Rafael Leal-Arcas

Queen Mary University of London, School of Law

Jean Monnet Chaired Professor of European and International Economic Law

67-69

Lincoln's Inn Fields

Holborn, London WC2A 3JB

United Kingdom

http://www.ccls.qmul.ac.uk/staff/lealarcas.html

SCHOLARLY PAPERS

142

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42,592

CITATIONS
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Top 13,486

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28

Scholarly Papers (142)

1.

Essential Elements of the Rule of Law Concept in the EU

Queen Mary School of Law Legal Studies Research Paper No. 180/2014
Number of pages: 7 Posted: 21 Aug 2014
Rafael Leal-Arcas
Queen Mary University of London, School of Law
Downloads 1,921 (7,547)

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rule of law, access to justice and judicial review, legal certainty, proportionality, equality and non-discrimination, transparency in EU law

Top-Down Versus Bottom-Up Approaches for Climate Change Negotiations: An Analysis

The IUP Journal of Governance and Public Policy, Vol. 6, No. 4, pp. 7-52, December 2011
Number of pages: 46 Posted: 27 Oct 2011 Last Revised: 04 Sep 2012
Rafael Leal-Arcas
Queen Mary University of London, School of Law
Downloads 1,593 (10,096)

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bottom-up approach to climate change, climate-based regional trade agreements, flexible approach, Major Economies Forum, variable geometry

Top-Down Versus Bottom-Up Approaches for Climate Change Negotiations: An Analysis

The IUP Journal of Governance and Public Policy, Vol. 6, No. 4, pp. 7-52, December 2011
Posted: 04 Sep 2012 Last Revised: 10 Sep 2012
Rafael Leal-Arcas
Queen Mary University of London, School of Law

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bottom-up approach to climate change, climate-based regional trade agreements, flexible approach, major economies forum, variable geometry

3.

The European Community and Mixed Agreements

European Foreign Affairs Review, Vol. 6, No. 4, pp. 483-513, Winter 2001
Number of pages: 31 Posted: 15 Apr 2004
Rafael Leal-Arcas
Queen Mary University of London, School of Law
Downloads 1,313 (14,007)
Citation 6

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European community, mixed agreements, international law

4.

Kyoto and the COPs: Lessons Learned and Looking Ahead

Hague Yearbook of International Law, Vol. 23, pp. 17-90, 2010
Number of pages: 74 Posted: 03 Jan 2012 Last Revised: 02 Oct 2017
Rafael Leal-Arcas
Queen Mary University of London, School of Law
Downloads 1,173 (16,659)

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climate finance, Cancún Agreements, Copenhagen Accord, Kyoto Protocol, COPs, EU Emissions Trading Scheme

5.

The Multilateralization of International Investment Law

North Carolina Journal of International Law and Commercial Regulation, Vol. 35, No. 1, pp. 33-135, 2009, Queen Mary School of Law Legal Studies Research Paper No. 41/2010
Number of pages: 104 Posted: 21 Dec 2009 Last Revised: 09 Feb 2010
Rafael Leal-Arcas
Queen Mary University of London, School of Law
Downloads 937 (23,249)

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multilateral investment treaty, bilateral investment treaty, FDI law, regional investment agreements, WTO, forum shopping in dispute resolution, inconsistency of arbitral awards

The Fragmented Governance of the Global Energy Economy: A Legal-Institutional Analysis

Journal of World Energy Law and Business, Vol. 6, Issue 4, pp. 1-58, 2013, Oxford University Press
Number of pages: 58 Posted: 21 Jul 2013
Rafael Leal-Arcas and Andrew Filis
Queen Mary University of London, School of Law and previously associated to QMUL
Downloads 781 (29,664)

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global energy governance, international cooperation in energy, WTO, PTAs, Energy Charter Conference, OPEC, investment treaties, ICSID, UNFCCC, energy security, IEA, IEF, MEF, national oil companies, World Petroleum Council

The Fragmented Governance of the Global Energy Economy: A Legal-Institutional Analysis

Journal of World Energy Law and Business, 2013, Queen Mary School of Law Legal Studies Research Paper No. 167/2014
Number of pages: 59 Posted: 21 Jan 2014
Rafael Leal-Arcas and Andrew Filis
Queen Mary University of London, School of Law and previously associated to QMUL
Downloads 115 (237,387)

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7.

The BRICS and Climate Change

International Affairs Forum, pp. 1-5, 2013, Queen Mary School of Law Legal Studies Research Paper No. 151/2013
Number of pages: 6 Posted: 07 Aug 2013 Last Revised: 25 Oct 2013
Rafael Leal-Arcas
Queen Mary University of London, School of Law
Downloads 868 (25,988)

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equity in climate change mitigation, BRICS, energy efficiency, economic growth

8.

Proliferation of Regional Trade Agreements: Complementing or Supplanting Multilateralism?

Chicago Journal of International Law, Vol. 11, No. 2, pp. 597-629, 2011, Queen Mary School of Law Legal Studies Research Paper No. 78/2011
Number of pages: 34 Posted: 26 Feb 2011 Last Revised: 15 Apr 2011
Rafael Leal-Arcas
Queen Mary University of London, School of Law
Downloads 864 (26,175)

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WTO, international trading system, RTA proliferation, non-discrimination, variable geometry, single undertaking

Exclusive or Shared Competence in the Common Commercial Policy: From Amsterdam to Nice

Number of pages: 20 Posted: 30 Jun 2004
Rafael Leal-Arcas
Queen Mary University of London, School of Law
Downloads 457 (60,130)
Citation 5

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Division of competencies, transparency, simplicity, common commercial policy, Nice Treaty

Exclusive or Shared Competence in the Common Commercial Policy: From Amsterdam to Nice

Legal Issues of Economic Integration, Vol.30, No.1, pp. 3-14, 2003
Number of pages: 12 Posted: 28 Jul 2004
Rafael Leal-Arcas
Queen Mary University of London, School of Law
Downloads 299 (98,764)
Citation 5

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Division of competencies, transparency, simplicity, common commercial policy, Nice Treaty

10.

The EU and Russia as Energy Trading Partners: Friends or Foes?

European Foreign Affairs Review, Vol. 14, No. 3, pp. 337-366, 2009
Posted: 26 Jun 2009 Last Revised: 13 Nov 2014
Rafael Leal-Arcas
Queen Mary University of London, School of Law
Downloads 742 (32,319)

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EU, Russia, energy security, Energy Charter Treaty, Partnership and Cooperation Agreement

Renewable Energy Disputes in the World Trade Organization

Oil, Gas and Energy Law Journal, Vol. 13, Issue 3, pp. 1-51, 2015
Number of pages: 52 Posted: 20 Mar 2015
Rafael Leal-Arcas and Andrew Filis
Queen Mary University of London, School of Law and previously associated to QMUL
Downloads 543 (48,290)

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governance of renewable energy; WTO and renewable energy; environmental protection objectives and the WTO; energy trade; renewable subsidies

Renewable Energy Disputes in the World Trade Organization

Published in Transnational Dispute Management, Vol. 12, Issue 3, pp. 1-51, 2015 , Queen Mary School of Law Legal Studies Research Paper No. 198/2015
Number of pages: 52 Posted: 22 May 2015
Rafael Leal-Arcas and Andrew Filis
Queen Mary University of London, School of Law and previously associated to QMUL
Downloads 184 (160,886)

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governance of renewable energy; WTO and renewable energy; environmental protection objectives and the WTO; energy trade; renewable subsidies

12.

Unilateral Trade-Related Climate Change Measures

The Journal of World Investment and Trade, Vol. 13, No. 6, 2012 , Queen Mary School of Law Legal Studies Research Paper No. 123/2012
Number of pages: 53 Posted: 30 Sep 2012 Last Revised: 05 Dec 2012
Rafael Leal-Arcas
Queen Mary University of London, School of Law
Downloads 702 (34,809)

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EU emissions trading scheme, trade and climate change, WTO subsidies for renewable energy, trade and energy, energy and climate change, aviation, shipping

The European Union and its Energy Security Challenges

Journal of World Energy Law and Business, Vol. 8, 2015, Oxford University Press, Queen Mary School of Law Legal Studies Research Paper No. 205/2015
Number of pages: 46 Posted: 10 Jun 2015 Last Revised: 13 Jul 2015
Rafael Leal-Arcas, Juan Alemany Rios and Costantino Grasso
Queen Mary University of London, School of Law, Queen Mary, University of London and Coventry University
Downloads 355 (81,628)

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EU energy security, EU single energy market, diversification of energy supplies, liquefied natural gas, shale gas, Southern Gas Corridor, Turkish Stream, Trans-Anatolian pipeline, International Energy Charter, Yukos

The European Union and Its Energy Security Challenges

Queen Mary School of Law Legal Studies Research Paper No. 187/2014
Number of pages: 23 Posted: 07 Dec 2014
Rafael Leal-Arcas, Juan Alemany Rios and Costantino Grasso
Queen Mary University of London, School of Law, Queen Mary, University of London and Coventry University
Downloads 317 (92,592)

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14.

Alternative Architecture for Climate Change - Major Economies

European Journal of Legal Studies, Vol. 4, No. 1, pp. 25-56, 2011
Number of pages: 32 Posted: 14 Jul 2011
Rafael Leal-Arcas
Queen Mary University of London, School of Law
Downloads 630 (40,269)

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climate change, flexible approach, incrementalism, climate-based RTAs, bottom-up approach, variable geometry, Major Economies Forum

15.

The Creation of a European Energy Union

European Energy Journal, Vol. 5, Issue 3, pp. 24-60, 2015, Queen Mary School of Law Legal Studies Research Paper No. 206/2015
Number of pages: 37 Posted: 15 Jun 2015 Last Revised: 18 Sep 2015
Rafael Leal-Arcas and Juan Alemany Rios
Queen Mary University of London, School of Law and Queen Mary, University of London
Downloads 594 (43,584)

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European energy union, energy security, Energy Community, Euro-Mediterranean Energy Partnership, internal energy market, energy efficiency, decarbonization, transparency, equality

16.

The Role of the EU, the U.S., and China in Addressing Climate Change

Laursen, F. (ed.) The EU and the Political Economy of Transatlantic Relations, Brussels: PIE Peter Lang, pp. 221-260, 2012
Number of pages: 46 Posted: 28 Jan 2013 Last Revised: 02 Oct 2017
Rafael Leal-Arcas
Queen Mary University of London, School of Law
Downloads 567 (46,299)

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Kyoto Protocol, European Union, EU emissions cuts, EU emissions trading scheme, global warming, climate change

17.

How Will the EU Approach the BRIC Countries? Future Trade Challenges

Vienna Online Journal of International Constitutional Law, Vol. 2, No. 4, pp. 235-271, 2008
Number of pages: 37 Posted: 06 May 2009
Rafael Leal-Arcas
Queen Mary University of London, School of Law
Downloads 565 (46,505)

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EU, BRIC, agriculture, energy security, Mode 4, intellectual property

18.

Strengthening Sustainable Development Through Preferential Trade Agreements

Leal-Arcas, R. and Wilmarth, C. "Strengthening Sustainable Development through Preferential Trade Agreements," in Wouters, J. et al. (eds.) Ensuring Good Global Governance through Trade: EU policies and approaches, Edward Elgar, pp. 92-123, 2015, Queen Mary School of Law Legal Studies Research Paper No. 174/2014
Number of pages: 25 Posted: 16 Apr 2014 Last Revised: 03 Feb 2016
Rafael Leal-Arcas and Catherine Wilmarth
Queen Mary University of London, School of Law and Queen Mary, University of London
Downloads 557 (47,362)

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Transatlantic Trade and Investment Partnership; Trans-Pacific Partnership; mega-regionals; sustainable development; energy; trade and investment; energy security; energy efficiency; trade in raw materials and natural resources

Road to Paris COP21: Towards Soft Global Governance for Climate Change?

Queen Mary School of Law Legal Studies Research Paper No. 186/2014
Number of pages: 7 Posted: 08 Dec 2014
Rafael Leal-Arcas and Luigi Carafa
Queen Mary University of London, School of Law and College of Europe, Bruges
Downloads 293 (100,961)

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Road to Paris COP21: Towards Soft Global Governance for Climate Change?

Renewable Energy Law and Policy Review, Vol. 5(2), pp. 130-135, 2014
Number of pages: 6 Posted: 02 Dec 2014 Last Revised: 28 Dec 2014
Rafael Leal-Arcas and Luigi Carafa
Queen Mary University of London, School of Law and College of Europe, Bruges
Downloads 261 (114,200)

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COP21, Conference of the Parties, global governance for climate change mitigation, carbon emissions reduction

20.

Theories of Supranationalism in the EU

Journal of Law in Society, Vol. 8, No. 1, pp. 83-113, 2007
Number of pages: 26 Posted: 22 Jun 2007
Rafael Leal-Arcas
Queen Mary University of London, School of Law
Downloads 550 (48,136)

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supranationalism, EU

21.

International Trade and Investment Law: Multilateral, Regional and Bilateral Governance

INTERNATIONAL TRADE AND INVESTMENT LAW: MULTILATERAL, REGIONAL AND BILATERAL GOVERNANCE, Edward Elgar Publishing, 2010
Posted: 24 May 2010
Rafael Leal-Arcas
Queen Mary University of London, School of Law
Downloads 547 (48,463)

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international trade, international investment law, regionalism, multilateralism, bilateralism

Gas and Oil Explorations in the Levant Basin: The Case of Lebanon and Israel

Oil, Gas & Energy Law Intelligence, Vol. 11 - issue 3, April 2013, Queen Mary School of Law Legal Studies Research Paper No. 141/2013
Number of pages: 34 Posted: 30 Apr 2013
Ehab Abu Gosh and Rafael Leal-Arcas
Queen Mary, University of London and Queen Mary University of London, School of Law
Downloads 298 (99,131)

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East Mediterranean Basin, Levant Basin, gas and oil discoveries, Israel offshore gas discovery, Lebanon offshore gas discovery, UNCLOS, maritime law, delimitation of EEZ, UNCLOS dispute settlement procedure

Gas and Oil Explorations in the Levant Basin: The Case of Lebanon and Israel

Oil, Gas & Energy Law Journal, Vol. 11, No. 3, 2013
Number of pages: 33 Posted: 25 Apr 2013
Rafael Leal-Arcas and Ehab Abu Gosh
Queen Mary University of London, School of Law and Queen Mary, University of London
Downloads 228 (131,146)

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East Mediterranean Basin, Levant Basin, gas and oil discoveries, Israel offshore gas discovery, Lebanon offshore gas discovery, UNCLOS, maritime law, delimitation of EEZ, UNCLOS dispute settlement procedure

23.

Sustainability, Common Concern and Public Goods

The George Washington International Law Review, Vol. 49, No. 4, pp. 801-877, 2017, Queen Mary School of Law Legal Studies Research Paper No. 253/2017
Number of pages: 78 Posted: 13 Feb 2017 Last Revised: 06 Oct 2017
Rafael Leal-Arcas
Queen Mary University of London, School of Law
Downloads 521 (51,534)

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sustainable development, international trade, climate change, sustainable energy, citizens’ empowerment, public goods, common concern, sustainable companies

24.

The Conservation of Exhaustible Natural Resources in the GATT and WTO: Implications for the Conservation of Oil Resources

The Journal of World Investment and Trade, Vol. 14, No. 3, pp. 480-531, Queen Mary School of Law Legal Studies Research Paper No. 143/2013
Number of pages: 52 Posted: 30 Apr 2013 Last Revised: 16 May 2013
Ehab Abu Gosh and Rafael Leal-Arcas
Queen Mary, University of London and Queen Mary University of London, School of Law
Downloads 489 (55,832)

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25.

The European Court of Justice and the EC External Trade Relations: A Legal Analysis of the Court's Problems with Regard to International Agreements

Nordic Journal of International Law, Vol. 72, No. 2, pp. 215-251, 2003
Number of pages: 37 Posted: 26 Jul 2004
Rafael Leal-Arcas
Queen Mary University of London, School of Law
Downloads 487 (56,133)
Citation 2

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WTO law, European Court of Justice, EC External Trade Relations

26.

Is the Kyoto Protocol an Adequate Environmental Agreement to Resolve the Climate Change Problem?

European Environmental Law Review, Vol. 10, No. 10, pp. 282-294, Winter 2001
Number of pages: 12 Posted: 01 Jul 2004
Rafael Leal-Arcas
Queen Mary University of London, School of Law
Downloads 484 (56,594)
Citation 1

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Kyoto Protocol, global warming, climate change, greenhouse gas emissions

27.

The EU Decision-Making Process in EC Trade Policy: The Three Internal Tensions

A CONSTITUTION FOR EUROPE? GOVERNANCE AND POLICY-MAKING IN THE EUROPEAN UNION, Astengo, F. & Neuwahl, N., eds., Vol. II, pp. 132-156, Collection "Etudes Europeennes", Chaire Jean Monnet, Universite de Montreal, 2004
Number of pages: 16 Posted: 15 Oct 2004 Last Revised: 26 Jun 2009
Rafael Leal-Arcas
Queen Mary University of London, School of Law
Downloads 458 (60,615)

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efficiency, accountability, trade policy, transparency, legitimacy

28.

European Union-China Trade Relations

Trade, Law and Development, Vol. 2, No. 2, pp. 224-251, 2010
Number of pages: 30 Posted: 27 Jan 2011 Last Revised: 24 Mar 2011
Rafael Leal-Arcas
Queen Mary University of London, School of Law
Downloads 429 (65,612)

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China, Comprehensive Framework Agreement, EU, Bilateral Free-Trade Agreements, Partnership and Cooperation Agreement, EU-China Trade Partnership

29.

The EC in the WTO: The Three-Level Game of Decision-Making. What Multilateralism Can Learn from Regionalism

European Integration online Papers (EIoP), Vol. 8, No. 14, 2004
Number of pages: 43 Posted: 25 Sep 2004
Rafael Leal-Arcas
Queen Mary University of London, School of Law
Downloads 422 (66,916)

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Competences, international agreements, transparency, international trade, common commercial policy, trade policy, accountability, institutions, European Commission, European Parliament, Council of Ministers, WTO, political science, law

30.

Legal Aspects of the Promotion of Renewable Energy within the EU and in Relation to the EU’s Obligations in the WTO

Renewable Energy Law and Policy Review, Issue 1/2014, pp.3-25, Queen Mary School of Law Legal Studies Research Paper No. 179/2014
Number of pages: 23 Posted: 20 Aug 2014 Last Revised: 12 Oct 2014
Rafael Leal-Arcas and Andrew Filis
Queen Mary University of London, School of Law and previously associated to QMUL
Downloads 419 (67,457)

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EU renewable energy; WTO; renewable energy; EU emissions trading system; subsidies; State aid

31.

On Climate Migration and International Trade

Vienna Journal of International Constitutional Law, Vol. 6, No. 3-4, pp. 410-440, 2012, Queen Mary School of Law Legal Studies Research Paper No. 124/2012
Number of pages: 31 Posted: 30 Sep 2012 Last Revised: 04 Jan 2013
Rafael Leal-Arcas
Queen Mary University of London, School of Law
Downloads 416 (68,052)

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climate migration, international trade, climate change adaptation, international legal obligations, public morals, WTO general exceptions

32.

Comparative Analysis of NAFTA's Chapter 20 and the WTO's Dispute Settlement Understanding

Transnational Dispute Management, Vol. 8, No. 3, pp. 1-25, September 2011, Queen Mary School of Law Legal Studies Research Paper No. 94/2011
Number of pages: 27 Posted: 08 Dec 2011
Rafael Leal-Arcas
Queen Mary University of London, School of Law
Downloads 404 (70,563)

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33.

Review of International Energy Investment Law: The Pursuit of Stability

Oil, Gas & Energy Law Journal, pp. 1-4, October 2010
Number of pages: 5 Posted: 15 Oct 2010 Last Revised: 05 Nov 2014
Rafael Leal-Arcas
Queen Mary University of London, School of Law
Downloads 394 (72,629)

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International Energy Law, Energy Investment Disputes, Investor-State Disputes, Investment Stability, Arbitration, International Investment Law

34.

Mapping the International and European Governance of Renewable Energy

Oxford Yearbook of European Law, 2016 special issue Beyond Pluralism? Co-Implication, Embeddedness and Interdependency between Public International Law and EU Law, pp. 1-46, doi: 10.1093/yel/yew022, Queen Mary School of Law Legal Studies Research Paper No. 237/2016, King's College London Law School Research Paper No. 2016-32
Number of pages: 46 Posted: 25 Jul 2016 Last Revised: 03 Dec 2016
Rafael Leal-Arcas and Stephen Minas
Queen Mary University of London, School of Law and Peking University - Peking University School of Transnational Law
Downloads 390 (73,507)

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renewable energy governance, UN Framework Convention on Climate Change, sustainable development goals, multilateral development banks, economic development, international trade, EU renewable energy legislation, IRENA, IEA

35.

Introduction: The European Energy Union: The Quest for Secure, Affordable and Sustainable Energy

The European Energy Union: The Quest for Secure, Affordable and Sustainable Energy, Claeys & Casteels Publishing, 2016
Number of pages: 8 Posted: 15 Feb 2016
Rafael Leal-Arcas
Queen Mary University of London, School of Law
Downloads 390 (73,507)

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EU Energy Union; energy security; TTIP; decarbonization; Paris Agreement on climate change; EU ETS; Southern Gas Corridor

36.

Mega-Regionals and Sustainable Development: The Transatlantic Trade and Investment Partnership and the Trans-Pacific Partnership

Renewable Energy Law and Policy Review, Vol. 4, 2015, pp. 248-264
Number of pages: 17 Posted: 04 Feb 2016
Rafael Leal-Arcas
Queen Mary University of London, School of Law
Downloads 389 (73,738)

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Transatlantic Trade and Investment Partnership, Trans-Pacific Partnership, mega-regionals, sustainable development, energy, trade and investment, energy security, energy efficiency, trade in raw materials and natural resources

37.

How Can the EU Diversify its Energy Supply to Improve its Energy Security?

Queen Mary School of Law Legal Studies Research Paper No. 190/2015
Number of pages: 23 Posted: 30 Jan 2015 Last Revised: 04 May 2015
Rafael Leal-Arcas and Juan Alemany Rios
Queen Mary University of London, School of Law and Queen Mary, University of London
Downloads 387 (74,195)

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single EU energy market; energy supply; liquefied natural gas; renewable energy; Southern Gas Corridor; Nabucco pipeline; Trans-Anatolian pipeline; Trans-Adriatic pipeline; International Energy Charter; Energy Charter Treaty

38.

International Energy Governance: Selected Legal Issues

INTERNATIONAL ENERGY GOVERNANCE: SELECTED LEGAL ISSUES, Cheltenham: Edward Elgar Publishing Ltd, 2014
Number of pages: 6 Posted: 11 Nov 2014
Rafael Leal-Arcas, Ehab Abu Gosh and Andrew Filis
Queen Mary University of London, School of Law, Queen Mary, University of London and previously associated to QMUL
Downloads 382 (75,295)

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global energy governance; energy security; international and EU energy law and governance; trade and energy; energy and law of the sea; renewable energy in the WTO and EU; energy, trade and environment.

39.

Multilateral, Regional and Bilateral Energy Trade Governance

Renewable Energy Law and Policy Review, Vol. 6(1), pp. 38-87, 2015, Queen Mary School of Law Legal Studies Research Paper No. 188/2014
Number of pages: 50 Posted: 27 Dec 2014 Last Revised: 18 Mar 2015
Rafael Leal-Arcas, Costantino Grasso and Juan Alemany Rios
Queen Mary University of London, School of Law, Coventry University and Queen Mary, University of London
Downloads 373 (77,391)

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Multilateral energy trade governance; regional energy trade governance; Energy Charter Treaty; MERCOSUR; ASEAN; EU energy trade governance; WTO; IRENA; raw materials; natural resources; shale gas.

40.

Towards the Multilateralization of International Investment Law

Journal of World Investment and Trade, Vol. 10, No. 6, pp. 865-919, 2009
Number of pages: 56 Posted: 05 Jan 2010
Rafael Leal-Arcas
Queen Mary University of London, School of Law
Downloads 373 (77,391)

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multilateralization, international investment law, foreign direct investment, World Trade Organization, multilateral framework for investment, Multilateral Agreement on Investment

Legal Aspects of Inter-State Maritime Delimitation in the Eastern Mediterranean Basin

Oil, Gas & Energy Law Intelligence, Vol. 11 - issue 3, April 2013, Queen Mary School of Law Legal Studies Research Paper No. 142/2013
Number of pages: 26 Posted: 30 Apr 2013
Andrew Filis and Rafael Leal-Arcas
previously associated to QMUL and Queen Mary University of London, School of Law
Downloads 221 (135,253)

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East Mediterranean Basin, maritime delimitation, continental shelf, territorial sea, exclusive economic zone, UNCLOSl, international maritime law, customary law

Legal Aspects of Inter-State Maritime Delimitation in the Eastern Mediterranean Basin

Oil, Gas & Energy Law Journal, Vol. 11, Issue 3, 2013
Number of pages: 24 Posted: 25 Apr 2013
Andrew Filis and Rafael Leal-Arcas
previously associated to QMUL and Queen Mary University of London, School of Law
Downloads 132 (213,599)

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East Mediterranean Basin, maritime delimitation, continental shelf, territorial sea, exclusive economic zone, UNCLOS, international maritime law, customary law

42.

EU Legal Personality in Foreign Policy?

Boston University International Law Journal, Vol. 24, No. 2, pp. 165-212, 2006
Number of pages: 48 Posted: 26 Jul 2007 Last Revised: 10 Jan 2010
Rafael Leal-Arcas
Queen Mary University of London, School of Law
Downloads 349 (83,635)

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European Union, legal personality, European Community, foreign policy

43.

Climate Change and International Trade

R. Leal-Arcas, CLIMATE CHANGE AND INTERNATIONAL TRADE, Edward Elgar Publishing Ltd, 2013
Number of pages: 31 Posted: 13 Feb 2013 Last Revised: 19 Feb 2013
Rafael Leal-Arcas
Queen Mary University of London, School of Law
Downloads 347 (84,188)

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climate change mitigation, international trade, multilayered governance, climate migration, trade and environment, EU emissions trading scheme, Kyoto Protocol, UNFCCC, Bali Action Plan, Copenhagen Accord, Durban Platform, Cancun Agreements, CDM, Montreal Protocol, RTAs and climate change

44.

Energy Trade as a Special Sector in the WTO: Unique Features, Unprecedented Challenges and Unresolved Issues

Indian Journal of International Economic Law, Vol. 6, pp. 1-53, 2014, Queen Mary School of Law Legal Studies Research Paper No. 176/2014
Number of pages: 55 Posted: 04 Jun 2014 Last Revised: 13 Nov 2014
Rafael Leal-Arcas and Ehab Abu Gosh
Queen Mary University of London, School of Law and Queen Mary, University of London
Downloads 342 (85,628)

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international trade in energy, GATT/WTO law, energy-rich countries, international trade law

45.

Unconventional Energy Sources and EU Energy Security: A Legal, Economic and Political Analysis

Oil, Gas & Energy Law Journal, Vol. 12, Issue 4, 2014, pp. 1-37, Queen Mary School of Law Legal Studies Research Paper No. 181/2014
Number of pages: 38 Posted: 23 Sep 2014 Last Revised: 17 Nov 2014
Rafael Leal-Arcas and Jan Schmitz
Queen Mary University of London, School of Law and European Commission, Trade Relations with the United States
Downloads 340 (86,206)

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International trade in energy law; EU energy policy; energy security; unconventional sources of fossil fuel; shale gas; geopolitics; OPEC

46.

Climate Change Mitigation from the Bottom Up: Using Preferential Trade Agreements to Promote Climate Change Mitigation

Carbon and Climate Law Rev, Vol. 7(1), pp. 34-42, 2013, Queen Mary School of Law Legal Studies Research Paper No. 150/2013
Number of pages: 9 Posted: 07 Aug 2013 Last Revised: 10 Feb 2014
Rafael Leal-Arcas
Queen Mary University of London, School of Law
Downloads 332 (88,529)

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Climate change mitigation,Preferential trade agreements,Trade,International trading system,Trade liberalization,Economic growth,Environmental protection,Subsidies,Sustainable development,Greenhouse gas,Trans-Pacific Partnership,Transatlantic Trade and Investment Partnership,Economic partnership agre

47.

EU Relations with China and Russia: How to Approach New Superpowers in Trade Matters

Journal of International Commercial Law and Technology, Vol. 4, No. 1, pp. 22-52, 2009, Queen Mary School of Law Legal Studies Research Paper No. 6/2009
Number of pages: 31 Posted: 22 Jan 2009 Last Revised: 04 Feb 2009
Rafael Leal-Arcas
Queen Mary University of London, School of Law
Downloads 323 (91,278)

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EU, international trade, Russia, China, energy security

48.

Trade Proposals for Climate Action

Trade, Law and Development, Vol. 6, No. 1, pp. 11-54, 2014, Queen Mary School of Law Legal Studies Research Paper No. 173/2014
Number of pages: 46 Posted: 29 Mar 2014 Last Revised: 20 Dec 2014
Rafael Leal-Arcas
Queen Mary University of London, School of Law
Downloads 320 (92,205)

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climate change mitigation; preferential trade agreements; energy trade; renewable energy; green energy governance; renewable subsidies; GATT Article XX; Emissions Trading Scheme; eco-labelling; global carbon market

49.

China’s Attitude to Multilateralism in International Economic Law and Governance: Challenges for the World Trading System

Journal of World Investment and Trade, Vol. 11, No. 2, pp. 259-273, 2010 , Queen Mary School of Law Legal Studies Research Paper No. 51/2010
Number of pages: 16 Posted: 01 May 2010 Last Revised: 16 Aug 2010
Rafael Leal-Arcas
Queen Mary University of London, School of Law
Downloads 320 (92,205)

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50.

Unitary Character of EC External Trade Relations

Columbia Journal of European Law, Vol. 7.3, Fall 2001, pp. 355-383
Number of pages: 30 Posted: 01 Jul 2004
Rafael Leal-Arcas
Queen Mary University of London, School of Law
Downloads 316 (93,497)
Citation 4

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EC external trade relations, international agreements, single voice, shared competence

51.

The European Union and the BRIC Countries: Unilateralism, Bilateralism and Multilateralism

THE EU IN THE GLOBAL POLITICAL ECONOMY, pp. 91-118, Finn. Laursen, ed., PIE Peter Lang, 2009
Number of pages: 16 Posted: 08 Oct 2009
Rafael Leal-Arcas
Queen Mary University of London, School of Law
Downloads 314 (94,144)

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EU, BRIC countries, unilateralism, bilateralism, regionalism, multilateralism

52.

EU-China Trade Relations: Current Difficulties and Ways to Improve Them

International Security Forum, April 2010
Number of pages: 21 Posted: 02 Jul 2010
Rafael Leal-Arcas
Queen Mary University of London, School of Law
Downloads 304 (97,522)

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European Union, China, International Trade, EU-China Partnership and Cooperation Agreement

53.

Choice of Jurisdiction in International Trade Disputes: Going Regional or Global?

Minnesota Journal of International Law, Vol. 16, pp. 1-59, 2007
Number of pages: 59 Posted: 26 Mar 2007
Rafael Leal-Arcas
Queen Mary University of London, School of Law
Downloads 300 (98,902)

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international trade disputes, NAFTA, WTO

54.

The Energy Community and the Energy Charter Treaty: Special Legal Regimes, their Systemic Relationship to the EU, and their Dispute Settlement Arrangements

Oil, Gas & Energy Law Journal, Vol. 12, Issue 2, pp. 1-42, 2014
Number of pages: 43 Posted: 29 May 2014
Rafael Leal-Arcas and Andrew Filis
Queen Mary University of London, School of Law and previously associated to QMUL
Downloads 296 (100,370)

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Energy Charter Treaty, Energy Community, European Union, EU energy security, EU energy policy, dispute settlement, normative conflicts, fragmentation of international law, meta-norms, treaty interpretation

55.

The Transition Towards Decarbonization: A Legal and Policy Exploration of the European Union

Queen Mary School of Law Legal Studies Research Paper No. 222/2016
Number of pages: 31 Posted: 02 Mar 2016
Rafael Leal-Arcas
Queen Mary University of London, School of Law
Downloads 295 (100,751)

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decarbonization, Paris Agreement on Climate Change, EU emissions trading scheme, aviation, shipping

56.

The Transatlantic Trade and Investment Partnership, Energy and Divestment

Van de Graaf, T. et al., Handbook of the International Political Economy of Energy, Palgrave, 2016 , Queen Mary School of Law Legal Studies Research Paper No. 213/2016
Number of pages: 21 Posted: 06 Jan 2016 Last Revised: 08 Sep 2016
Rafael Leal-Arcas and Costantino Grasso
Queen Mary University of London, School of Law and Coventry University
Downloads 290 (102,627)

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Transatlantic Trade and Investment Partnership; energy; raw materials; natural resources; divestment; shale gas

57.

The European Union and New Leading Powers: Towards Partnership in Strategic Trade Policy Areas

Fordham International Law Journal, Vol. 32, pp. 345-416, 2009, Queen Mary School of Law Legal Studies Research Paper No. 23/2009
Number of pages: 73 Posted: 13 Feb 2009 Last Revised: 25 Jun 2009
Rafael Leal-Arcas
Queen Mary University of London, School of Law
Downloads 289 (103,027)

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European Union, BRIC countries, unilateralism, bilateralism/regionalism, multilateralism, global economic governance

58.

The Fragmentation of International Trade Law: Is Now the Time for Variable Geometry?

The Journal of World Investment and Trade, Vol. 12, No. 2, pp. 145-195, 2011
Number of pages: 52 Posted: 28 Mar 2011 Last Revised: 04 Jun 2011
Rafael Leal-Arcas
Queen Mary University of London, School of Law
Downloads 282 (105,755)

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fragmentation, international trade law, multilateralism, plurilateralism, regionalism, bilateralism, unilateralism, variable geometry, sectoral agreements

59.

Conceptualizing EU Energy Security Through an EU Constitutional Law Perspective

Fordham International Law Journal, Vol. 36, pp. 1224-1300, 2013, Queen Mary School of Law Legal Studies Research Paper No. 148/2013
Number of pages: 77 Posted: 14 May 2013 Last Revised: 07 Oct 2013
Rafael Leal-Arcas and Andrew Filis
Queen Mary University of London, School of Law and previously associated to QMUL
Downloads 280 (106,527)

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EU energy security, EU energy policy, Treaty of Lisbon, common EU energy security policy, Internal Energy Market; Energy Community, shale gas, EU Emissions Trading System, energy transit

60.

The European Community and the International Trading System: A Judicial Approach

International Relations Journal, Vol. 22, No.1, pp. 47-54, Fall 2002
Number of pages: 21 Posted: 01 Jul 2004
Rafael Leal-Arcas
Queen Mary University of London, School of Law
Downloads 278 (107,374)
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WTO agreement, European Court of Justice, EC external trade relations, GATT, WTO Dispute Settlement Understanding

61.

Energy Transit Activities: Collection of Intergovernmental Agreements on Oil and Gas Transit Pipelines and Commentary

Queen Mary School of Law Legal Studies Research Paper No. 177/2014
Number of pages: 61 Posted: 17 Jul 2014 Last Revised: 18 Dec 2014
Rafael Leal-Arcas and Mariya Peykova
Queen Mary University of London, School of Law and Queen Mary, University of London
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Energy transit; Energy Charter Conference; Energy Charter Treaty; Energy Charter Draft Transit Protocol; Model Inter-Governmental and Host Government Agreements; Nabucco pipeline; South Caucasus pipeline; BTC pipeline; TAPI pipeline; Kirkuk Agreement

62.

The EU Constitutional Treaty and International Trade

THE RISE AND FALL OF THE EU'S CONSTITUTIONAL TREATY, F. Laursen, pp. 25-50, Brill/Nijhoff, Leiden, 2008
Number of pages: 26 Posted: 23 Apr 2008
Rafael Leal-Arcas
Queen Mary University of London, School of Law
Downloads 270 (110,770)

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EU Constitution, international trade, efficiency, accountability, democratic deficit

63.

Review of 'Free Movement of Goods and Limits of Regulatory Autonomy in the EU and WTO'

European Law Journal, Vol. 16, No. 4, pp. 508-510, 2010
Number of pages: 10 Posted: 16 Aug 2010
Rafael Leal-Arcas
Queen Mary University of London, School of Law
Downloads 268 (111,650)

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EU, WTO, free movement of goods

64.

Certain Legal Aspects of the Multilateral Trade System and the Promotion of Renewable Energy

Lim, C.L. and Mercurio, B. (eds.) International Economic Law after the Crisis: A Tale of Fragmented Disciplines, Cambridge University Press, 2015, Queen Mary School of Law Legal Studies Research Paper No. 166/2014
Number of pages: 38 Posted: 18 Jan 2014 Last Revised: 06 May 2015
Rafael Leal-Arcas and Andrew Filis
Queen Mary University of London, School of Law and previously associated to QMUL
Downloads 266 (112,431)

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World Trade Organization; renewable energy; subsidies; environmental protection; feed-in tariffs; wind power; biodiesels

65.

Prosumers: New Actors in EU Energy Security

Netherlands Yearbook of International Law 2017, Vol. 48, Chapter 5, pp. 139-172, TMC Asser Press, 2018;
Number of pages: 35 Posted: 01 Aug 2017 Last Revised: 19 Aug 2018
Rafael Leal-Arcas, Feja Lesniewska and Filippos Proedrou
Queen Mary University of London, School of Law, University of London - School of Oriental and African Studies (SOAS) and University of South Wales
Downloads 248 (120,929)

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66.

Theory and Practice of EC External Trade Law and Policy

THEORY AND PRACTICE OF EC EXTERNAL TRADE LAW AND POLICY, Cameron May, 2008
Number of pages: 17 Posted: 30 May 2009 Last Revised: 01 Jun 2009
Rafael Leal-Arcas
Queen Mary University of London, School of Law
Downloads 245 (122,455)
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European Community, international trade agreements, services trade, Common Commercial Policy, mixed agreements, Doha Round, European Union

67.

Research Handbook on EU Energy Law and Policy (Introduction)

Research Handbook on EU Energy Law and Policy, Cheltenham: Edward Elgar Publishing Ltd., 2017
Number of pages: 16 Posted: 18 Oct 2017
Rafael Leal-Arcas and Jan Wouters
Queen Mary University of London, School of Law and KU Leuven - Leuven Centre for Global Governance Studies
Downloads 228 (131,596)

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EU energy policy; European energy union; Energy Charter Treaty; global energy security; electricity; Paris Agreement; energy and environment

68.

The Resumption of the Doha Round and the Future of Services Trade

Loyola of Los Angeles International and Comparative Law Review, Vol. 29, No. 3, pp. 339-461, 2007
Number of pages: 123 Posted: 14 Mar 2008 Last Revised: 11 Dec 2008
Rafael Leal-Arcas
Queen Mary University of London, School of Law
Downloads 222 (135,069)
Citation 1

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Doha round, services trade, Lisbon Treaty

69.

50 Years of Trade Policy: Good Enough or as Good as it Gets?

Irish Journal of European Law, Vol. 15, Nos. 1 & 2, pp. 157-182, 2008, Queen Mary School of Law Legal Studies Research Paper No. 13/2009
Number of pages: 27 Posted: 27 Dec 2008 Last Revised: 19 Mar 2009
Rafael Leal-Arcas
Queen Mary University of London, School of Law
Downloads 219 (136,803)

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EC trade competence, Amsterdam Treaty, Nice Treaty, Constitutional Treaty, Lisbon Treaty

70.

The EC in GATT/WTO Negotiations: From Rome to Nice - Have EC Trade Policy Reforms Been Good Enough for a Coherent EC Trade Policy in the WTO?

EIoP, Vol. 8, No. 1, 2004
Number of pages: 29 Posted: 09 Apr 2004 Last Revised: 25 Feb 2018
Rafael Leal-Arcas
Queen Mary University of London, School of Law
Downloads 218 (137,418)

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Common commercial policy, competences, international agreements, trade policy, Amsterdam Treaty, Nice Treaty, European Convention, law

71.

Smart Grids in the European Union: Assessing Energy Security, Regulation & Social and Ethical Considerations

Columbia Journal of European Law, Vol. 24, No. 2, pp. 291-389 (2018), Queen Mary School of Law Legal Studies Research Paper No. 263/2017
Number of pages: 87 Posted: 01 Nov 2017 Last Revised: 09 Jan 2019
Rafael Leal-Arcas, Feja Lesniewska and Filippos Proedrou
Queen Mary University of London, School of Law, University of London - School of Oriental and African Studies (SOAS) and University of South Wales
Downloads 217 (138,030)

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smart grids; prosumers; sustainability; energy security; demand response; electricity storage; collaborative economy; circular economy; cybersecurity; data protection

72.

The Resilience of the Paris Agreement: Negotiating and Implementing the Climate Regime

Georgetown Environmental Law Review, Vol. 31.1, pp. 1-64, 2018, Queen Mary School of Law Legal Studies Research Paper No. 284/2018;
Number of pages: 64 Posted: 28 Aug 2018 Last Revised: 26 Jan 2019
Rafael Leal-Arcas and Antonio Morelli
Queen Mary University of London, School of Law and American University - Washington College of Law
Downloads 214 (139,819)

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Paris Agreement, climate change, international trade

73.

The State of Play of the EC's Common Commercial Policy: A Legal and Policy Analysis

Tilburg Foreign Law Review, Vol. 11, No. 2, pp. 537-559, 2003
Number of pages: 23 Posted: 01 Jul 2004 Last Revised: 16 Feb 2018
Rafael Leal-Arcas
Queen Mary University of London, School of Law
Downloads 212 (141,129)
Citation 2

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international trade, EC common commercial policy, Nice Treaty, European Convention, Article 133 EC

74.

The EU Institutions and Their Modus Operandi in the World Trading System

Columbia Journal of European Law, Vol. 12.1, pp. 125-197, Winter 2005/2006
Number of pages: 92 Posted: 28 Nov 2006
Rafael Leal-Arcas
Queen Mary University of London, School of Law
Downloads 208 (143,703)
Citation 1

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negotiation, conclusion, ratification, judicial enforcement of international trade agreements

75.

The Energy Community, the Energy Charter Treaty and the Promotion of EU Energy Security

Buschle, D. and Talus, K. (eds.) The Energy Community: A New Energy Governance System, Intersentia, pp. 551-589, 2015, Queen Mary School of Law Legal Studies Research Paper No. 203/2015
Number of pages: 40 Posted: 04 Jun 2015 Last Revised: 08 Feb 2016
Rafael Leal-Arcas and Andrew Filis
Queen Mary University of London, School of Law and previously associated to QMUL
Downloads 205 (145,634)

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Energy Charter Treaty, Energy Community, European Union, EU energy security

76.

A New Era in Global Economic Governance

International Security Forum, 2009
Number of pages: 9 Posted: 14 Jul 2009
Rafael Leal-Arcas
Queen Mary University of London, School of Law
Downloads 204 (146,332)

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global economic governance, G-20, G-7, multipolarity, rise of regionalism

77.

Three Thoughts on Brexit

Queen Mary School of Law Legal Studies Research Paper No. 249/2016
Number of pages: 5 Posted: 25 Nov 2016 Last Revised: 23 Dec 2016
Rafael Leal-Arcas
Queen Mary University of London, School of Law
Downloads 202 (147,661)

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Brexit, Frexit, Article 50 TEU, free-trade agreement, European Economic Area, European Free Trade Association, World Trade Organization, customs union, Comprehensive Economic and Trade Agreement

78.

Will EU Member States Play Any Role at the WTO After the EU Reform Treaty?

Vienna Online Journal of International Constitutional Law, Vol. 1, No. 2, pp. 75-90, 2007
Number of pages: 16 Posted: 10 Dec 2007
Rafael Leal-Arcas
Queen Mary University of London, School of Law
Downloads 200 (149,010)

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WTO, EU Member States, Reform Treaty, federation

79.

How Governing International Trade in Energy Can Enhance EU Energy Security

Renewable Energy Law and Policy Review, Vol. 6, No. 3, pp. 202-219, 2015
Number of pages: 18 Posted: 14 Oct 2015 Last Revised: 02 Nov 2015
Rafael Leal-Arcas
Queen Mary University of London, School of Law
Downloads 198 (150,390)

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energy security, international trade in energy, EU energy policy

80.

Renewables, Preferential Trade Agreements and EU Energy Security

Laws, Vol. 4, Issue 3, pp. 472-514, Queen Mary School of Law Legal Studies Research Paper No. 208/2015
Number of pages: 43 Posted: 28 Jul 2015 Last Revised: 08 Aug 2015
Rafael Leal-Arcas, Valentina Caruso and Raphaela Leupuscek
Queen Mary University of London, School of Law, University of London - Centre for Commercial Law Studies (CCLS) and Queen Mary, University of London
Downloads 193 (154,115)

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renewable energy; preferential trade agreements; energy security; EU; Energy Community; climate change

81.

Is EC Trade Policy Up to Par?: A Legal Analysis over Time - Rome, Marrakesh, Amsterdam, Nice, and the Constitutional Treaty

Columbia Journal of European Law, Vol. 13, No. 2, pp. 305-399, Spring 2007
Number of pages: 96 Posted: 14 Mar 2007
Rafael Leal-Arcas
Queen Mary University of London, School of Law
Downloads 189 (157,023)

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European Community trade policy, WTO, international trade

82.

China’s Economic Rise and Regional Trade

APEC AND THE RISE OF CHINA, pp. 93-120, L. Ho and J. Wong, eds., World Scientific, 2011
Posted: 03 May 2011
Rafael Leal-Arcas
Queen Mary University of London, School of Law
Downloads 187 (158,558)

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global economic power, multilateral trade, regionalism, regional trade, WTO, East Asian Free Trade Area, Doha Round, accession to the WTO, China, status as developing country, role in Doha Round, attitude to multilateralism

83.

Polycephalous Anatomy of the EC in the WTO: An Analysis of Law and Practice

Florida Journal of International Law, Vol. 19, No. 3, pp. 569-670, 2007
Number of pages: 102 Posted: 28 Mar 2008 Last Revised: 11 Dec 2008
Rafael Leal-Arcas
Queen Mary University of London, School of Law
Downloads 185 (160,071)

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European Community, WTO, allocation of competences, mixed agreements, duty of cooperation

84.

Is Lisbon the Answer or the Anathema to EC Trade Law and Policy?

THE DYNAMICS OF TRADE LAW AND ECONOMICS, S. Kierkegaard, ed., International Association of IT Lawyers, pp. 138-158, 2008
Number of pages: 21 Posted: 07 Sep 2008 Last Revised: 11 Dec 2008
Rafael Leal-Arcas
Queen Mary University of London, School of Law
Downloads 182 (162,445)

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Lisbon Treaty, trust, collective action, democratic deficit

85.

The Reception of European Community Law in Spain

Hanse Law Review, Vol. 1, No. 1, pp. 18-21, 2005
Number of pages: 4 Posted: 04 May 2005
Rafael Leal-Arcas
Queen Mary University of London, School of Law
Downloads 178 (165,722)

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EC law, Spanish constitution, Spanish constitutional court, fundamental human rights

86.

The Climate-Energy-Trade Nexus in EU External Relations

Minas, S. and Ntousas, V. (eds.) EU Climate Diplomacy: Politics, Law and Negotiations, Routledge, pp. 153-168, 2018, Queen Mary School of Law Legal Studies Research Paper No. 261/2017
Number of pages: 14 Posted: 31 Oct 2017 Last Revised: 17 Jun 2018
Rafael Leal-Arcas and Eduardo Alvarez Armas
Queen Mary University of London, School of Law and Queen Mary University of London - Centre for Commercial Law Studies
Downloads 171 (171,750)

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climate change, energy, EU free-trade agreements, environmental agreements

87.

The Principle of Proportionality in International Law

NCCR Trade Regulation Working Paper No 2012/38
Number of pages: 34 Posted: 26 Apr 2015
University of Bern - Institute of European and International Economic Law, University of Bern - World Trade Institute, Queen Mary University of London, School of Law, Institute for European and International Law, WTI/NCCR Trade and University of Lucerne
Downloads 170 (172,651)

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proportionality, use of force, maritime boundary delimitation, WTO, GATT, GATS, investment law

88.

On China’s Economic Rise: Multilateral versus Regional Attitudes in Trade Agreements and the PCA with the EU

Chinese (Taiwan) Yearbook of International Law and Affairs, Vol. 27, pp. 12-42, 2011
Number of pages: 31 Posted: 30 Sep 2011
Rafael Leal-Arcas
Queen Mary University of London, School of Law
Downloads 164 (178,047)

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global economic superpower, multilateral trade, regional trade, East Asian Free Trade Area, WTO, EU-China trade

89.

The Role of the European Union and China in Global Climate Change Negotiations: A Critical Analysis

Journal of European Integration History, Vol. 18, pp. 67-81, 2012
Number of pages: 15 Posted: 02 May 2012
Rafael Leal-Arcas
Queen Mary University of London, School of Law
Downloads 159 (182,825)
Citation 1

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global climate change negotiations, China, European Union, aviation, EU emissions trading scheme

90.

United We Stand, Divided We Fall - the European Community and its Member States in the WTO Forum: Towards a Common Position on Issues of Shared Competence

European Political Economy Review, Vol. 1, No. 1, pp. 65-79, Spring 2003
Number of pages: 15 Posted: 01 Jul 2004
Rafael Leal-Arcas
Queen Mary University of London, School of Law
Downloads 159 (182,825)
Citation 3

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mixed agreements, EC external trade relations, WTO, shared competence

91.

Doha Negotiations on Services Trade: Consequences of the Nice Treaty Reform and the Constitutional Treaty

Federal Trust for Education and Research Online Paper No. 22/04
Number of pages: 11 Posted: 15 Oct 2004
Rafael Leal-Arcas
Queen Mary University of London, School of Law
Downloads 158 (183,776)

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Doha negotiations, trade in services, Nice Treaty, Constitutional Treaty

92.

Certain Normative Aspects of the Institutional Architecture of Global Energy Governance

Boulle, L., Laryea, E. and Sucker, F. (eds.) International Economic Law and African Development, Siber Ink, 2014, pp. 27-60
Number of pages: 19 Posted: 19 Nov 2014
Rafael Leal-Arcas and Andrew Filis
Queen Mary University of London, School of Law and previously associated to QMUL
Downloads 153 (188,829)

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global energy governance, international cooperation in energy, energy supply and consumption, trade in energy, energy investment, energy security

93.

New Frontiers of International Economic Law: The Quest for Sustainable Development

University of Pennsylvania Journal of International Law, Vol. 40.1, pp. 83-133, 2018, Queen Mary School of Law Legal Studies Research Paper No. 276/2018
Number of pages: 51 Posted: 19 Mar 2018 Last Revised: 14 Jan 2019
Rafael Leal-Arcas
Queen Mary University of London, School of Law
Downloads 146 (196,240)

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international trade agreements, climate change mitigation, energy security, sustainable energy, international cooperation, decarbonization, sustainable development, citizens’ empowerment

94.

The GATS in the Doha Round: A European Perspective

THE WORLD TRADE ORGANIZATION AND TRADE IN SERVICES, Alexander, K. & Andenas, M., eds., pp. 9-104, Brill/Nijhoff, 2008
Number of pages: 49 Posted: 24 Apr 2009 Last Revised: 27 Apr 2009
Rafael Leal-Arcas
Queen Mary University of London, School of Law
Downloads 146 (196,240)

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GATS, Doha Round, international trade in services, Lisbon Treaty, EU, EC, mixed agreements

95.

Energy Transit: Intergovernmental Agreements on Oil and Gas Transit Pipelines

Renewable Energy Law and Policy Review, Vol. 6(2), pp. 122-162, 2015
Number of pages: 41 Posted: 18 Oct 2015
Queen Mary University of London, School of Law, Queen Mary, University of London, Amarchand & Mangaldas & Suresh A Shroff & Co and Queen Mary, University of London
Downloads 144 (198,410)

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Energy transit; Energy Charter Conference; Energy Charter Treaty; Energy Charter Draft Transit Protocol; Model Inter-Governmental and Host Government Agreements; Nabucco pipeline; South Caucasus pipeline; BTC pipeline; TAPI pipeline; Kirkuk Agreement

96.

Introduction: Energy Security, Trade and the EU: Regional and International Perspectives

Energy Security, Trade and the EU: Regional and International Perspectives, Cheltenham: Edward Elgar Publishing Ltd, 2016
Number of pages: 20 Posted: 19 Sep 2016
Rafael Leal-Arcas, Juan Alemany Rios and Costantino Grasso
Queen Mary University of London, School of Law, Queen Mary, University of London and Coventry University
Downloads 142 (200,743)

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energy security, international trade, European Union, energy trade governance, energy transit, unconventional fossil fuel sources, renewables, preferential trade agreements, European Energy Union

97.

The Significance of the Nice Treaty and Constitutional Treaty in Relation to Services Trade in the Doha Round Framework

International Relations and Politics Online Quarterly, No. 1, pp. 62-83, March 2005
Number of pages: 22 Posted: 05 Apr 2005
Rafael Leal-Arcas
Queen Mary University of London, School of Law
Downloads 139 (204,161)

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GATS, Doha Round, Nice Treaty, Constitutional Treaty, mixed agreements

98.

Designing International Trade in Energy Governance for EU Energy Security

Heffron, R. and Little, G. (eds.) Delivering Energy Law and Policy in the EU and the US: A Reader, Edinburgh University Press, 2016, Queen Mary School of Law Legal Studies Research Paper No. 197/2015
Number of pages: 5 Posted: 22 May 2015 Last Revised: 08 Sep 2016
Rafael Leal-Arcas
Queen Mary University of London, School of Law
Downloads 137 (206,550)

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international trade in energy governance; sovereignty over natural resources; energy security; energy supply; energy diversification; renewable energy

99.

Inter-State Cooperation in Energy Transit

UNU-CRIS Working Paper W-2015/2, 2015, pp. 1-23
Number of pages: 23 Posted: 03 Apr 2015
Rafael Leal-Arcas and Andrew Filis
Queen Mary University of London, School of Law and previously associated to QMUL
Downloads 137 (206,550)

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global energy governance, fragmentation of the global energy governance regime, energy transit, Energy Charter Conference, WTO, NAFTA, ASEAN, EU

100.

A Look at Services Trade: Implications of the Doha Talks Suspension and Resumption

ESSAYS ON THE FUTURE OF WORLD TRADE ORGANIZATION, J. Chaisse & T. Balmelli, eds., Vol. 1, Editions Interuniversitaires Suisses, pp. 99-134, 2008
Number of pages: 59 Posted: 19 Feb 2008 Last Revised: 14 Jan 2014
Rafael Leal-Arcas
Queen Mary University of London, School of Law
Downloads 132 (212,881)

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services trade, Doha Round, WTO

101.

Linking the European Union to the Energy Charter Treaty and the Energy Community

Energy Charter Knowledge Centre Review, Issue 3, May/June 2014, pp. 16-19, Queen Mary School of Law Legal Studies Research Paper No. 178/2014
Number of pages: 5 Posted: 17 Jul 2014
Rafael Leal-Arcas and Andrew Filis
Queen Mary University of London, School of Law and previously associated to QMUL
Downloads 126 (220,635)

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Energy Charter Treaty; Energy Community; European Union; EU energy security

102.

Reflections on EU International Trade Law: An Introspective View

Frontiers of Law in China, Vol. 7, No. 1, pp. 1-20, 2012, Queen Mary School of Law Legal Studies Research Paper No. 101/2012
Number of pages: 21 Posted: 15 Mar 2012
Rafael Leal-Arcas
Queen Mary University of London, School of Law
Downloads 126 (220,635)

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103.

Decarbonizing the Energy Sector

Michigan State Journal of Animal and Natural Resource Law, Vol. XV, 2019, Forthcoming, Queen Mary School of Law Legal Studies Research Paper No. 309/2019
Number of pages: 72 Posted: 05 Mar 2019 Last Revised: 24 Apr 2019
Rafael Leal-Arcas, Mariya Peykova, Victoria Nalule and Pinar Kara
Queen Mary University of London, School of Law, Queen Mary, University of London, Queen Mary University of London and Istanbul Bilgi University, Faculty of Law
Downloads 125 (221,950)

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104.

Ramifications of GATS Mode 4 for European Union-India Trade Relations

International Security Forum, April 2010
Number of pages: 5 Posted: 01 May 2010
Rafael Leal-Arcas
Queen Mary University of London, School of Law
Downloads 125 (221,950)

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European Union, India, international trade, temporary migration, GATS Mode 4

105.

China’s Attitude to Multilateralism in International Economic Law and Governance (in Chinese)

ENGLISH SCHOOL THEORY AND INTERNATIONAL HISTORY STUDIES, pp. 194-214, D. Liu, ed., Peking University Press, 2011
Number of pages: 17 Posted: 10 Jun 2011
Rafael Leal-Arcas
Queen Mary University of London, School of Law
Downloads 120 (228,921)

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WTO, FTAs, trade, China, global economic superpower

106.

Bridging the Gap in the Doha Talks: A Look at Services Trade

INTERNATIONAL LAW AND TRADE: BRIDGING THE EAST-WEST DIVIDE, S. Kierkegaard, ed., International Association of IT Lawyers, 2007
Number of pages: 11 Posted: 18 May 2007 Last Revised: 14 Jan 2014
Rafael Leal-Arcas
Queen Mary University of London, School of Law
Downloads 120 (228,921)

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Doha Round, services trade, liberalization, WTO, commitments

107.

Review of The WTO and the Environment: Development of Competence Beyond Trade

Carbon and Climate Law Review, Vol. 7(4), 2013, pp. 310-312
Number of pages: 3 Posted: 20 Mar 2014 Last Revised: 10 May 2014
Rafael Leal-Arcas
Queen Mary University of London, School of Law
Downloads 119 (230,307)

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trade and the environment, WTO, conservation or protection of the environment, GATT Article XX(g), Committee on Trade and Environment

108.

Services as Key for the Conclusion of the Doha Round

Legal Issues of Economic Integration, Vol. 35, No. 4, pp. 301-321, 2008
Number of pages: 25 Posted: 29 Oct 2008 Last Revised: 11 Dec 2008
Rafael Leal-Arcas
Queen Mary University of London, School of Law
Downloads 119 (230,307)

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GATS, services trade, Doha Round, request/offer, EC

109.

The European Union Vis-a-Vis Brazil and India: Future Avenues in Selected Trade Policy Areas

International Journal of Private Law, Vol. 2, No. 2, pp. 109-134, 2009
Number of pages: 26 Posted: 23 Nov 2008
Rafael Leal-Arcas
Queen Mary University of London, School of Law
Downloads 117 (233,219)

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Brazil, India, trade, agriculture, temporary migration, European Union

110.

A Bottom-Up Approach for Climate Change: The Trade Experience

Asian Journal of Law and Economics, Vol. 2, Issue 4, pp. 1-54, 2011
Number of pages: 56 Posted: 03 Jan 2012 Last Revised: 30 Jan 2012
Rafael Leal-Arcas
Queen Mary University of London, School of Law
Downloads 111 (242,186)

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bottom-up approach for climate change, climate-based RTAs, variable geometry, flexible approach

111.

Business Models for Decentralized Energy

Queen Mary School of Law Legal Studies Research Paper No. 311/2019
Number of pages: 62 Posted: 04 Jun 2019
Queen Mary University of London, School of Law, Athens University of Economics and Business, Athens University of Economics and Business, Queen Mary University of London, School of Law and Queen Mary, University of London
Downloads 101 (258,708)

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112.

The Transition to Decentralized Energy: Challenges, Opportunities and Progress

University of Puerto Rico Business Law Journal, Vol. 10, Forthcoming;, Queen Mary School of Law Legal Studies Research Paper No. 310/2019
Number of pages: 65 Posted: 05 Mar 2019
Queen Mary University of London, School of Law, Queen Mary University of London and Queen Mary University of London
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decentralized energy, demand response, electric vehicles, deregulation, smart meters, smart grids

113.

Linking Energy and Climate Change

Outreach, pp. 4, 28 November 2012
Number of pages: 16 Posted: 03 Dec 2012
Rafael Leal-Arcas
Queen Mary University of London, School of Law
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climate change mitigation, energy, fossil fuels, renewable energy

114.

Working Together: How to Make Trade Contribute to Climate Action

International Centre for Trade and Sustainable Development, Information Note No. 18, pp. 1-8, Geneva, November 2013, Queen Mary School of Law Legal Studies Research Paper No. 159/2013
Number of pages: 9 Posted: 28 Nov 2013 Last Revised: 17 Dec 2013
Rafael Leal-Arcas
Queen Mary University of London, School of Law
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climate action, regional trade agreements, climate change mitigation, emissions trading scheme, energy trade, sustainable development, renewable energy, aviation, shipping, WTO

115.

Energy Decentralization in the European Union

Georgetown Environmental Law Review, Vol. 32.1, 2019, Forthcoming, Queen Mary School of Law Legal Studies Research Paper No. 307/2019
Number of pages: 58 Posted: 04 Jun 2019
Rafael Leal-Arcas, Juan Alemany Rios and Nelson Akondo
Queen Mary University of London, School of Law, Queen Mary University of London, School of Law and Queen Mary University of London, School of Law
Downloads 86 (286,760)

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116.

Commentary on the Energy Charter Treaty (Introduction)

Commentary on the Energy Charter Treaty (2018)
Number of pages: 10 Posted: 24 Jan 2019
Rafael Leal-Arcas
Queen Mary University of London, School of Law
Downloads 85 (288,884)

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Energy Charter Treaty, international energy law and policy, energy security, energy investment, energy trade, energy dispute settlement

117.

The GATS and Temporary Migration Policy

INTERNATIONAL ECONOMIC LAW AND NATIONAL AUTONOMY, pp. 193-215, M. Lewis & S. Frankel, eds., Cambridge University Press, 2010
Number of pages: 23 Posted: 05 Oct 2010
Rafael Leal-Arcas
Queen Mary University of London, School of Law
Downloads 84 (290,984)

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GATS, Mode 4, Temporary Migration Policy, Domestic Regulation, Knowledge-Based Society, Highly-Skilled Workers

118.

The EU and Brazil: Trading Partners in Different Fora

The Jean Monnet/Robert Schuman Paper Series, Vol. 8, No. 11, pp. 1-12, June 2008
Number of pages: 12 Posted: 10 Jan 2009
Rafael Leal-Arcas
Queen Mary University of London, School of Law
Downloads 83 (293,074)

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Brazil, European Union, international trade, unilateralism, bilateralism/regionalism, multilateralism

119.

Towards Energy Democratization

Colorado Natural Resources, Energy, and Environmental Law Review, Vol. 31, Forthcoming , Queen Mary School of Law Legal Studies Research Paper No. 308/2019
Number of pages: 66 Posted: 22 Feb 2019
Rafael Leal-Arcas, Marius Greger and Hanna Knigge
Queen Mary University of London, School of Law, Queen Mary University of London and Queen Mary University of London
Downloads 82 (295,213)

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120.

Review of 'EU Foreign Relations Law: Constitutional Fundamentals' (Oxford and Portland, Hart, 2008)

European Foreign Affairs Review, Vol. 15, No. 1, pp. 137-138, 2010
Number of pages: 2 Posted: 04 Jan 2010 Last Revised: 15 Oct 2010
Rafael Leal-Arcas
Queen Mary University of London, School of Law
Downloads 80 (299,541)

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EU foreign relations law, Constitutional Treaty, Lisbon Treaty, cross-pillarisation of EU policies

121.

Re-Thinking Global Climate Change: A Local, Bottom-Up Perspective

Seton Hall Journal of Diplomacy and International Relations, Vol. XX, No. 1, pp. 4-20, 2018
Number of pages: 9 Posted: 23 Apr 2019
Rafael Leal-Arcas
Queen Mary University of London, School of Law
Downloads 77 (306,413)

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clean energy, energy transition, behavioral economics, prosumers, climate change

122.

Unconventional Sources of Fossil Fuel in the European Union and China: Perspectives on Trade, Climate Change and Energy Security

published as R. Leal-Arcas, “Unconventional sources of fossil fuel in the European Union and China: Perspectives on trade, climate change and energy security,” in Hefele, P., Palocz-Andresen, M., Rech, M. and Kohler, J.-H. (eds.) Climate and Energy Protection in the EU and China, Cham: Switzerland, , Queen Mary School of Law Legal Studies Research Paper No. 288/2018
Number of pages: 16 Posted: 26 Nov 2018
Rafael Leal-Arcas
Queen Mary University of London, School of Law
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unconventional sources of fossil fuel, natural gas, geopolitics, energy security, climate change, international trade

123.

Energy Trade in the MENA Region: Looking Beyond the Pan-Arab Electricity Market

Journal of World Energy Law and Business, Vol. 10, Issue 6, pp. 520-549, Oxford University Press, 2017
Number of pages: 30 Posted: 30 Nov 2017
Rafael Leal-Arcas, Nelson Akondo and Juan Alemany Rios
Queen Mary University of London, School of Law, Queen Mary University of London, School of Law and Queen Mary, University of London
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Energy Trade, MENA Region, Electricity Trade, Gas Trade, Energy Sustainability, Clean Energy, Regional Trade Agreements

124.

Natural Gas, US Shale Dynamics and Energy Security: A View from the European Union

Published in Raszewski, S. (ed.) The International Political Economy of Oil and Gas: Governing the Resources in Changing Contexts, Palgrave Macmillan, pp. 73-86, Queen Mary School of Law Legal Studies Research Paper No. 265/2017
Number of pages: 13 Posted: 26 Nov 2017 Last Revised: 18 Jan 2018
Rafael Leal-Arcas
Queen Mary University of London, School of Law
Downloads 71 (320,869)

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Gas Exporting Countries Forum, Natural Gas, Shale Gas Revolution, Liquefied Natural Gas, Energy Security, Energy Supply

125.

Towards a New Climate Change Agreement Post-2015

Queen Mary School of Law Legal Studies Research Paper No. 210/2015
Number of pages: 12 Posted: 19 Oct 2015
Rafael Leal-Arcas
Queen Mary University of London, School of Law
Downloads 70 (323,333)

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126.

Geoengineering a Future for Humankind: Some Technical and Ethical Considerations

Carbon and Climate Law Review, Vol. 6, No. 2, pp. 128-148, 2012
Number of pages: 21 Posted: 19 Sep 2012 Last Revised: 17 Jul 2014
Rafael Leal-Arcas and Andrew Filis
Queen Mary University of London, School of Law and previously associated to QMUL
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geoengineering, climate change mitigation, trade and geoengineering, governance

127.

Small is Beautiful: Why a Club Approach is the Way to Go in Climate Change Mitigation

Leal, W. and Surroop, D. (eds.) The Nexus: Energy, environment and climate change, Springer, pp. 305-317; ISBN: 978-3-319-63611-5 , Queen Mary School of Law Legal Studies Research Paper No. 264/2017
Number of pages: 16 Posted: 12 Nov 2017 Last Revised: 18 Jan 2018
Rafael Leal-Arcas
Queen Mary University of London, School of Law
Downloads 59 (353,073)

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Bottom-Up Approach to Climate Change Mitigation, Major Economies Forum, Variable Geometry

128.

Regulation, Innovation, and Technology for 21st Century Energy Goals

Forthcoming, Journal of Law and Cyber Warfare, Vol. 8, Issue 1, 2019, Queen Mary School of Law Legal Studies Research Paper No. 312/2019
Number of pages: 60 Posted: 11 Mar 2019
Rafael Leal-Arcas, Gemma Fearnley and Chana Gluck
Queen Mary University of London, School of Law, Queen Mary University of London, School of Law and Queen Mary University of London
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129.

University Initiatives in Climate Change Mitigation and Adaptation (Table of Contents)

UNIVERSITY INITIATIVES IN CLIMATE CHANGE MITIGATION AND ADAPTATION, Springer, 2018
Number of pages: 5 Posted: 04 Sep 2018
Walter Leal Filho and Rafael Leal-Arcas
Hamburg University of Applied Sciences (HAW) and Queen Mary University of London, School of Law
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climate change mitigation, climate change adaptation

130.

Review of External Economic Relations and Foreign Policy in the European Union

European Law Books, 2005
Number of pages: 2 Posted: 12 Sep 2011 Last Revised: 17 May 2013
Rafael Leal-Arcas
Queen Mary University of London, School of Law
Downloads 35 (436,648)

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EU division of competences, EU external economic relations law, EU foreign policy

131.

Promoting Access to Modern Energy Sources in Small Island Developing States

OUTREACH, Stakeholderforum, p. 8, August 2014
Number of pages: 12 Posted: 30 Aug 2014
Rafael Leal-Arcas
Queen Mary University of London, School of Law
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energy security, energy access, energy equality, modern energy sources, small island developing states

132.

EU Trade Law (Introduction)

EU TRADE LAW, Elgar European Law Series, Edward Elgar Publishing Ltd, 2019; ISBN: 978 1 78897 740 1
Number of pages: 12 Posted: 21 May 2019
Rafael Leal-Arcas
Queen Mary University of London, School of Law
Downloads 4 (607,847)

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The EU in the GATT/WTO; Treaty of Lisbon; mixed agreements; efficiency v accountability; international trade agreements

133.

Cidadãos no centro da transição energética: Um novo modelo de governança (Citizens at the Center of the Energy Transition: A New Governance Model)

Environmental Law and Economics, Thomson Reuters, 2019, pp. 231-244
Number of pages: 18
Rafael Leal-Arcas
Queen Mary University of London, School of Law
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behavioral economic analysis, clean energy, prosumers, smart cities

134.

The Role of the EU, the U.S., and China in Addressing Climate Change

The EU and the Political Economy of Transatlantic Relations, Brussels: PIE Peter Lang, 221-260, 2012
Number of pages: 47
Rafael Leal-Arcas
Queen Mary University of London, School of Law
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Kyoto Protocol, European Union, EU emissions cuts, EU emissions trading scheme, global warming, climate change

135.

Energy Transit in the Caucasus: A Legal Analysis

Number of pages: 22
Rafael Leal-Arcas
Queen Mary University of London, School of Law
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Baku-Tbilisi-Ceyhan Pipeline, the South Caucasus Pipeline, Nabucco Pipeline project, Energy Charter Model Agreements on Cross-border Pipelines, Energy Charter draft Transit Protocol

136.

Proposing a Global Emissions Trading Scheme: The Inclusion of Aviation and Shipping

OUTREACH, Stakeholderforum, 2013
Number of pages: 3
Rafael Leal-Arcas
Queen Mary University of London, School of Law
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Global Emissions Trading Scheme; Aviation; Shipping

137.

Paving the way to the Paris COP21

OUTREACH, Stekeholderforum, December 2014
Number of pages: 2
Rafael Leal-Arcas
Queen Mary University of London, School of Law
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climate diplomacy, GHG emissions, Paris Agreement, COP21

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EU external trade relations, EU trade agreements, WTO, mixed agreements, EU institutions

139.

China and the Regional Comprehensive Economic Partnership

Journal of Global Policy and Governance, Vol. 2, Issue 2, pp. 287-304, 2013, Queen Mary School of Law Legal Studies Research Paper No. 165/2013
Posted: 02 Nov 2013 Last Revised: 17 Dec 2013
Rafael Leal-Arcas
Queen Mary University of London, School of Law

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Regional Comprehensive Economic Partnership; free trade agreements; bilateral trade; regional trade; World Trade Organization

140.

Climate Migrants: Legal Options

Procedia – Social and Behavioral Sciences, Vol. 37, pp. 86-96, 2012
Posted: 24 Apr 2012 Last Revised: 16 May 2012
Rafael Leal-Arcas
Queen Mary University of London, School of Law

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climate change adaptation, climate change, climate migration, cross-border migration, refugee law

141.

Geoengineering the Climate: An Overview

Oil, Gas & Energy Law Intelligence, Vol. 10, No. 3, pp. 1-15, March 2012
Posted: 21 Mar 2012
Rafael Leal-Arcas
Queen Mary University of London, School of Law

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geoengineering, climate change mitigation, greenhouse gases, low-carbon energy alternatives, shortwave radiation management

142.

Review of 'External Economic Relations and Foreign Policy in the European Union'

European Law Books, November 2005
Posted: 20 Apr 2006
Rafael Leal-Arcas
Queen Mary University of London, School of Law

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External Economic Relations, Foreign Policy, European Union

Other Papers (1)

Total Downloads: 15    Citations: 0
1.

Book Review: Transnational Gas Markets and Euro-Russian Energy Relations by A.V. Belyi

Oil, Gas & Energy Law (OGEL) Journal, April 2016
Number of pages: 2 Posted: 26 Apr 2016 Last Revised: 27 Apr 2016
Rafael Leal-Arcas
Queen Mary University of London, School of Law
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transnational gas markets, Euro-Russian energy relations