Digital Technologies and Maastricht University
Downloads 313 (173,446)

Abstract:

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legal big data, big data, legal practice, legal prediction models

18.

What Is Data Mining and How Does It Work?

Calders T. & Custers B.h.m. (2013), What Is Data Mining and How Does It Work?. In: Custers B.h.m., Calders T., Schermer B., Zarsky T. (Red.) Discrimination and Privacy in the Information Society. Nr. 3 Heidelberg: Springer.
Number of pages: 16 Posted: 05 Oct 2017 Last Revised: 04 Jun 2018
Bart Custers and Toon Calders
Leiden University - Center for Law and Digital Technologies and Independent
Downloads 292 (186,607)
Citation 1

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19.

Privacy Expectations of Social Media Users: The Role of Informed Consent in Privacy Policies

Custers B.H.M., Hof S. van der & Schermer B. (2014), Privacy Expectations of Social Media Users: The Role of Informed Consent in Privacy Policies, Policy and Internet 6(3): 268-295
Number of pages: 23 Posted: 05 Oct 2017 Last Revised: 07 Oct 2017
Leiden University - Center for Law and Digital Technologies, Leiden University - Leiden Law School and Leiden Law School
Downloads 288 (189,242)
Citation 5

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Informed Consent, Privacy Policy, User Expectations, Social Media

20.

Informed Consent in Social Media Use – The Gap between User Expectations and EU Personal Data Protection Law

Custers B.H.M., Hof S. van der, Schermer B.W., Appleby-Arnold S., Brockdorff & N. (2013), Informed Consent in Social Media Use. The Gap between User Expectations and EU Personal Data Protection Law, Script-ed: A Journal of Law and Technology 10(4): 435-457
Number of pages: 23 Posted: 04 Oct 2017
Leiden University - Center for Law and Digital Technologies, Leiden University - Leiden Law School, Leiden Law School, University of Malta - Department of Cognitive Science and University of Malta - Department of Cognitive Science
Downloads 264 (206,741)
Citation 2

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Consent, Data Protection, Privacy, Social Media

21.

Nieuwe digitale (grond)rechten (New Digital (Fundamental) Rights)

Custers, B.H.M. (2019) Nieuwe digitale (grond)rechten, Nederlands Juristenblad, afl. 44, p. 3288-3295.
Number of pages: 12 Posted: 17 Mar 2022
Bart Custers
Leiden University - Center for Law and Digital Technologies
Downloads 260 (209,950)

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digital rights, fundamental rights, right to be forgotten, right to change your mind, right to internet access, richt to be offline

22.

Methods of Data Research for Law

Custers B.H.M. (2018), Methods of data research for law. In: Mak V., Tjong Tjin Tai E., Berlee A. (Eds.) Research Handbook in Data Science and Law. Research Handbooks in Information Law Cheltenham: Edward Elgar. 355-377.
Number of pages: 23 Posted: 02 Jul 2019
Bart Custers
Leiden University - Center for Law and Digital Technologies
Downloads 250 (218,273)

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Law and data science, legal big dat, legal methodology, legal predictions

23.

Reuse of Data in Smart Cities: Legal and Ethical Frameworks for Big Data in the Public Arena

Custers, B.H.M. (2019) Reuse of data in smart cities: legal and ethical frameworks for big data in the public arena, in: F. Feldberg et al. (eds.) Appropriate use of data in public space: essay collection, Den Haag: NL Digitaal, p. 9-35., University of Groningen Faculty of Law Research Paper No. 47/2019
Number of pages: 27 Posted: 10 Dec 2019 Last Revised: 08 Jan 2020
Bart Custers and Sofia Ranchordas
Leiden University - Center for Law and Digital Technologies and Tilburg University
Downloads 242 (225,336)

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data reuse, smart cities, data protection, big data, data ethics

24.

Cybercrime En Witwassen: Bitcoins, Online Dienstverleners En Andere Witwasmethoden Bij Banking Malware En Ransomware (Cybercrime and Money Laundering: Bitcoins, Payment Service Providers and Other Methods of Laundering Banking Malware and Ransomware Profits)

Oerlemans J.J., Custers B.H.M., Pool R.L.D. & Cornelisse R. (2016), Cybercrime En Witwassen: Bitcoins, Online Dienstverleners En Andere Witwasmethoden Bij Banking Malware En Ransomware. Onderzoek en beleid WODC no. 319. Meppel: Boom Criminologie
Number of pages: 152 Posted: 01 Mar 2018
Leiden University - Centre for Law and Digital Technologies, Leiden University - Center for Law and Digital Technologies, Government of the Netherlands - The Research and Documentation Centre (WODC) and Government of the Netherlands - The Research and Documentation Centre (WODC)
Downloads 233 (233,822)
Citation 1

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bitcoins, money laundering, aml, ransomware, banking malware

25.

Technologie Voor Opsporing En Handhaving; Kansen, Ervaringen En Knelpunten (Promising Policing Technologies. Experiences, Obstacles and Police Needs Regarding Law Enforcement Technologies)

Custers B.H.M. & Vergouw S. (2016), Technologie voor opsporing en handhaving; kansen, ervaringen en knelpunten, Justitiële Verkenningen 2016(3): 48-67.
Number of pages: 20 Posted: 26 Jul 2018
Bart Custers and Bas Vergouw
Leiden University - Center for Law and Digital Technologies and Government of the Netherlands - The Research and Documentation Centre (WODC)
Downloads 230 (236,648)

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technology in policing, wiretapping, DNA, criminal investigation, law enforcement

26.

The Law Enforcement Directive: Conceptual Issues of EU Directive 2016/680

Leiser, M.R. and Custers, B.H.M. (2019) The Law Enforcement Directive: Conceptual Issues of EU Directive 2016/680, European Data Protection Law Review. Vol. 5, nr. 3, p. 367-378.
Number of pages: 12 Posted: 17 Mar 2022
M.R. Leiser and Bart Custers
Vrije Universiteit - Amsterdam Law and Technology Institute, alti.amsterdam and Leiden University - Center for Law and Digital Technologies
Downloads 214 (253,370)

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Law Enforcement Directive, Fundamental Rights, Consent, Law Enforcement Data, Directive 2016/680

27.

Het recht van de toekomst: technologieontwikkeling bezien vanuit het recht & Het recht bezien vanuit technologieontwikkeling (The Law of the Future: Technology Development from a Legal Perspective & The Law from a Technology Development Perspective)

Inaugural lecture by prof. dr. Bart Custers (Leiden University), held on May 21st 2021.
Number of pages: 60 Posted: 03 Jun 2021
Bart Custers
Leiden University - Center for Law and Digital Technologies
Downloads 211 (256,657)

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Law and Technology, IT law, Legal Technologies, LegalTech, Future, GDPR, Liability Law, Consumer Law, Digital Rights, Regulatory Balance, Innovation

28.

De Bescherming Van Persoonsgegevens: Acht Europese Landen Vergeleken (The Protection of Personal Data: Comparison of Eight European Countries)

Custers B.H.M, Dechesne F., Georgieva I.N. & Hof S. van der (2017), De bescherming van persoonsgegevens: acht Europese landen vergeleken. Den Haag: SDU
Number of pages: 262 Posted: 01 Mar 2018
Leiden University - Center for Law and Digital Technologies, Leiden University - Centre for Law and Digital Technologies, Utrecht University and Leiden University - Leiden Law School
Downloads 196 (274,506)

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privacy, data protection, GDPR

29.

Click Here to Consent Forever: Expiry Dates for Informed Consent

Big Data & Society, Volume 3, Issue 1, pp 1-6, January-June 2016
Number of pages: 6 Posted: 04 Oct 2017
Bart Custers
Leiden University - Center for Law and Digital Technologies
Downloads 190 (282,283)
Citation 2

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Informed Consent, Big Data, Expiry Dates, Privacy, Personal Data

30.

Effects of Unreliable Group Profiling by Means of Data Mining

Custers B.H.M. (2003), Effects of Unreliable Group Profiling by Means of Data Mining. In: Grieser G, Tanaka Y, Yamamoto A (red.) Lecture Notes in Artificial Intelligence. Heidelberg, New York: Springer Verlag. 290-295.
Number of pages: 6 Posted: 05 Oct 2017
Bart Custers
Leiden University - Center for Law and Digital Technologies
Downloads 187 (286,273)
Citation 3

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Data mining, KDD, group profiling, personal data, data protection, reliability, distributivity, security, selection, stigmatization, confrontation, ethics

31.

Data Dilemmas in the Information Society

Custers B.H.M. (2013), Data Dilemmas in the Information Society. In: Custers B.H.M., Calders T., Schermer B., Zarsky T. (red.) Discrimination and Privacy in the Information Society. nr. 3 Heidelberg: Springer. 3-26.
Number of pages: 24 Posted: 05 Oct 2017 Last Revised: 07 Oct 2017
Bart Custers
Leiden University - Center for Law and Digital Technologies
Downloads 183 (291,978)
Citation 3

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32.

Risicogericht Toezicht, Profiling En Big Data (Risk Based Enforcement, Profiling and Big Data)

Custers B.H.M. (2014), Risicogericht toezicht, profiling en Big Data, Tijdschrift voor Toezicht 2014(3): 9-16.
Number of pages: 8 Posted: 26 Jul 2018
Bart Custers
Leiden University - Center for Law and Digital Technologies
Downloads 177 (300,561)

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risk based approaches, enforcement, profling, big data

33.

De Onstuitbare Opmars Van Drones (The Unstoppable Rise of Drones)

Oerlemans J.J. & Custers B.H.M. (2015), De onstuitbare opmars van drones: ontwikkelingen in technologie en regulering voor lichte onbemande luchtvaartuigen, Nederlands Juristenblad 90(32): 2208-2214.
Number of pages: 7 Posted: 26 Jul 2018
JanJaap Oerlemans and Bart Custers
Leiden University - Centre for Law and Digital Technologies and Leiden University - Center for Law and Digital Technologies
Downloads 175 (303,559)

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drones, UAV, aviation law

34.

Data Mining and Group Profiling on the Internet

Custers B.H.M. (2001), Data Mining and Group Profiling on the Internet. In: Vedder A (red.) Ethics and the Internet. Antwerpen: Intersentia. 87-104, 2001
Number of pages: 13 Posted: 07 Oct 2017
Bart Custers
Leiden University - Center for Law and Digital Technologies
Downloads 166 (317,803)

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Datamining, KDD, group profiling, Internet, spamming, direct marketing, privacy, anonymity

35.

Drones Here, There and Everywhere

Custers B.h.m. (2016), Drones Here, There and Everywhere. In: Custers B.h.m. (Red.) the Future of Drone Use. Nr. 27 Heidelberg: Springer.
Number of pages: 18 Posted: 05 Oct 2017 Last Revised: 30 Jun 2019
Bart Custers
Leiden University - Center for Law and Digital Technologies
Downloads 165 (319,461)

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UAV, UAS, RPAS

36.

Technology in Policing: Experiences, Obstacles and Police Needs

Custers B.H.M. (2012), Technology in Policing: Experiences, Obstacles and Police Needs, Computer law & security report (1): 62-68
Number of pages: 10 Posted: 05 Oct 2017 Last Revised: 07 Oct 2017
Bart Custers
Leiden University - Center for Law and Digital Technologies
Downloads 153 (340,458)
Citation 1

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Technology in Policing; Effectiveness; Promising Technologies; Legal Obstacles; Success Stories

37.

Fake News, Filter Bubbles and Echo Chambers: A Short Overview of Basic Terminology and Key Issues

eLaw Working Paper Series, No. 2020/002, December 2020.
Number of pages: 10 Posted: 18 Feb 2021
Bart Custers
Leiden University - Center for Law and Digital Technologies
Downloads 147 (351,689)

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A/B testing, profiling, personalization, media law, fake news, filter bubbles, echo chambers, fact checkers

38.

Persoonsgegevens in het strafrecht: weeffouten in EU-richtlijn 2016/680 leiden tot praktische problemen (Personal Data in Criminal Law: Flaws in EU Directive 2016/680 Lead to Implementation Issues)

Custers, B.H.M., Leiser, M.R. (2019) Persoonsgegevens in het strafrecht: weeffouten in EU-richtlijn 2016/680 leiden tot praktische problemen, Nederlands Juristenblad, afl. 34, p. 2490-2497
Number of pages: 11 Posted: 17 Mar 2022
Bart Custers and M.R. Leiser
Leiden University - Center for Law and Digital Technologies and Vrije Universiteit - Amsterdam Law and Technology Institute, alti.amsterdam
Downloads 146 (353,602)

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LED directive, directive 2016-680, privacy, data protection, criminal law, law enforcement

39.

Advancing the EU Data Economy: Conditions for Realizing the Full of Potential of Data Reuse

Custers, B.H.M., and Bachlechner, D. (2018) Advancing the EU Data Economy; Conditions for Realizing the Full Potential of Data Reuse, Information Polity, Forthcoming
Number of pages: 19 Posted: 26 Dec 2017
Bart Custers and Daniel Bachlechner
Leiden University - Center for Law and Digital Technologies and Fraunhofer Institut für Systemtechnik und Innovationsforschung
Downloads 145 (355,597)
Citation 7

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Big Data, Data Economy, Data Reuse, Privacy, Public Acceptance, Standardization

40.

Priceless Data: Why the EU Fundamental Right to Data Protection is at Odds with Trade in Personal Data

Custers, B.H.M., and Malgieri, G. (2022) Priceless data: why the EU fundamental right to data protection makes data ownership unsustainable, Computer Law & Security Review, Vol. 45, p. 1-13, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.clsr.2022.105683.
Number of pages: 11 Posted: 20 Jan 2023
Bart Custers and Gianclaudio Malgieri
Leiden University - Center for Law and Digital Technologies and Universiteit Leiden, eLaw
Downloads 141 (363,555)

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data ownership, data subject rights, digital single market, EU charter of fundamental rights, EU data economy, GDPR, right to data protection, inalienability for fundamental rights, personal data, privacy

41.

New Digital Rights: Imagining Additional Fundamental Rights for the Digital Era

Custers, B.H.M. (2022) New Digital Rights: Imagining additional fundamental rights for the digital era, Computer Law & Security Review, Vol. 44, p. 1-13. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.clsr.2021.105636.
Number of pages: 13 Posted: 20 Jan 2023
Bart Custers
Leiden University - Center for Law and Digital Technologies
Downloads 141 (363,555)

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digital rights, the right to be offline, the right to internet access, the right not to know, the right to change your mind, value of personal data, clean digital environment, safe online environment

42.

Het Gebruik Van Drones. Een Verkennend Onderzoek Naar Onbemande Luchtvaartuigen (The Use of Drones: An Exploratory Study on Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs))

Custers B.H.M., Oerlemans J.J. & Vergouw S.J. (2015), Het gebruik van drones. Een verkennend onderzoek naar onbemande luchtvaartuigen (Wetenschappelijk Onderzoek- en Documentatiecentrum) Onderzoek en beleid WODC no. 313. Den Haag: Boom Lemma uitgevers.
Number of pages: 176 Posted: 01 Mar 2018
Bart Custers, JanJaap Oerlemans and Bas Vergouw
Leiden University - Center for Law and Digital Technologies, Leiden University - Centre for Law and Digital Technologies and Government of the Netherlands - The Research and Documentation Centre (WODC)
Downloads 138 (369,764)
Citation 1

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drones, uav, uas, rpas

43.

The Role of Consent in an Algorithmic Society – Its Evolution, Scope, Failings and Re-conceptualization

n. In: Kostas, E., Leenes, R., & Kamara, I (2022) Research Handbook on EU data protection. Edward Elgar Publishing, 455–473, https://doi.org/10.4337/9781800371682.00027
Number of pages: 22 Posted: 25 Jan 2023
Leiden University - Center for Law and Digital Technologies, Leiden University, Leiden University - Leiden Law School, Leiden Law School, Center for Law and Digital Technologies (eLaw), Leiden Law School, Leiden University and University of St. Gallen
Downloads 134 (378,192)

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consent, GDPR, data protection law, WP29, informed consent, unambiguous consent, explicit consent

44.

Algoritmische besluitvorming en het kartelverbod (Algorithmic Decion-Making and Antitrust Law)

Gerbrandy A. & Custers B.H.M. (2018), Algoritmische besluitvorming en het kartelverbod, Markt en Mededinging 2018(3): 101-109.
Number of pages: 9 Posted: 12 Feb 2019
Anna Gerbrandy and Bart Custers
Utrecht University - School of Law and Leiden University - Center for Law and Digital Technologies
Downloads 132 (382,549)

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algorithmic decion-making, antitrust law, competition law, big data, price fixing

45.

[Dutch] Online Prijsdiscriminatie: Algoritmische Prijspersonalisatie in Het Licht Van Het Discriminatieverbod En Consumentenbescherming (Online Price Discrimination: Algorithmic Price Personalisation in the Light of Equal Treatment and Consumer Protection)

Heidary, K, Custers, B.H.M. (2021) Online prijsdiscriminatie: algoritmische prijspersonalisatie in het licht van het discriminatieverbod en consumentenbescherming, Nederlands Juristenblad, Afl. 30, p. 2507-2513.
Number of pages: 12 Posted: 20 Apr 2022
Kimia Heidary and Bart Custers
Leiden University and Leiden University - Center for Law and Digital Technologies
Downloads 131 (384,782)

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online price discrimination, equal treatment, AWGB, algemene wet gelijke behandeling, algorithms, consumer protection, profiling, online pricing

46.

Understanding the Legal Bases for Automated Decision-Making Under the GDPR

In: Kostas, E., Leenes, R. & Kamara, I (2022) Research Handbook on EU data protection. Edward Elgar Publishing, 435–454, https://doi.org/10.4337/9781800371682.00026
Number of pages: 22 Posted: 25 Jan 2023
University of Verona, Center for Law and Digital Technologies (eLaw), Leiden Law School, Leiden University, Leiden University and Leiden University - Center for Law and Digital Technologies
Downloads 108 (444,384)

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automated decision-making, ADM, article 22 GDPR, GDPR

47.

[Dutch] Hergebruik van gegevens in smart cities: juridische en ethische kaders voor big data in de openbare ruimte (Reuse of Data in Smart Cities: Legal and Ethical Frameworks for Big Data in the Public Arena)

Custers, B.H.M. (2019) Hergebruik van gegevens in smart cities: juridische en ethische kaders voor big data in de openbare ruimte, in: F. Feldberg et al. (red.) Behoorlijk datagebruik in de openbare ruimte: essaybundel, Den Haag: NL Digitaal, p. 9-35.
Number of pages: 27 Posted: 10 Dec 2019
Bart Custers and Sofia Ranchordas
Leiden University - Center for Law and Digital Technologies and Tilburg University
Downloads 101 (466,249)

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smart cities, big data, data protection, data reuse, data ethics

48.

Banking Malware and the Laundering of Its Profits

Custers, B., Pool, R., and Cornelisse, R., (2018) Banking Malware and the Laundering of its Profits, European Journal of Criminology, DOI/10.1177/1477370818788007
Number of pages: 17 Posted: 07 Jul 2019
Bart Custers, Ronald Pool and remon cornelisse
Leiden University - Center for Law and Digital Technologies, Government of the Netherlands - The Research and Documentation Centre (WODC) and Government of the Netherlands - The Research and Documentation Centre (WODC)
Downloads 93 (492,291)
Citation 1

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Banking malware, bitcoins, cybercrime, money laundering, money mules

49.

Cyber Agent Technology en de Wet op de Inlichtingen- en Veiligheidsdiensten (WIV) (Cyber Agent Technology and the Dutch Intelligence Agencies Act (WIV))

Number of pages: 30 Posted: 31 Jan 2018
Bart Custers
Leiden University - Center for Law and Digital Technologies
Downloads 91 (499,010)

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Cyber agent technology, AIVD, MIVD, WIV, inlichtingendiensten

50.

Introduction to Forensics

Prinsen, M.M. and Custers, B.H.M. (2010) Introduction to Forensics. In: Transnational Criminology Manual, Volume 3, M. Herzog-Evans (ed.), Tilburg: Wolf Legal Publishers, p. 15-34.
Number of pages: 12 Posted: 07 Apr 2021
Merel Prinsen and Bart Custers
Tilburg Law School and Leiden University - Center for Law and Digital Technologies
Downloads 89 (506,141)

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forensics, forensic psychiatry, forensic psychology, forensics in court, prosecutor's fallacy, defence attorney's fallacy, converging technologies

51.

The Use of Data as Evidence in Dutch Criminal Courts

Custers, B.H.M., and Stevens, L. (2021) The Use of Data as Evidence in Dutch Criminal Courts, European Journal of Crime, Criminal Law and Criminal Justice, Vol. 29, Nr. 1, p. 25-46., VU University Amsterdam Legal Studies Paper Series
Number of pages: 22 Posted: 28 Jan 2022
Bart Custers and Lonneke Stevens
Leiden University - Center for Law and Digital Technologies and VU University Amsterdam - Faculty of Law
Downloads 87 (513,353)
Citation 1

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Dutch criminal law – Dutch criminal procedure, data as evidence, law enforcement directive, directive 2016/680, witness statements

52.

Data Mining with Discrimination Sensitive and Privacy Sensitive Attributes

Custers B.H.M. (2010), Data Mining with Discrimination Sensitive and Privacy Sensitive Attributes. In: Proceedings of ISP 2010.: ISRST. 31-38
Number of pages: 8 Posted: 04 Oct 2017
Bart Custers
Leiden University - Center for Law and Digital Technologies
Downloads 70 (582,062)

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Big Data, Data Mining, Discrimination, Privacy

53.

Gendering Algorithms in Social Media

ACM SIGKDD Explorations Newsletter, 23(1), 24–31, https://doi.org/10.1145/3468507.3468512.
Number of pages: 8 Posted: 10 Jun 2021
Leiden University, affiliation not provided to SSRN, Norwegian University of Science and Technology (NTNU) and Leiden University - Center for Law and Digital Technologies
Downloads 66 (600,447)

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Gender; Twitter; Inference; Gender Classifier; Privacy; Algorithmic Bias; Discrimination; LGBTQAI+; Gender Stereotyping; Social Media

54.

Flying to New Destinations: The Future of Drones

Custers B.H.M. (2016), Flying to New Destinations: The Future of Drones. In: Custers B.H.M. (red.) The Future of Drone Use. Heidelberg: Springer.
Number of pages: 16 Posted: 05 Oct 2017 Last Revised: 26 Jun 2019
Bart Custers
Leiden University - Center for Law and Digital Technologies
Downloads 64 (609,884)

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Geofencing, Privacy by Design, Privacy Impact Assessments, Public Awareness, Sunset Provisions, Technology-Independent Legislation

55.

Reassessing Values for Emerging Big Data Technologies: Integrating Design-Based and Application-Based Approaches

La Fors, K., Custers, B.H.M., and Keymolen, E. (2019) Reassessing values for emerging big data technologies: integrating design-based and application-based approaches, Ethics and Information Technology, Volume 21, Number 3, p. 209-226. DOI:10.1007/s10676-019-09503-4
Number of pages: 20 Posted: 11 Sep 2019
Karolina La Fors, Bart Custers and Esther Keymolen
Leiden University - Centre for Law and Digital Technologies, Leiden University - Center for Law and Digital Technologies and TILT, Tilburg University
Downloads 63 (614,720)
Citation 3

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Big data, Values, Design, Application, Circular life cycle, Value lists

56.

Profiling and Predictions: Challenges in Cybercrime Research Datafication

Custers, B.H.M. (2021) Profiling and Predictions: Challenges in Cybercrime Research Datafication, in: A. Lavorgna & T. Holt & (eds.) Researching Cybercrimes: Methodologies, Ethics, and Critical Approaches, Cham: Switzerland: Palgrave MacMillan, p. 63-79.
Number of pages: 17 Posted: 17 Mar 2022
Bart Custers
Leiden University - Center for Law and Digital Technologies
Downloads 62 (619,769)

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cybercrime, profiling, privacy, big data analytics, cybercrime research, big data

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privacy, human rights, criminal investigation

58.

Whose Responsibility is it Anyway? Dealing with the Consequences of New Technologies

Vedder, A., and Custers B.H.M. (2009) Whose responsibility is it anyway? Dealing with the consequences of new technologies. In: Sollie P., Duwell M. (red.) Evaluating new technologies: Methodological problems for the ethical assessment of technology developments. New York: Springer. 21-34.
Number of pages: 14 Posted: 05 Oct 2017
Anton Vedder and Bart Custers
KU Leuven Centre for IT and IP Law (CiTiP) and Leiden University - Center for Law and Digital Technologies
Downloads 60 (629,940)

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Ethics of technology, Responsibility, Privacy, Security, Reliability, Equal access to information

59.

Responsibly Innovating Data Mining and Profiling Tools: A New Approach to Discrimination Sensitive and Privacy Sensitive Attributes

Custers B.H.M. & Schermer B.W. (2014), Responsibly Innovating Data Mining and Profiling Tools: A New Approach to Discrimination Sensitive and Privacy Sensitive Attributes. In: Hoven van den J., Doorn, N., Swierstra T., Koops B-J., Romijn H. (red.) Responsible innovation 1: innovative solutions for g
Number of pages: 16 Posted: 05 Oct 2017
Bart Custers and Bart Willem Schermer
Leiden University - Center for Law and Digital Technologies and Leiden Law School
Downloads 59 (635,110)
Citation 1

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responsible innovation, data mining, discrimination, privacy

60.

Humanizing Machines: Introduction and Overview

Custers, B.H.M., Fosch Villaronga, E. (2022) Humanizing Machines: Introduction and Overview, in: B.H.M. Custers & E. Fosch Villaronga (eds.) Law and Artificial Intelligence, Heidelberg: Springer, p. 3-28.
Number of pages: 25 Posted: 10 Aug 2023
Bart Custers and Eduard Fosch-Villaronga
Leiden University - Center for Law and Digital Technologies and Leiden University
Downloads 55 (656,792)

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61.

Risk Profiling of Money Laundering and Terrorism Funding: Practical Problems of Current Information Strategies

Proceedings of the 9th International Conference on Enterprise Information Systems. Funchal, Portugal, 2007
Number of pages: 6 Posted: 04 Oct 2017
Bart Custers
Leiden University - Center for Law and Digital Technologies
Downloads 55 (656,792)
Citation 1

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Risk Profiling, Identification, Money Laundering, Terrorism, Terrorism Funding, Information Strategy, KYC, Patriot Act

62.

A little bird told me your gender: Gender inferences in social media

Fosch-Villaronga, E., Poulsen, A., Søraa, R.A., Custers, B.H.M. (2021) A little bird told me your gender: Gender inferences in social media, Information Processing and Management 58, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ipm.2021.102541.
Number of pages: 13 Posted: 28 Jan 2022
Leiden University, affiliation not provided to SSRN, Norwegian University of Science and Technology (NTNU) and Leiden University - Center for Law and Digital Technologies
Downloads 53 (667,922)
Citation 1

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Gender, Twitter, Social media, Inference, Gender classifier, Automated gender recognition system, Privacy, Algorithmic bias, Discrimination, LGBTQAI+, Gender stereotyping, Online Behavioral Advertising

63.

The Exclusivity of Ultrafast Communication Networks

Custers B.H.M. (2008), The Exclusivity of Ultrafast Communication Networks, Journal of International Commercial Law and Technology 3(4): 247-253
Number of pages: 7 Posted: 04 Oct 2017
Bart Custers
Leiden University - Center for Law and Digital Technologies
Downloads 47 (703,433)

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Internet, Ethics, Ultrafast Communication, Networks, Social Polarization, Manipulation of Information

64.

Annotatie bij ECLI:NL:RBAMS:2021:1020 (Uber) (Case Note at ECLI:NL:RBAMS:2021:1020 (Uber))

Custers, B.H.M. (2022) Annotatie bij Rechtbank Amsterdam 11 maart 2021, nr. C/13/687315/HA RK 20-207 (Uber), Computerrecht, afl. 2, p. 122-140.
Number of pages: 6 Posted: 23 Jan 2023
Bart Custers
Leiden University - Center for Law and Digital Technologies
Downloads 45 (716,198)

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right of access, case note, GDPR, transparency

65.

The Risks of Epidemiological Data Mining

Custers B.H.M. (2005), The Risks of Epidemiological Data Mining. In: Tavani H (red.) Ethics, Computing and Genomics: Moral Controversies in Computational Genomics. Boston: Jones and Bartlett Publishers, Inc
Number of pages: 10 Posted: 08 Oct 2017
Bart Custers
Leiden University - Center for Law and Digital Technologies
Downloads 45 (716,198)
Citation 1

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Data mining, epidemiology, group profiling, personal data, medical data, privacy, reliability, distributivity, cryptography

66.

Promising Policing Technologies: Experiences, Obstacles and Police Needs Regarding Law Enforcement Technologies

Custers B.H.M. & Vergouw S.J. (2015), Promising Policing Technologies: Experiences, Obstacles and Police Needs Regarding Law Enforcement Technologies, Computer Law & Security Report (31): 518-526
Number of pages: 14 Posted: 04 Oct 2017 Last Revised: 07 Oct 2017
Bart Custers
Leiden University - Center for Law and Digital Technologies
Downloads 44 (722,543)
Citation 3

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Technology in Policing, Effectiveness, Promising Technologies, Legal Obstacles, Success Stories

67.

[Dutch] Het recht om de wet te overtreden? Al te perfecte rechtshandhaving door technologie kan rechtsontwikkeling in de weg staan (Breaking the Law? Perfect Enforcement Versus Legal Development)

Custers, B.H.M. (2022) Het recht om de wet te overtreden? Al te perfecte rechtshandhaving door technologie kan rechtsontwikkeling in de weg staan. Nederlands Juristenblad, afl. 19, p. 1532-1539.
Number of pages: 12 Posted: 26 Jan 2023
Bart Custers
Leiden University - Center for Law and Digital Technologies
Downloads 40 (749,450)

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surveillance, technoregulation, legal systems, smart enforcement, law enforcement, evolutionary biology, civil disobedience, zero-tolerance, perfect enforcement

68.

Data Mining and Profiling in Big Data

• Custers, B.H.M. (2018) Data Mining and Profiling in Big Data, in B.A. Arrigo (ed.) The SAGE Encyclopedia of Surveillance, Security, and Privacy, p. 277-279, Thousand Oaks: SAGE Publications, Inc.
Number of pages: 4 Posted: 25 Jun 2018 Last Revised: 18 Mar 2022
Bart Custers
Leiden University - Center for Law and Digital Technologies
Downloads 37 (770,824)

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69.

Predicting Data that People Refuse to Disclose

Privacy Observatory Magazine, Issue 3, 2012
Number of pages: 4 Posted: 04 Oct 2017
Bart Custers
Leiden University - Center for Law and Digital Technologies
Downloads 37 (770,824)

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Big Data, Informational Self-Determination, Privacy, Data Mining

70.

Privacywaakhond krijgt geld, nu nog tanden (Privacy Watchdog Gets Money, Now It Needs Teeth)

Custers, B.H.M., Privacywaakhond krijgt geld, nu nog tanden, Privacy & Informatie, Vol 22, nr. 4, p. 152, 2019
Number of pages: 2 Posted: 16 Mar 2020
Bart Custers
Leiden University - Center for Law and Digital Technologies
Downloads 28 (841,643)

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Data Protection Law, GDPR, Data Protection Authority

71.

Data on the Move – Privacy of Road Pricing

Custers B.H.M. & Kuiper A. (2010), Data on the Move – Privacy of Road Pricing, The Journal of Navigation 63: 51-59.
Number of pages: 9 Posted: 09 Oct 2017
Bart Custers, Albert Kuiper, Zsolt Szabo and Remi Tops
Leiden University - Center for Law and Digital Technologies, Capgemini, Capgemini and Independent
Downloads 28 (841,643)

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Road pricing, privacy, traffic monitoring, onboard equipment

72.

Quis Custodiet Ipsos Custodes: Data Protection in the Judiciary in the EU and EEA Member States

Custers, B.H.M., Louis, L., Spinelli, M., Terzidou, M. (2022) Quis custodiet ipsos custodes: data protection in the judiciary in the EU and EEA Member States, International Data Privacy Law, Vol. 12, No. 2, p. 93-112. https://doi.org/10.1093/idpl/ipac002.
Number of pages: 24 Posted: 20 Jan 2023
Leiden University - Center for Law and Digital Technologies, affiliation not provided to SSRN, affiliation not provided to SSRN and Universite du Luxembourg - Faculty of Law, Economics and Finance
Downloads 26 (858,592)

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data protection in the judiciary, directive 2018/680, GDPR, judiciary supervision, law enforcement directive, right to data protection

73.

Exploring solutions to the privacy paradox in the context of e‐assessment: informed consent revisited

Muravyeva, E., Janssen, J., Specht, M., Custers, B. (2020) Exploring solutions to the privacy paradox in the context of e-assessment: informed consent revisited, Ethics and Information Technology, 22, p. 223-238https://doi.org/10.1007/s10676-020-09531-5.
Number of pages: 16 Posted: 28 Jan 2022
Open University of the Netherlands, Open University of the Netherlands, Open University of the Netherlands and Leiden University - Center for Law and Digital Technologies
Downloads 26 (858,592)

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informed consent, personal data, sensitive data, e-assessment, privacy paradox

74.

A Qualitative Investigation of Company Perspectives on Online Price Discrimination

Heidary, K., Custers, B.H.M., Pluut, H., Rest, J.P. van der (2022) A qualitative investigation of company perspectives on online price discrimination, Computer Law and Security Review, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.clsr.2022.105734.
Number of pages: 16 Posted: 25 Jan 2023
Leiden University, Leiden University - Center for Law and Digital Technologies, affiliation not provided to SSRN and affiliation not provided to SSRN
Downloads 24 (876,232)

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online price discrimination, personalized pricing, e-commerce, personalized marketing, data protection law, consumer protection law

75.

Tapping and Data Retention in Ultrafast Communication Networks

Custers B.H.M. (2008), Tapping and Data Retention in Ultrafast Communication Networks, Journal of International Commercial Law and Technology 3(2): 94-100
Number of pages: 7 Posted: 04 Oct 2017
Bart Custers
Leiden University - Center for Law and Digital Technologies
Downloads 20 (913,772)

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Wire Tapping, Data Retention, Ultrafast Communication Networks

76.

The Right of Access in Automated Decision-Making: The Scope of Article 15(1)(h) GDPR in theory and practice

Custers, B.H.M., and Heijne, A.S. (2022) The Right of Access in Automated Decision-Making: The Scope of Article 15(1)(h) GDPR in theory and practice, Computer Law and Security Review, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.clsr.2022.105727
Number of pages: 17 Posted: 20 Dec 2023
Bart Custers and Anne-Sophie Heijne
Leiden University - Center for Law and Digital Technologies and affiliation not provided to SSRN
Downloads 19 (923,382)

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Right of access, GDPR, Article 15 GDPR, Profiling, Automated decision-making, Automated decisions, Meaningful information, Trade secrets