Rafael Leal-Arcas

Queen Mary University of London, School of Law

Jean Monnet Chaired Professor of European and International Economic Law

67-69

Lincoln's Inn Fields

Holborn, London WC2A 3JB

United Kingdom

http://www.ccls.qmul.ac.uk/staff/lealarcas.html

SCHOLARLY PAPERS

176

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78

CROSSREF CITATIONS

88

Scholarly Papers (176)

1.

Essential Elements of the Rule of Law Concept in the EU

Queen Mary School of Law Legal Studies Research Paper No. 180/2014
Number of pages: 7 Posted: 21 Aug 2014 Last Revised: 31 Mar 2020
Rafael Leal-Arcas
Queen Mary University of London, School of Law
Downloads 3,264 (4,409)

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rule of law, access to justice and judicial review, legal certainty, proportionality, equality and non-discrimination, transparency in EU law

Top-Down Versus Bottom-Up Approaches for Climate Change Negotiations: An Analysis

The IUP Journal of Governance and Public Policy, Vol. 6, No. 4, pp. 7-52, December 2011
Number of pages: 46 Posted: 27 Oct 2011 Last Revised: 04 Sep 2012
Rafael Leal-Arcas
Queen Mary University of London, School of Law
Downloads 1,872 (10,766)

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bottom-up approach to climate change, climate-based regional trade agreements, flexible approach, Major Economies Forum, variable geometry

Top-Down Versus Bottom-Up Approaches for Climate Change Negotiations: An Analysis

The IUP Journal of Governance and Public Policy, Vol. 6, No. 4, pp. 7-52, December 2011
Posted: 04 Sep 2012 Last Revised: 10 Sep 2012
Rafael Leal-Arcas
Queen Mary University of London, School of Law

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bottom-up approach to climate change, climate-based regional trade agreements, flexible approach, major economies forum, variable geometry

3.

The European Community and Mixed Agreements

European Foreign Affairs Review, Vol. 6, No. 4, pp. 483-513, Winter 2001
Number of pages: 31 Posted: 15 Apr 2004
Rafael Leal-Arcas
Queen Mary University of London, School of Law
Downloads 1,323 (18,852)

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European community, mixed agreements, international law

4.

Kyoto and the COPs: Lessons Learned and Looking Ahead

Hague Yearbook of International Law, Vol. 23, pp. 17-90, 2010
Number of pages: 74 Posted: 03 Jan 2012 Last Revised: 02 Oct 2017
Rafael Leal-Arcas
Queen Mary University of London, School of Law
Downloads 1,225 (21,171)

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climate finance, Cancún Agreements, Copenhagen Accord, Kyoto Protocol, COPs, EU Emissions Trading Scheme

The Fragmented Governance of the Global Energy Economy: A Legal-Institutional Analysis

Journal of World Energy Law and Business, Vol. 6, Issue 4, pp. 1-58, 2013, Oxford University Press
Number of pages: 58 Posted: 21 Jul 2013
Rafael Leal-Arcas and Andrew Filis
Queen Mary University of London, School of Law and Queen Mary, University of London
Downloads 886 (33,242)

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global energy governance, international cooperation in energy, WTO, PTAs, Energy Charter Conference, OPEC, investment treaties, ICSID, UNFCCC, energy security, IEA, IEF, MEF, national oil companies, World Petroleum Council

The Fragmented Governance of the Global Energy Economy: A Legal-Institutional Analysis

Journal of World Energy Law and Business, 2013, Queen Mary School of Law Legal Studies Research Paper No. 167/2014
Number of pages: 59 Posted: 21 Jan 2014
Rafael Leal-Arcas and Andrew Filis
Queen Mary University of London, School of Law and Queen Mary, University of London
Downloads 132 (271,630)
Citation 2

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6.

The Multilateralization of International Investment Law

North Carolina Journal of International Law and Commercial Regulation, Vol. 35, No. 1, pp. 33-135, 2009, Queen Mary School of Law Legal Studies Research Paper No. 41/2010
Number of pages: 104 Posted: 21 Dec 2009 Last Revised: 09 Feb 2010
Rafael Leal-Arcas
Queen Mary University of London, School of Law
Downloads 997 (28,590)
Citation 1

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multilateral investment treaty, bilateral investment treaty, FDI law, regional investment agreements, WTO, forum shopping in dispute resolution, inconsistency of arbitral awards

7.

Proliferation of Regional Trade Agreements: Complementing or Supplanting Multilateralism?

Chicago Journal of International Law, Vol. 11, No. 2, pp. 597-629, 2011, Queen Mary School of Law Legal Studies Research Paper No. 78/2011
Number of pages: 34 Posted: 26 Feb 2011 Last Revised: 15 Apr 2011
Rafael Leal-Arcas
Queen Mary University of London, School of Law
Downloads 985 (29,074)
Citation 3

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WTO, international trading system, RTA proliferation, non-discrimination, variable geometry, single undertaking

8.

The BRICS and Climate Change

International Affairs Forum, pp. 1-5, 2013, Queen Mary School of Law Legal Studies Research Paper No. 151/2013
Number of pages: 6 Posted: 07 Aug 2013 Last Revised: 25 Oct 2013
Rafael Leal-Arcas
Queen Mary University of London, School of Law
Downloads 933 (31,432)
Citation 2

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equity in climate change mitigation, BRICS, energy efficiency, economic growth

Renewable Energy Disputes in the World Trade Organization

Oil, Gas and Energy Law Journal, Vol. 13, Issue 3, pp. 1-51, 2015
Number of pages: 52 Posted: 20 Mar 2015
Rafael Leal-Arcas and Andrew Filis
Queen Mary University of London, School of Law and Queen Mary, University of London
Downloads 592 (57,206)

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governance of renewable energy; WTO and renewable energy; environmental protection objectives and the WTO; energy trade; renewable subsidies

Renewable Energy Disputes in the World Trade Organization

Published in Transnational Dispute Management, Vol. 12, Issue 3, pp. 1-51, 2015 , Queen Mary School of Law Legal Studies Research Paper No. 198/2015
Number of pages: 52 Posted: 22 May 2015
Rafael Leal-Arcas and Andrew Filis
Queen Mary University of London, School of Law and Queen Mary, University of London
Downloads 197 (193,528)
Citation 1

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governance of renewable energy; WTO and renewable energy; environmental protection objectives and the WTO; energy trade; renewable subsidies

Exclusive or Shared Competence in the Common Commercial Policy: From Amsterdam to Nice

Number of pages: 20 Posted: 30 Jun 2004
Rafael Leal-Arcas
Queen Mary University of London, School of Law
Downloads 469 (76,556)
Citation 5

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Division of competencies, transparency, simplicity, common commercial policy, Nice Treaty

Exclusive or Shared Competence in the Common Commercial Policy: From Amsterdam to Nice

Legal Issues of Economic Integration, Vol.30, No.1, pp. 3-14, 2003
Number of pages: 12 Posted: 28 Jul 2004
Rafael Leal-Arcas
Queen Mary University of London, School of Law
Downloads 309 (123,510)

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Division of competencies, transparency, simplicity, common commercial policy, Nice Treaty

11.

The EU and Russia as Energy Trading Partners: Friends or Foes?

European Foreign Affairs Review, Vol. 14, No. 3, pp. 337-366, 2009
Posted: 26 Jun 2009 Last Revised: 13 Nov 2014
Rafael Leal-Arcas
Queen Mary University of London, School of Law
Downloads 766 (41,228)
Citation 1

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EU, Russia, energy security, Energy Charter Treaty, Partnership and Cooperation Agreement

12.

Unilateral Trade-Related Climate Change Measures

The Journal of World Investment and Trade, Vol. 13, No. 6, 2012 , Queen Mary School of Law Legal Studies Research Paper No. 123/2012
Number of pages: 53 Posted: 30 Sep 2012 Last Revised: 05 Dec 2012
Rafael Leal-Arcas
Queen Mary University of London, School of Law
Downloads 743 (42,954)
Citation 2

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EU emissions trading scheme, trade and climate change, WTO subsidies for renewable energy, trade and energy, energy and climate change, aviation, shipping

13.
Downloads 724 ( 44,490)
Citation 5

The European Union and its Energy Security Challenges

Journal of World Energy Law and Business, Vol. 8, 2015, Oxford University Press, Queen Mary School of Law Legal Studies Research Paper No. 205/2015
Number of pages: 46 Posted: 10 Jun 2015 Last Revised: 13 Jul 2015
Rafael Leal-Arcas, Juan Alemany Rios and Costantino Grasso
Queen Mary University of London, School of Law, Queen Mary, University of London and Manchester Metropolitan University
Downloads 399 (92,628)
Citation 3

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EU energy security, EU single energy market, diversification of energy supplies, liquefied natural gas, shale gas, Southern Gas Corridor, Turkish Stream, Trans-Anatolian pipeline, International Energy Charter, Yukos

The European Union and Its Energy Security Challenges

Queen Mary School of Law Legal Studies Research Paper No. 187/2014
Number of pages: 23 Posted: 07 Dec 2014
Rafael Leal-Arcas, Juan Alemany Rios and Costantino Grasso
Queen Mary University of London, School of Law, Queen Mary, University of London and Manchester Metropolitan University
Downloads 325 (116,999)

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14.

International Trade and Investment Law: Multilateral, Regional and Bilateral Governance

INTERNATIONAL TRADE AND INVESTMENT LAW: MULTILATERAL, REGIONAL AND BILATERAL GOVERNANCE, Edward Elgar Publishing, 2010
Posted: 24 May 2010
Rafael Leal-Arcas
Queen Mary University of London, School of Law
Downloads 713 (45,412)

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international trade, international investment law, regionalism, multilateralism, bilateralism

15.

Alternative Architecture for Climate Change - Major Economies

European Journal of Legal Studies, Vol. 4, No. 1, pp. 25-56, 2011
Number of pages: 32 Posted: 14 Jul 2011
Rafael Leal-Arcas
Queen Mary University of London, School of Law
Downloads 648 (51,565)
Citation 2

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climate change, flexible approach, incrementalism, climate-based RTAs, bottom-up approach, variable geometry, Major Economies Forum

16.

The Creation of a European Energy Union

European Energy Journal, Vol. 5, Issue 3, pp. 24-60, 2015, Queen Mary School of Law Legal Studies Research Paper No. 206/2015
Number of pages: 37 Posted: 15 Jun 2015 Last Revised: 18 Sep 2015
Rafael Leal-Arcas and Juan Alemany Rios
Queen Mary University of London, School of Law and Queen Mary, University of London
Downloads 637 (52,748)

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European energy union, energy security, Energy Community, Euro-Mediterranean Energy Partnership, internal energy market, energy efficiency, decarbonization, transparency, equality

Legal Aspects of Inter-State Maritime Delimitation in the Eastern Mediterranean Basin

Oil, Gas & Energy Law Intelligence, Vol. 11 - issue 3, April 2013, Queen Mary School of Law Legal Studies Research Paper No. 142/2013
Number of pages: 26 Posted: 30 Apr 2013
Andrew Filis and Rafael Leal-Arcas
Queen Mary, University of London and Queen Mary University of London, School of Law
Downloads 403 (91,592)
Citation 1

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East Mediterranean Basin, maritime delimitation, continental shelf, territorial sea, exclusive economic zone, UNCLOSl, international maritime law, customary law

Legal Aspects of Inter-State Maritime Delimitation in the Eastern Mediterranean Basin

Oil, Gas & Energy Law Journal, Vol. 11, Issue 3, 2013
Number of pages: 24 Posted: 25 Apr 2013
Andrew Filis and Rafael Leal-Arcas
Queen Mary, University of London and Queen Mary University of London, School of Law
Downloads 213 (179,905)

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East Mediterranean Basin, maritime delimitation, continental shelf, territorial sea, exclusive economic zone, UNCLOS, international maritime law, customary law

18.

Theories of Supranationalism in the EU

Journal of Law in Society, Vol. 8, No. 1, pp. 83-113, 2007
Number of pages: 26 Posted: 22 Jun 2007
Rafael Leal-Arcas
Queen Mary University of London, School of Law
Downloads 613 (55,455)

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supranationalism, EU

The Role of the EU, the U.S., and China in Addressing Climate Change

Laursen, F. (ed.) The EU and the Political Economy of Transatlantic Relations, Brussels: PIE Peter Lang, pp. 221-260, 2012
Number of pages: 46 Posted: 28 Jan 2013 Last Revised: 02 Oct 2017
Rafael Leal-Arcas
Queen Mary University of London, School of Law
Downloads 589 (57,573)

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Kyoto Protocol, European Union, EU emissions cuts, EU emissions trading scheme, global warming, climate change

The Role of the EU, the U.S., and China in Addressing Climate Change

The EU and the Political Economy of Transatlantic Relations, Brussels: PIE Peter Lang, 221-260, 2012
Number of pages: 47 Posted: 18 Jun 2019
Rafael Leal-Arcas
Queen Mary University of London, School of Law
Downloads 11 (737,126)

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Kyoto Protocol, European Union, EU emissions cuts, EU emissions trading scheme, global warming, climate change

20.

Strengthening Sustainable Development Through Preferential Trade Agreements

Leal-Arcas, R. and Wilmarth, C. "Strengthening Sustainable Development through Preferential Trade Agreements," in Wouters, J. et al. (eds.) Ensuring Good Global Governance through Trade: EU policies and approaches, Edward Elgar, pp. 92-123, 2015, Queen Mary School of Law Legal Studies Research Paper No. 174/2014
Number of pages: 25 Posted: 16 Apr 2014 Last Revised: 03 Feb 2016
Rafael Leal-Arcas and Catherine Wilmarth
Queen Mary University of London, School of Law and Queen Mary, University of London
Downloads 587 (58,503)
Citation 1

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Transatlantic Trade and Investment Partnership; Trans-Pacific Partnership; mega-regionals; sustainable development; energy; trade and investment; energy security; energy efficiency; trade in raw materials and natural resources

Gas and Oil Explorations in the Levant Basin: The Case of Lebanon and Israel

Oil, Gas & Energy Law Intelligence, Vol. 11 - issue 3, April 2013, Queen Mary School of Law Legal Studies Research Paper No. 141/2013
Number of pages: 34 Posted: 30 Apr 2013
Dr. Ehab Abu Gosh and Rafael Leal-Arcas
Queen Mary, University of London and Queen Mary University of London, School of Law
Downloads 340 (111,292)

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East Mediterranean Basin, Levant Basin, gas and oil discoveries, Israel offshore gas discovery, Lebanon offshore gas discovery, UNCLOS, maritime law, delimitation of EEZ, UNCLOS dispute settlement procedure

Gas and Oil Explorations in the Levant Basin: The Case of Lebanon and Israel

Oil, Gas & Energy Law Journal, Vol. 11, No. 3, 2013
Number of pages: 33 Posted: 25 Apr 2013
Rafael Leal-Arcas and Dr. Ehab Abu Gosh
Queen Mary University of London, School of Law and Queen Mary, University of London
Downloads 246 (156,475)

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East Mediterranean Basin, Levant Basin, gas and oil discoveries, Israel offshore gas discovery, Lebanon offshore gas discovery, UNCLOS, maritime law, delimitation of EEZ, UNCLOS dispute settlement procedure

22.

How Will the EU Approach the BRIC Countries? Future Trade Challenges

Vienna Online Journal of International Constitutional Law, Vol. 2, No. 4, pp. 235-271, 2008
Number of pages: 37 Posted: 06 May 2009
Rafael Leal-Arcas
Queen Mary University of London, School of Law
Downloads 578 (59,618)

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EU, BRIC, agriculture, energy security, Mode 4, intellectual property

23.

Sustainability, Common Concern and Public Goods

The George Washington International Law Review, Vol. 49, No. 4, pp. 801-877, 2017, Queen Mary School of Law Legal Studies Research Paper No. 253/2017
Number of pages: 78 Posted: 13 Feb 2017 Last Revised: 06 Oct 2017
Rafael Leal-Arcas
Queen Mary University of London, School of Law
Downloads 577 (59,750)

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sustainable development, international trade, climate change, sustainable energy, citizens’ empowerment, public goods, common concern, sustainable companies

Road to Paris COP21: Towards Soft Global Governance for Climate Change?

Queen Mary School of Law Legal Studies Research Paper No. 186/2014
Number of pages: 7 Posted: 08 Dec 2014
Rafael Leal-Arcas and Luigi Carafa
Queen Mary University of London, School of Law and College of Europe, Bruges
Downloads 296 (129,358)

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Road to Paris COP21: Towards Soft Global Governance for Climate Change?

Renewable Energy Law and Policy Review, Vol. 5(2), pp. 130-135, 2014
Number of pages: 6 Posted: 02 Dec 2014 Last Revised: 28 Dec 2014
Rafael Leal-Arcas and Luigi Carafa
Queen Mary University of London, School of Law and College of Europe, Bruges
Downloads 271 (141,871)

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COP21, Conference of the Parties, global governance for climate change mitigation, carbon emissions reduction

25.

The Conservation of Exhaustible Natural Resources in the GATT and WTO: Implications for the Conservation of Oil Resources

The Journal of World Investment and Trade, Vol. 14, No. 3, pp. 480-531, Queen Mary School of Law Legal Studies Research Paper No. 143/2013
Number of pages: 52 Posted: 30 Apr 2013 Last Revised: 16 May 2013
Dr. Ehab Abu Gosh and Rafael Leal-Arcas
Queen Mary, University of London and Queen Mary University of London, School of Law
Downloads 541 (64,803)

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26.

Is the Kyoto Protocol an Adequate Environmental Agreement to Resolve the Climate Change Problem?

European Environmental Law Review, Vol. 10, No. 10, pp. 282-294, Winter 2001
Number of pages: 12 Posted: 01 Jul 2004
Rafael Leal-Arcas
Queen Mary University of London, School of Law
Downloads 512 (69,482)

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Kyoto Protocol, global warming, climate change, greenhouse gas emissions

27.

The European Court of Justice and the EC External Trade Relations: A Legal Analysis of the Court's Problems with Regard to International Agreements

Nordic Journal of International Law, Vol. 72, No. 2, pp. 215-251, 2003
Number of pages: 37 Posted: 26 Jul 2004
Rafael Leal-Arcas
Queen Mary University of London, School of Law
Downloads 496 (72,232)

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WTO law, European Court of Justice, EC External Trade Relations

28.

The EU Decision-Making Process in EC Trade Policy: The Three Internal Tensions

A CONSTITUTION FOR EUROPE? GOVERNANCE AND POLICY-MAKING IN THE EUROPEAN UNION, Astengo, F. & Neuwahl, N., eds., Vol. II, pp. 132-156, Collection "Etudes Europeennes", Chaire Jean Monnet, Universite de Montreal, 2004
Number of pages: 16 Posted: 15 Oct 2004 Last Revised: 26 Jun 2009
Rafael Leal-Arcas
Queen Mary University of London, School of Law
Downloads 462 (78,691)

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efficiency, accountability, trade policy, transparency, legitimacy

29.

Legal Aspects of the Promotion of Renewable Energy within the EU and in Relation to the EU’s Obligations in the WTO

Renewable Energy Law and Policy Review, Issue 1/2014, pp.3-25, Queen Mary School of Law Legal Studies Research Paper No. 179/2014
Number of pages: 23 Posted: 20 Aug 2014 Last Revised: 12 Oct 2014
Rafael Leal-Arcas and Andrew Filis
Queen Mary University of London, School of Law and Queen Mary, University of London
Downloads 455 (80,150)

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EU renewable energy; WTO; renewable energy; EU emissions trading system; subsidies; State aid

30.

Comparative Analysis of NAFTA's Chapter 20 and the WTO's Dispute Settlement Understanding

Transnational Dispute Management, Vol. 8, No. 3, pp. 1-25, September 2011, Queen Mary School of Law Legal Studies Research Paper No. 94/2011
Number of pages: 27 Posted: 08 Dec 2011
Rafael Leal-Arcas
Queen Mary University of London, School of Law
Downloads 449 (81,429)

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31.

European Union-China Trade Relations

Trade, Law and Development, Vol. 2, No. 2, pp. 224-251, 2010
Number of pages: 30 Posted: 27 Jan 2011 Last Revised: 24 Mar 2011
Rafael Leal-Arcas
Queen Mary University of London, School of Law
Downloads 448 (81,643)
Citation 1

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China, Comprehensive Framework Agreement, EU, Bilateral Free-Trade Agreements, Partnership and Cooperation Agreement, EU-China Trade Partnership

32.

The EC in the WTO: The Three-Level Game of Decision-Making. What Multilateralism Can Learn from Regionalism

European Integration online Papers (EIoP), Vol. 8, No. 14, 2004
Number of pages: 43 Posted: 25 Sep 2004
Rafael Leal-Arcas
Queen Mary University of London, School of Law
Downloads 435 (84,507)

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Competences, international agreements, transparency, international trade, common commercial policy, trade policy, accountability, institutions, European Commission, European Parliament, Council of Ministers, WTO, political science, law

33.

Review of International Energy Investment Law: The Pursuit of Stability

Oil, Gas & Energy Law Journal, pp. 1-4, October 2010
Number of pages: 5 Posted: 15 Oct 2010 Last Revised: 05 Nov 2014
Rafael Leal-Arcas
Queen Mary University of London, School of Law
Downloads 430 (85,669)

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International Energy Law, Energy Investment Disputes, Investor-State Disputes, Investment Stability, Arbitration, International Investment Law

34.

Mapping the International and European Governance of Renewable Energy

Oxford Yearbook of European Law, 2016 special issue Beyond Pluralism? Co-Implication, Embeddedness and Interdependency between Public International Law and EU Law, pp. 1-46, doi: 10.1093/yel/yew022, Queen Mary School of Law Legal Studies Research Paper No. 237/2016, King's College London Law School Research Paper No. 2016-32
Number of pages: 46 Posted: 25 Jul 2016 Last Revised: 03 Dec 2016
Rafael Leal-Arcas and Stephen Minas
Queen Mary University of London, School of Law and Peking University - Peking University School of Transnational Law
Downloads 427 (86,366)
Citation 1

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renewable energy governance, UN Framework Convention on Climate Change, sustainable development goals, multilateral development banks, economic development, international trade, EU renewable energy legislation, IRENA, IEA

35.

Multilateral, Regional and Bilateral Energy Trade Governance

Renewable Energy Law and Policy Review, Vol. 6(1), pp. 38-87, 2015, Queen Mary School of Law Legal Studies Research Paper No. 188/2014
Number of pages: 50 Posted: 27 Dec 2014 Last Revised: 18 Mar 2015
Rafael Leal-Arcas, Costantino Grasso and Juan Alemany Rios
Queen Mary University of London, School of Law, Manchester Metropolitan University and Queen Mary, University of London
Downloads 427 (86,366)
Citation 1

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Multilateral energy trade governance; regional energy trade governance; Energy Charter Treaty; MERCOSUR; ASEAN; EU energy trade governance; WTO; IRENA; raw materials; natural resources; shale gas.

36.

On Climate Migration and International Trade

Vienna Journal of International Constitutional Law, Vol. 6, No. 3-4, pp. 410-440, 2012, Queen Mary School of Law Legal Studies Research Paper No. 124/2012
Number of pages: 31 Posted: 30 Sep 2012 Last Revised: 04 Jan 2013
Rafael Leal-Arcas
Queen Mary University of London, School of Law
Downloads 426 (86,618)

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climate migration, international trade, climate change adaptation, international legal obligations, public morals, WTO general exceptions

37.

International Energy Governance: Selected Legal Issues

INTERNATIONAL ENERGY GOVERNANCE: SELECTED LEGAL ISSUES, Cheltenham: Edward Elgar Publishing Ltd, 2014
Number of pages: 6 Posted: 11 Nov 2014
Rafael Leal-Arcas, Dr. Ehab Abu Gosh and Andrew Filis
Queen Mary University of London, School of Law, Queen Mary, University of London and Queen Mary, University of London
Downloads 423 (87,365)

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global energy governance; energy security; international and EU energy law and governance; trade and energy; energy and law of the sea; renewable energy in the WTO and EU; energy, trade and environment.

38.

Introduction: The European Energy Union: The Quest for Secure, Affordable and Sustainable Energy

The European Energy Union: The Quest for Secure, Affordable and Sustainable Energy, Claeys & Casteels Publishing, 2016
Number of pages: 8 Posted: 15 Feb 2016
Rafael Leal-Arcas
Queen Mary University of London, School of Law
Downloads 408 (91,085)

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EU Energy Union; energy security; TTIP; decarbonization; Paris Agreement on climate change; EU ETS; Southern Gas Corridor

39.

Mega-Regionals and Sustainable Development: The Transatlantic Trade and Investment Partnership and the Trans-Pacific Partnership

Renewable Energy Law and Policy Review, Vol. 4, 2015, pp. 248-264
Number of pages: 17 Posted: 04 Feb 2016
Rafael Leal-Arcas
Queen Mary University of London, School of Law
Downloads 407 (91,350)

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Transatlantic Trade and Investment Partnership, Trans-Pacific Partnership, mega-regionals, sustainable development, energy, trade and investment, energy security, energy efficiency, trade in raw materials and natural resources

40.

How Can the EU Diversify its Energy Supply to Improve its Energy Security?

Queen Mary School of Law Legal Studies Research Paper No. 190/2015
Number of pages: 23 Posted: 30 Jan 2015 Last Revised: 04 May 2015
Rafael Leal-Arcas and Juan Alemany Rios
Queen Mary University of London, School of Law and Queen Mary, University of London
Downloads 403 (92,375)

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single EU energy market; energy supply; liquefied natural gas; renewable energy; Southern Gas Corridor; Nabucco pipeline; Trans-Anatolian pipeline; Trans-Adriatic pipeline; International Energy Charter; Energy Charter Treaty

41.

Climate Change and International Trade

R. Leal-Arcas, CLIMATE CHANGE AND INTERNATIONAL TRADE, Edward Elgar Publishing Ltd, 2013
Number of pages: 31 Posted: 13 Feb 2013 Last Revised: 19 Feb 2013
Rafael Leal-Arcas
Queen Mary University of London, School of Law
Downloads 390 (95,943)

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climate change mitigation, international trade, multilayered governance, climate migration, trade and environment, EU emissions trading scheme, Kyoto Protocol, UNFCCC, Bali Action Plan, Copenhagen Accord, Durban Platform, Cancun Agreements, CDM, Montreal Protocol, RTAs and climate change

42.

Towards the Multilateralization of International Investment Law

Journal of World Investment and Trade, Vol. 10, No. 6, pp. 865-919, 2009
Number of pages: 56 Posted: 05 Jan 2010
Rafael Leal-Arcas
Queen Mary University of London, School of Law
Downloads 383 (98,002)
Citation 1

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multilateralization, international investment law, foreign direct investment, World Trade Organization, multilateral framework for investment, Multilateral Agreement on Investment

43.

Energy Trade as a Special Sector in the WTO: Unique Features, Unprecedented Challenges and Unresolved Issues

Indian Journal of International Economic Law, Vol. 6, pp. 1-53, 2014, Queen Mary School of Law Legal Studies Research Paper No. 176/2014
Number of pages: 55 Posted: 04 Jun 2014 Last Revised: 13 Nov 2014
Rafael Leal-Arcas and Dr. Ehab Abu Gosh
Queen Mary University of London, School of Law and Queen Mary, University of London
Downloads 366 (103,128)
Citation 1

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international trade in energy, GATT/WTO law, energy-rich countries, international trade law

44.

Climate Change Mitigation from the Bottom Up: Using Preferential Trade Agreements to Promote Climate Change Mitigation

Carbon and Climate Law Rev, Vol. 7(1), pp. 34-42, 2013, Queen Mary School of Law Legal Studies Research Paper No. 150/2013
Number of pages: 9 Posted: 07 Aug 2013 Last Revised: 10 Feb 2014
Rafael Leal-Arcas
Queen Mary University of London, School of Law
Downloads 366 (103,128)
Citation 1

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Climate change mitigation,Preferential trade agreements,Trade,International trading system,Trade liberalization,Economic growth,Environmental protection,Subsidies,Sustainable development,Greenhouse gas,Trans-Pacific Partnership,Transatlantic Trade and Investment Partnership,Economic partnership agre

45.

EU Legal Personality in Foreign Policy?

Boston University International Law Journal, Vol. 24, No. 2, pp. 165-212, 2006
Number of pages: 48 Posted: 26 Jul 2007 Last Revised: 10 Jan 2010
Rafael Leal-Arcas
Queen Mary University of London, School of Law
Downloads 364 (103,810)

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European Union, legal personality, European Community, foreign policy

46.

Unconventional Energy Sources and EU Energy Security: A Legal, Economic and Political Analysis

Oil, Gas & Energy Law Journal, Vol. 12, Issue 4, 2014, pp. 1-37, Queen Mary School of Law Legal Studies Research Paper No. 181/2014
Number of pages: 38 Posted: 23 Sep 2014 Last Revised: 17 Nov 2014
Rafael Leal-Arcas and Jan Schmitz
Queen Mary University of London, School of Law and affiliation not provided to SSRN
Downloads 358 (105,729)

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International trade in energy law; EU energy policy; energy security; unconventional sources of fossil fuel; shale gas; geopolitics; OPEC

47.

China’s Attitude to Multilateralism in International Economic Law and Governance: Challenges for the World Trading System

Journal of World Investment and Trade, Vol. 11, No. 2, pp. 259-273, 2010 , Queen Mary School of Law Legal Studies Research Paper No. 51/2010
Number of pages: 16 Posted: 01 May 2010 Last Revised: 16 Aug 2010
Rafael Leal-Arcas
Queen Mary University of London, School of Law
Downloads 340 (112,033)
Citation 1

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48.

Trade Proposals for Climate Action

Trade, Law and Development, Vol. 6, No. 1, pp. 11-54, 2014, Queen Mary School of Law Legal Studies Research Paper No. 173/2014
Number of pages: 46 Posted: 29 Mar 2014 Last Revised: 20 Dec 2014
Rafael Leal-Arcas
Queen Mary University of London, School of Law
Downloads 335 (113,891)
Citation 1

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climate change mitigation; preferential trade agreements; energy trade; renewable energy; green energy governance; renewable subsidies; GATT Article XX; Emissions Trading Scheme; eco-labelling; global carbon market

49.

EU Relations with China and Russia: How to Approach New Superpowers in Trade Matters

Journal of International Commercial Law and Technology, Vol. 4, No. 1, pp. 22-52, 2009, Queen Mary School of Law Legal Studies Research Paper No. 6/2009
Number of pages: 31 Posted: 22 Jan 2009 Last Revised: 04 Feb 2009
Rafael Leal-Arcas
Queen Mary University of London, School of Law
Downloads 334 (114,275)

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EU, international trade, Russia, China, energy security

50.

The Energy Community and the Energy Charter Treaty: Special Legal Regimes, their Systemic Relationship to the EU, and their Dispute Settlement Arrangements

Oil, Gas & Energy Law Journal, Vol. 12, Issue 2, pp. 1-42, 2014
Number of pages: 43 Posted: 29 May 2014
Rafael Leal-Arcas and Andrew Filis
Queen Mary University of London, School of Law and Queen Mary, University of London
Downloads 332 (114,980)
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Energy Charter Treaty, Energy Community, European Union, EU energy security, EU energy policy, dispute settlement, normative conflicts, fragmentation of international law, meta-norms, treaty interpretation

51.

The European Union and the BRIC Countries: Unilateralism, Bilateralism and Multilateralism

THE EU IN THE GLOBAL POLITICAL ECONOMY, pp. 91-118, Finn. Laursen, ed., PIE Peter Lang, 2009
Number of pages: 16 Posted: 08 Oct 2009
Rafael Leal-Arcas
Queen Mary University of London, School of Law
Downloads 328 (116,519)
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EU, BRIC countries, unilateralism, bilateralism, regionalism, multilateralism

52.

Unitary Character of EC External Trade Relations

Columbia Journal of European Law, Vol. 7.3, Fall 2001, pp. 355-383
Number of pages: 30 Posted: 01 Jul 2004
Rafael Leal-Arcas
Queen Mary University of London, School of Law
Downloads 322 (118,862)

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EC external trade relations, international agreements, single voice, shared competence

53.

EU-China Trade Relations: Current Difficulties and Ways to Improve Them

International Security Forum, April 2010
Number of pages: 21 Posted: 02 Jul 2010
Rafael Leal-Arcas
Queen Mary University of London, School of Law
Downloads 315 (121,729)

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European Union, China, International Trade, EU-China Partnership and Cooperation Agreement

54.

Choice of Jurisdiction in International Trade Disputes: Going Regional or Global?

Minnesota Journal of International Law, Vol. 16, pp. 1-59, 2007
Number of pages: 59 Posted: 26 Mar 2007
Rafael Leal-Arcas
Queen Mary University of London, School of Law
Downloads 315 (121,729)

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international trade disputes, NAFTA, WTO

55.

The Transition Towards Decarbonization: A Legal and Policy Exploration of the European Union

Queen Mary School of Law Legal Studies Research Paper No. 222/2016
Number of pages: 31 Posted: 02 Mar 2016
Rafael Leal-Arcas
Queen Mary University of London, School of Law
Downloads 310 (123,768)

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decarbonization, Paris Agreement on Climate Change, EU emissions trading scheme, aviation, shipping

56.

The Fragmentation of International Trade Law: Is Now the Time for Variable Geometry?

The Journal of World Investment and Trade, Vol. 12, No. 2, pp. 145-195, 2011
Number of pages: 52 Posted: 28 Mar 2011 Last Revised: 04 Jun 2011
Rafael Leal-Arcas
Queen Mary University of London, School of Law
Downloads 310 (123,768)
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fragmentation, international trade law, multilateralism, plurilateralism, regionalism, bilateralism, unilateralism, variable geometry, sectoral agreements

57.

The Transatlantic Trade and Investment Partnership, Energy and Divestment

Van de Graaf, T. et al., Handbook of the International Political Economy of Energy, Palgrave, 2016 , Queen Mary School of Law Legal Studies Research Paper No. 213/2016
Number of pages: 21 Posted: 06 Jan 2016 Last Revised: 08 Sep 2016
Rafael Leal-Arcas and Costantino Grasso
Queen Mary University of London, School of Law and Manchester Metropolitan University
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Transatlantic Trade and Investment Partnership; energy; raw materials; natural resources; divestment; shale gas

58.

The European Union and New Leading Powers: Towards Partnership in Strategic Trade Policy Areas

Fordham International Law Journal, Vol. 32, pp. 345-416, 2009, Queen Mary School of Law Legal Studies Research Paper No. 23/2009
Number of pages: 73 Posted: 13 Feb 2009 Last Revised: 25 Jun 2009
Rafael Leal-Arcas
Queen Mary University of London, School of Law
Downloads 300 (128,259)
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European Union, BRIC countries, unilateralism, bilateralism/regionalism, multilateralism, global economic governance

59.

Conceptualizing EU Energy Security Through an EU Constitutional Law Perspective

Fordham International Law Journal, Vol. 36, pp. 1224-1300, 2013, Queen Mary School of Law Legal Studies Research Paper No. 148/2013
Number of pages: 77 Posted: 14 May 2013 Last Revised: 07 Oct 2013
Rafael Leal-Arcas and Andrew Filis
Queen Mary University of London, School of Law and Queen Mary, University of London
Downloads 299 (128,692)
Citation 2

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EU energy security, EU energy policy, Treaty of Lisbon, common EU energy security policy, Internal Energy Market; Energy Community, shale gas, EU Emissions Trading System, energy transit

60.

Review of 'Free Movement of Goods and Limits of Regulatory Autonomy in the EU and WTO'

European Law Journal, Vol. 16, No. 4, pp. 508-510, 2010
Number of pages: 10 Posted: 16 Aug 2010
Rafael Leal-Arcas
Queen Mary University of London, School of Law
Downloads 298 (129,153)

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EU, WTO, free movement of goods

61.

Smart Grids in the European Union: Assessing Energy Security, Regulation & Social and Ethical Considerations

Columbia Journal of European Law, Vol. 24, No. 2, pp. 291-389 (2018)
Number of pages: 99 Posted: 01 Nov 2017 Last Revised: 04 Nov 2019
Rafael Leal-Arcas, Feja Lesniewska and Filippos Proedrou
Queen Mary University of London, School of Law, University of London - School of Oriental and African Studies (SOAS) and University of South Wales
Downloads 290 (132,914)
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smart grids; prosumers; sustainability; energy security; demand response; electricity storage; collaborative economy; circular economy; cybersecurity; data protection

62.

Prosumers: New Actors in EU Energy Security

Netherlands Yearbook of International Law 2017, Vol. 48, Chapter 5, pp. 139-172, TMC Asser Press, 2018;
Number of pages: 35 Posted: 01 Aug 2017 Last Revised: 19 Aug 2018
Rafael Leal-Arcas, Feja Lesniewska and Filippos Proedrou
Queen Mary University of London, School of Law, University of London - School of Oriental and African Studies (SOAS) and University of South Wales
Downloads 290 (132,914)
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63.

Energy Transit Activities: Collection of Intergovernmental Agreements on Oil and Gas Transit Pipelines and Commentary

Queen Mary School of Law Legal Studies Research Paper No. 177/2014
Number of pages: 61 Posted: 17 Jul 2014 Last Revised: 18 Dec 2014
Rafael Leal-Arcas and Mariya Peykova
Queen Mary University of London, School of Law and Queen Mary, University of London
Downloads 288 (134,335)

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Energy transit; Energy Charter Conference; Energy Charter Treaty; Energy Charter Draft Transit Protocol; Model Inter-Governmental and Host Government Agreements; Nabucco pipeline; South Caucasus pipeline; BTC pipeline; TAPI pipeline; Kirkuk Agreement

64.

Certain Legal Aspects of the Multilateral Trade System and the Promotion of Renewable Energy

Lim, C.L. and Mercurio, B. (eds.) International Economic Law after the Crisis: A Tale of Fragmented Disciplines, Cambridge University Press, 2015, Queen Mary School of Law Legal Studies Research Paper No. 166/2014
Number of pages: 38 Posted: 18 Jan 2014 Last Revised: 06 May 2015
Rafael Leal-Arcas and Andrew Filis
Queen Mary University of London, School of Law and Queen Mary, University of London
Downloads 283 (136,301)
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World Trade Organization; renewable energy; subsidies; environmental protection; feed-in tariffs; wind power; biodiesels

65.

The European Community and the International Trading System: A Judicial Approach

International Relations Journal, Vol. 22, No.1, pp. 47-54, Fall 2002
Number of pages: 21 Posted: 01 Jul 2004
Rafael Leal-Arcas
Queen Mary University of London, School of Law
Downloads 281 (137,258)

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WTO agreement, European Court of Justice, EC external trade relations, GATT, WTO Dispute Settlement Understanding

66.

The Principle of Proportionality in International Law

NCCR Trade Regulation Working Paper No 2012/38
Number of pages: 34 Posted: 26 Apr 2015
University of Bern - Institute of European and International Economic Law, University of Bern - World Trade Institute, Queen Mary University of London, School of Law, Institute for European and International Law, WTI/NCCR Trade and University of Zurich - Faculty of Law
Downloads 279 (138,813)
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proportionality, use of force, maritime boundary delimitation, WTO, GATT, GATS, investment law

67.

Theory and Practice of EC External Trade Law and Policy

THEORY AND PRACTICE OF EC EXTERNAL TRADE LAW AND POLICY, Cameron May, 2008
Number of pages: 17 Posted: 30 May 2009 Last Revised: 01 Jun 2009
Rafael Leal-Arcas
Queen Mary University of London, School of Law
Downloads 276 (139,878)

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European Community, international trade agreements, services trade, Common Commercial Policy, mixed agreements, Doha Round, European Union

68.

The EU Constitutional Treaty and International Trade

THE RISE AND FALL OF THE EU'S CONSTITUTIONAL TREATY, F. Laursen, pp. 25-50, Brill/Nijhoff, Leiden, 2008
Number of pages: 26 Posted: 23 Apr 2008
Rafael Leal-Arcas
Queen Mary University of London, School of Law
Downloads 276 (139,878)

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EU Constitution, international trade, efficiency, accountability, democratic deficit

69.

Research Handbook on EU Energy Law and Policy (Introduction)

Research Handbook on EU Energy Law and Policy, Cheltenham: Edward Elgar Publishing Ltd., 2017
Number of pages: 16 Posted: 18 Oct 2017
Rafael Leal-Arcas and Jan Wouters
Queen Mary University of London, School of Law and KU Leuven - Leuven Centre for Global Governance Studies
Downloads 269 (143,660)

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EU energy policy; European energy union; Energy Charter Treaty; global energy security; electricity; Paris Agreement; energy and environment

70.

The Resilience of the Paris Agreement: Negotiating and Implementing the Climate Regime

Georgetown Environmental Law Review, Vol. 31.1, pp. 1-64, 2018, Queen Mary School of Law Legal Studies Research Paper No. 284/2018;
Number of pages: 64 Posted: 28 Aug 2018 Last Revised: 26 Jan 2019
Rafael Leal-Arcas and Antonio Morelli
Queen Mary University of London, School of Law and American University - Washington College of Law
Downloads 262 (147,490)
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Paris Agreement, climate change, international trade

71.

The Contribution of Free Trade Agreements and Bilateral Investment Treaties to a Sustainable Future

Zeitschrift für Europarechtliche Studien – ZEuS, Vol. 23, Issue 1/2020, pp. 3-76.
Number of pages: 74 Posted: 16 Dec 2019 Last Revised: 04 Jun 2020
Queen Mary University of London, School of Law, Queen Mary University of London, Queen Mary University of London, Queen Mary University of London and Copenhagen Business School - Department of International Business and Politics
Downloads 247 (156,373)
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72.

The Energy Community, the Energy Charter Treaty and the Promotion of EU Energy Security

Buschle, D. and Talus, K. (eds.) The Energy Community: A New Energy Governance System, Intersentia, pp. 551-589, 2015, Queen Mary School of Law Legal Studies Research Paper No. 203/2015
Number of pages: 40 Posted: 04 Jun 2015 Last Revised: 08 Feb 2016
Rafael Leal-Arcas and Andrew Filis
Queen Mary University of London, School of Law and Queen Mary, University of London
Downloads 238 (162,103)

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Energy Charter Treaty, Energy Community, European Union, EU energy security

73.

New Frontiers of International Economic Law: The Quest for Sustainable Development

University of Pennsylvania Journal of International Law, Vol. 40.1, pp. 83-133, 2018, Queen Mary School of Law Legal Studies Research Paper No. 276/2018
Number of pages: 51 Posted: 19 Mar 2018 Last Revised: 14 Jan 2019
Rafael Leal-Arcas
Queen Mary University of London, School of Law
Downloads 224 (171,788)

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international trade agreements, climate change mitigation, energy security, sustainable energy, international cooperation, decarbonization, sustainable development, citizens’ empowerment

74.

The Climate-Energy-Trade Nexus in EU External Relations

Minas, S. and Ntousas, V. (eds.) EU Climate Diplomacy: Politics, Law and Negotiations, Routledge, pp. 153-168, 2018, Queen Mary School of Law Legal Studies Research Paper No. 261/2017
Number of pages: 14 Posted: 31 Oct 2017 Last Revised: 17 Jun 2018
Rafael Leal-Arcas and Eduardo Alvarez Armas
Queen Mary University of London, School of Law and Queen Mary University of London - Centre for Commercial Law Studies
Downloads 224 (171,788)

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climate change, energy, EU free-trade agreements, environmental agreements

75.

50 Years of Trade Policy: Good Enough or as Good as it Gets?

Irish Journal of European Law, Vol. 15, Nos. 1 & 2, pp. 157-182, 2008, Queen Mary School of Law Legal Studies Research Paper No. 13/2009
Number of pages: 27 Posted: 27 Dec 2008 Last Revised: 19 Mar 2009
Rafael Leal-Arcas
Queen Mary University of London, School of Law
Downloads 224 (171,788)

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EC trade competence, Amsterdam Treaty, Nice Treaty, Constitutional Treaty, Lisbon Treaty

76.

The Resumption of the Doha Round and the Future of Services Trade

Loyola of Los Angeles International and Comparative Law Review, Vol. 29, No. 3, pp. 339-461, 2007
Number of pages: 123 Posted: 14 Mar 2008 Last Revised: 11 Dec 2008
Rafael Leal-Arcas
Queen Mary University of London, School of Law
Downloads 224 (171,788)

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Doha round, services trade, Lisbon Treaty

77.

The EC in GATT/WTO Negotiations: From Rome to Nice - Have EC Trade Policy Reforms Been Good Enough for a Coherent EC Trade Policy in the WTO?

EIoP, Vol. 8, No. 1, 2004
Number of pages: 29 Posted: 09 Apr 2004 Last Revised: 25 Feb 2018
Rafael Leal-Arcas
Queen Mary University of London, School of Law
Downloads 224 (171,788)

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Common commercial policy, competences, international agreements, trade policy, Amsterdam Treaty, Nice Treaty, European Convention, law

78.

The State of Play of the EC's Common Commercial Policy: A Legal and Policy Analysis

Tilburg Foreign Law Review, Vol. 11, No. 2, pp. 537-559, 2003
Number of pages: 23 Posted: 01 Jul 2004 Last Revised: 16 Feb 2018
Rafael Leal-Arcas
Queen Mary University of London, School of Law
Downloads 219 (175,548)

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international trade, EC common commercial policy, Nice Treaty, European Convention, Article 133 EC

79.

Three Thoughts on Brexit

Queen Mary School of Law Legal Studies Research Paper No. 249/2016
Number of pages: 5 Posted: 25 Nov 2016 Last Revised: 23 Dec 2016
Rafael Leal-Arcas
Queen Mary University of London, School of Law
Downloads 217 (177,115)

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Brexit, Frexit, Article 50 TEU, free-trade agreement, European Economic Area, European Free Trade Association, World Trade Organization, customs union, Comprehensive Economic and Trade Agreement

80.

How Governing International Trade in Energy Can Enhance EU Energy Security

Renewable Energy Law and Policy Review, Vol. 6, No. 3, pp. 202-219, 2015
Number of pages: 18 Posted: 14 Oct 2015 Last Revised: 02 Nov 2015
Rafael Leal-Arcas
Queen Mary University of London, School of Law
Downloads 216 (177,849)
Citation 1

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energy security, international trade in energy, EU energy policy

81.

The EU Institutions and Their Modus Operandi in the World Trading System

Columbia Journal of European Law, Vol. 12.1, pp. 125-197, Winter 2005/2006
Number of pages: 92 Posted: 28 Nov 2006
Rafael Leal-Arcas
Queen Mary University of London, School of Law
Downloads 213 (180,175)

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negotiation, conclusion, ratification, judicial enforcement of international trade agreements

82.

A New Era in Global Economic Governance

International Security Forum, 2009
Number of pages: 9 Posted: 14 Jul 2009
Rafael Leal-Arcas
Queen Mary University of London, School of Law
Downloads 211 (181,811)

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global economic governance, G-20, G-7, multipolarity, rise of regionalism

83.

Commentary on the Energy Charter Treaty (Introduction)

Commentary on the Energy Charter Treaty (2018)
Number of pages: 10 Posted: 24 Jan 2019
Rafael Leal-Arcas
Queen Mary University of London, School of Law
Downloads 208 (184,180)

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Energy Charter Treaty, international energy law and policy, energy security, energy investment, energy trade, energy dispute settlement

84.

Renewables, Preferential Trade Agreements and EU Energy Security

Laws, Vol. 4, Issue 3, pp. 472-514, Queen Mary School of Law Legal Studies Research Paper No. 208/2015
Number of pages: 43 Posted: 28 Jul 2015 Last Revised: 08 Aug 2015
Rafael Leal-Arcas, Valentina Caruso and Raphaela Leupuscek
Queen Mary University of London, School of Law, Queen Mary University of London - Centre for Commercial Law Studies (CCLS) and Queen Mary, University of London
Downloads 207 (184,981)

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renewable energy; preferential trade agreements; energy security; EU; Energy Community; climate change

85.

Will EU Member States Play Any Role at the WTO After the EU Reform Treaty?

Vienna Online Journal of International Constitutional Law, Vol. 1, No. 2, pp. 75-90, 2007
Number of pages: 16 Posted: 10 Dec 2007
Rafael Leal-Arcas
Queen Mary University of London, School of Law
Downloads 206 (185,827)

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WTO, EU Member States, Reform Treaty, federation

86.

China’s Economic Rise and Regional Trade

APEC AND THE RISE OF CHINA, pp. 93-120, L. Ho and J. Wong, eds., World Scientific, 2011
Posted: 03 May 2011
Rafael Leal-Arcas
Queen Mary University of London, School of Law
Downloads 202 (189,263)
Citation 2

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global economic power, multilateral trade, regionalism, regional trade, WTO, East Asian Free Trade Area, Doha Round, accession to the WTO, China, status as developing country, role in Doha Round, attitude to multilateralism

87.

Is EC Trade Policy Up to Par?: A Legal Analysis over Time - Rome, Marrakesh, Amsterdam, Nice, and the Constitutional Treaty

Columbia Journal of European Law, Vol. 13, No. 2, pp. 305-399, Spring 2007
Number of pages: 96 Posted: 14 Mar 2007
Rafael Leal-Arcas
Queen Mary University of London, School of Law
Downloads 198 (192,791)

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European Community trade policy, WTO, international trade

88.

Solutions for Sustainability: How the International Trade, Energy and Climate Change Regimes Can Help (Table of Contents and Chapter 1)

SOLUTIONS FOR SUSTAINABILITY: HOW THE INTERNATIONAL TRADE, ENERGY, AND CLIMATE CHANGE REGIMES CAN HELP, Springer Nature, 2019; ISBN 978-3-030-23932-9
Number of pages: 14 Posted: 11 Sep 2019 Last Revised: 18 Sep 2019
Rafael Leal-Arcas
Queen Mary University of London, School of Law
Downloads 196 (194,519)

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international trade, climate change mitigation, sustainable energy, sustainability

89.

Polycephalous Anatomy of the EC in the WTO: An Analysis of Law and Practice

Florida Journal of International Law, Vol. 19, No. 3, pp. 569-670, 2007
Number of pages: 102 Posted: 28 Mar 2008 Last Revised: 11 Dec 2008
Rafael Leal-Arcas
Queen Mary University of London, School of Law
Downloads 193 (197,209)

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European Community, WTO, allocation of competences, mixed agreements, duty of cooperation

90.

Energy Transit: Intergovernmental Agreements on Oil and Gas Transit Pipelines

Renewable Energy Law and Policy Review, Vol. 6(2), pp. 122-162, 2015
Number of pages: 41 Posted: 18 Oct 2015
Queen Mary University of London, School of Law, Queen Mary, University of London, Amarchand & Mangaldas & Suresh A Shroff & Co and Queen Mary, University of London
Downloads 189 (200,963)

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Energy transit; Energy Charter Conference; Energy Charter Treaty; Energy Charter Draft Transit Protocol; Model Inter-Governmental and Host Government Agreements; Nabucco pipeline; South Caucasus pipeline; BTC pipeline; TAPI pipeline; Kirkuk Agreement

91.

Is Lisbon the Answer or the Anathema to EC Trade Law and Policy?

THE DYNAMICS OF TRADE LAW AND ECONOMICS, S. Kierkegaard, ed., International Association of IT Lawyers, pp. 138-158, 2008
Number of pages: 21 Posted: 07 Sep 2008 Last Revised: 11 Dec 2008
Rafael Leal-Arcas
Queen Mary University of London, School of Law
Downloads 186 (203,808)

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Lisbon Treaty, trust, collective action, democratic deficit

92.

On China’s Economic Rise: Multilateral versus Regional Attitudes in Trade Agreements and the PCA with the EU

Chinese (Taiwan) Yearbook of International Law and Affairs, Vol. 27, pp. 12-42, 2011
Number of pages: 31 Posted: 30 Sep 2011
Rafael Leal-Arcas
Queen Mary University of London, School of Law
Downloads 182 (207,782)

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global economic superpower, multilateral trade, regional trade, East Asian Free Trade Area, WTO, EU-China trade

93.

The Role of the European Union and China in Global Climate Change Negotiations: A Critical Analysis

Journal of European Integration History, Vol. 18, pp. 67-81, 2012
Number of pages: 15 Posted: 02 May 2012
Rafael Leal-Arcas
Queen Mary University of London, School of Law
Downloads 179 (210,809)

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global climate change negotiations, China, European Union, aviation, EU emissions trading scheme

94.

The Reception of European Community Law in Spain

Hanse Law Review, Vol. 1, No. 1, pp. 18-21, 2005
Number of pages: 4 Posted: 04 May 2005
Rafael Leal-Arcas
Queen Mary University of London, School of Law
Downloads 179 (210,809)

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EC law, Spanish constitution, Spanish constitutional court, fundamental human rights

95.

Decarbonizing the Energy Sector

Journal of Animal and Natural Resource Law, Vol. XV, pp. 173-271, 2019, Queen Mary School of Law Legal Studies Research Paper No. 309/2019
Number of pages: 72 Posted: 05 Mar 2019 Last Revised: 08 Jan 2020
Queen Mary University of London, School of Law, Queen Mary, University of London, Queen Mary University of London and Queen Mary University of LondonIstanbul Bilgi University, Faculty of Law
Downloads 177 (212,839)

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96.

United We Stand, Divided We Fall - the European Community and its Member States in the WTO Forum: Towards a Common Position on Issues of Shared Competence

European Political Economy Review, Vol. 1, No. 1, pp. 65-79, Spring 2003
Number of pages: 15 Posted: 01 Jul 2004
Rafael Leal-Arcas
Queen Mary University of London, School of Law
Downloads 170 (220,333)

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mixed agreements, EC external trade relations, WTO, shared competence

97.

Climate Clubs and International Trade across the European and International Landscape

European Energy and Environmental Law Review, Vol. 29, Issue 3, pp. 72-88, 2020, Queen Mary School of Law Legal Studies Research Paper No. 331/2020
Number of pages: 17 Posted: 04 Mar 2020 Last Revised: 09 Jul 2020
Rafael Leal-Arcas
Queen Mary University of London, School of Law
Downloads 168 (222,546)

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climate action, renewable energy, sustainability, storage, clean energy, technology, innovation, climate clubs, international trade

98.

Doha Negotiations on Services Trade: Consequences of the Nice Treaty Reform and the Constitutional Treaty

Federal Trust for Education and Research Online Paper No. 22/04
Number of pages: 11 Posted: 15 Oct 2004
Rafael Leal-Arcas
Queen Mary University of London, School of Law
Downloads 164 (227,072)

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Doha negotiations, trade in services, Nice Treaty, Constitutional Treaty

99.

The World Trade Organization and Carbon Market Clubs

Georgetown Journal of International Law, Vol. 52.4, 2021 (Forthcoming); Queen Mary School of Law Legal Studies Research Paper No. 352/2021, pp. 1-57
Number of pages: 58 Posted: 18 Feb 2021 Last Revised: 29 Mar 2021
Rafael Leal-Arcas
Queen Mary University of London, School of Law
Downloads 163 (228,233)

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climate clubs, emission units, like products, ETS, border carbon adjustments

100.

Certain Normative Aspects of the Institutional Architecture of Global Energy Governance

Boulle, L., Laryea, E. and Sucker, F. (eds.) International Economic Law and African Development, Siber Ink, 2014, pp. 27-60
Number of pages: 19 Posted: 19 Nov 2014
Rafael Leal-Arcas and Andrew Filis
Queen Mary University of London, School of Law and Queen Mary, University of London
Downloads 163 (228,233)

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global energy governance, international cooperation in energy, energy supply and consumption, trade in energy, energy investment, energy security

101.

Towards Sustainability in Trade, Energy and Climate

Modern Environmental Science and Engineering, Vol. 6, No. 1, pp. 1-30, 2020
Number of pages: 30 Posted: 09 Mar 2020
Rafael Leal-Arcas
Queen Mary University of London, School of Law
Downloads 159 (234,472)

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international trade, climate change, energy, sustainability

102.

Introduction: Energy Security, Trade and the EU: Regional and International Perspectives

Energy Security, Trade and the EU: Regional and International Perspectives, Cheltenham: Edward Elgar Publishing Ltd, 2016
Number of pages: 20 Posted: 19 Sep 2016
Rafael Leal-Arcas, Juan Alemany Rios and Costantino Grasso
Queen Mary University of London, School of Law, Queen Mary, University of London and Manchester Metropolitan University
Downloads 159 (233,204)

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energy security, international trade, European Union, energy trade governance, energy transit, unconventional fossil fuel sources, renewables, preferential trade agreements, European Energy Union

103.

The GATS in the Doha Round: A European Perspective

THE WORLD TRADE ORGANIZATION AND TRADE IN SERVICES, Alexander, K. & Andenas, M., eds., pp. 9-104, Brill/Nijhoff, 2008
Number of pages: 49 Posted: 24 Apr 2009 Last Revised: 27 Apr 2009
Rafael Leal-Arcas
Queen Mary University of London, School of Law
Downloads 158 (234,472)

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GATS, Doha Round, international trade in services, Lisbon Treaty, EU, EC, mixed agreements

104.

Business Models for Decentralized Energy

Queen Mary School of Law Legal Studies Research Paper No. 311/2019
Number of pages: 62 Posted: 05 Mar 2019
Queen Mary University of London, School of Law, Athens University of Economics and Business, Athens University of Economics and Business, Queen Mary University of London, School of Law and Queen Mary, University of London
Downloads 152 (242,081)

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105.

Towards a Carbon-Free, Decentralized, and Democratized System of Energy Generation

Connecticut Journal of International Law, Vol. 35, Issue 2, pp. 133-202, 2020, Queen Mary School of Law Legal Studies Research Paper No. 319/2019
Number of pages: 62 Posted: 29 Sep 2019 Last Revised: 03 Jun 2020
Rafael Leal-Arcas, Andrew Filis, Mariya Peykova and Marius Greger
Queen Mary University of London, School of Law, Queen Mary, University of London, Queen Mary, University of London and Queen Mary University of London
Downloads 147 (248,736)

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106.

The Transition to Decentralized Energy: Challenges, Opportunities and Progress

University of Puerto Rico Business Law Journal, Vol. 11, pp. 1-70, 2020, Queen Mary School of Law Legal Studies Research Paper No. 310/2019
Number of pages: 70 Posted: 05 Mar 2019 Last Revised: 11 Jun 2020
Queen Mary University of London, School of Law, Queen Mary University of London and Queen Mary University of London
Downloads 147 (248,736)

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decentralized energy, demand response, electric vehicles, deregulation, smart meters, smart grids

107.

Energy Decentralization in the European Union

Georgetown Environmental Law Review, Vol. 32.1, 2019, Forthcoming, Queen Mary School of Law Legal Studies Research Paper No. 307/2019
Number of pages: 58 Posted: 13 Feb 2019
Rafael Leal-Arcas, Juan Alemany Rios and Nelson Akondo
Queen Mary University of London, School of Law, Queen Mary University of London, School of Law and Queen Mary University of London, School of Law
Downloads 147 (248,736)

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108.

Inter-State Cooperation in Energy Transit

UNU-CRIS Working Paper W-2015/2, 2015, pp. 1-23
Number of pages: 23 Posted: 03 Apr 2015
Rafael Leal-Arcas and Andrew Filis
Queen Mary University of London, School of Law and Queen Mary, University of London
Downloads 145 (251,508)

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global energy governance, fragmentation of the global energy governance regime, energy transit, Energy Charter Conference, WTO, NAFTA, ASEAN, EU

109.

Ramifications of GATS Mode 4 for European Union-India Trade Relations

International Security Forum, April 2010
Number of pages: 5 Posted: 01 May 2010
Rafael Leal-Arcas
Queen Mary University of London, School of Law
Downloads 145 (251,508)

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European Union, India, international trade, temporary migration, GATS Mode 4

110.

Designing International Trade in Energy Governance for EU Energy Security

Heffron, R. and Little, G. (eds.) Delivering Energy Law and Policy in the EU and the US: A Reader, Edinburgh University Press, 2016, Queen Mary School of Law Legal Studies Research Paper No. 197/2015
Number of pages: 5 Posted: 22 May 2015 Last Revised: 08 Sep 2016
Rafael Leal-Arcas
Queen Mary University of London, School of Law
Downloads 144 (252,928)

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international trade in energy governance; sovereignty over natural resources; energy security; energy supply; energy diversification; renewable energy

111.

Of International Trade, Climate Change, Investment and a Prosperous Future

Trade, Law and Development, Vol. 12, Issue 2, pp. 405-455, 2020
Number of pages: 53 Posted: 10 Sep 2020 Last Revised: 22 Feb 2021
Queen Mary University of London, School of Law, affiliation not provided to SSRN, affiliation not provided to SSRN, Independent and affiliation not provided to SSRN
Downloads 142 (255,752)

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international trade, climate change, bilateral investment treaties, technology

112.

The Significance of the Nice Treaty and Constitutional Treaty in Relation to Services Trade in the Doha Round Framework

International Relations and Politics Online Quarterly, No. 1, pp. 62-83, March 2005
Number of pages: 22 Posted: 05 Apr 2005
Rafael Leal-Arcas
Queen Mary University of London, School of Law
Downloads 141 (257,153)

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GATS, Doha Round, Nice Treaty, Constitutional Treaty, mixed agreements

113.

A Paradigm Shift in the Governance of Sustainable Development: Citizens’ Empowerment

International markets regulation and the erosion of the European political and social model, Thomson Reuters, 2019
Number of pages: 11 Posted: 16 Jul 2019
Rafael Leal-Arcas
Queen Mary University of London, School of Law
Downloads 139 (260,096)

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energy transition, climate action, international trade, sustainable development, empowering citizens

114.

A Look at Services Trade: Implications of the Doha Talks Suspension and Resumption

ESSAYS ON THE FUTURE OF WORLD TRADE ORGANIZATION, J. Chaisse & T. Balmelli, eds., Vol. 1, Editions Interuniversitaires Suisses, pp. 99-134, 2008
Number of pages: 59 Posted: 19 Feb 2008 Last Revised: 14 Jan 2014
Rafael Leal-Arcas
Queen Mary University of London, School of Law
Downloads 135 (266,062)

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services trade, Doha Round, WTO

115.

Linking the European Union to the Energy Charter Treaty and the Energy Community

Energy Charter Knowledge Centre Review, Issue 3, May/June 2014, pp. 16-19, Queen Mary School of Law Legal Studies Research Paper No. 178/2014
Number of pages: 5 Posted: 17 Jul 2014
Rafael Leal-Arcas and Andrew Filis
Queen Mary University of London, School of Law and Queen Mary, University of London
Downloads 133 (269,117)

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Energy Charter Treaty; Energy Community; European Union; EU energy security

116.

Reflections on EU International Trade Law: An Introspective View

Frontiers of Law in China, Vol. 7, No. 1, pp. 1-20, 2012, Queen Mary School of Law Legal Studies Research Paper No. 101/2012
Number of pages: 21 Posted: 15 Mar 2012
Rafael Leal-Arcas
Queen Mary University of London, School of Law
Downloads 133 (269,117)

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117.

China’s Attitude to Multilateralism in International Economic Law and Governance (in Chinese)

ENGLISH SCHOOL THEORY AND INTERNATIONAL HISTORY STUDIES, pp. 194-214, D. Liu, ed., Peking University Press, 2011
Number of pages: 17 Posted: 10 Jun 2011
Rafael Leal-Arcas
Queen Mary University of London, School of Law
Downloads 129 (275,369)

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WTO, FTAs, trade, China, global economic superpower

118.

Review of The WTO and the Environment: Development of Competence Beyond Trade

Carbon and Climate Law Review, Vol. 7(4), 2013, pp. 310-312
Number of pages: 3 Posted: 20 Mar 2014 Last Revised: 10 May 2014
Rafael Leal-Arcas
Queen Mary University of London, School of Law
Downloads 128 (276,924)

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trade and the environment, WTO, conservation or protection of the environment, GATT Article XX(g), Committee on Trade and Environment

119.

Bridging the Gap in the Doha Talks: A Look at Services Trade

INTERNATIONAL LAW AND TRADE: BRIDGING THE EAST-WEST DIVIDE, S. Kierkegaard, ed., International Association of IT Lawyers, 2007
Number of pages: 11 Posted: 18 May 2007 Last Revised: 14 Jan 2014
Rafael Leal-Arcas
Queen Mary University of London, School of Law
Downloads 122 (287,095)

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Doha Round, services trade, liberalization, WTO, commitments

120.

Services as Key for the Conclusion of the Doha Round

Legal Issues of Economic Integration, Vol. 35, No. 4, pp. 301-321, 2008
Number of pages: 25 Posted: 29 Oct 2008 Last Revised: 11 Dec 2008
Rafael Leal-Arcas
Queen Mary University of London, School of Law
Downloads 121 (288,808)
Citation 1

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GATS, services trade, Doha Round, request/offer, EC

121.

EU Energy Law and Policy: The External Dimension (Introduction)

EU Energy Law and Policy: The external dimension, Eliva Press, 2020; ISBN-13: 978-9975-3417-5-2.
Number of pages: 11 Posted: 31 Jul 2020
Rafael Leal-Arcas
Queen Mary University of London, School of Law
Downloads 120 (290,563)

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energy law and policy of the European Union, Energy Community, Gulf Cooperation Council, Energy Charter Treaty

122.

Towards Energy Democratization

Colorado Natural Resources, Energy, and Environmental Law Review, Vol. 31, Issue 1, pp. 1-83, 2020, Queen Mary School of Law Legal Studies Research Paper No. 308/2019
Number of pages: 66 Posted: 22 Feb 2019 Last Revised: 19 Feb 2020
Rafael Leal-Arcas, Marius Greger and Hanna Knigge
Queen Mary University of London, School of Law, Queen Mary University of London and Queen Mary University of London
Downloads 120 (290,563)

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123.

The European Union Vis-a-Vis Brazil and India: Future Avenues in Selected Trade Policy Areas

International Journal of Private Law, Vol. 2, No. 2, pp. 109-134, 2009
Number of pages: 26 Posted: 23 Nov 2008
Rafael Leal-Arcas
Queen Mary University of London, School of Law
Downloads 119 (292,290)

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Brazil, India, trade, agriculture, temporary migration, European Union

124.

A Bottom-Up Approach for Climate Change: The Trade Experience

Asian Journal of Law and Economics, Vol. 2, Issue 4, pp. 1-54, 2011
Number of pages: 56 Posted: 03 Jan 2012 Last Revised: 30 Jan 2012
Rafael Leal-Arcas
Queen Mary University of London, School of Law
Downloads 117 (295,735)
Citation 2

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bottom-up approach for climate change, climate-based RTAs, variable geometry, flexible approach

125.

China and the Regional Comprehensive Economic Partnership

Journal of Global Policy and Governance, Vol. 2, Issue 2, pp. 287-304, 2013, Queen Mary School of Law Legal Studies Research Paper No. 165/2013
Number of pages: 20 Posted: 02 Nov 2013 Last Revised: 09 Aug 2021
Rafael Leal-Arcas
Queen Mary University of London, School of Law
Downloads 112 (305,001)

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Regional Comprehensive Economic Partnership; free trade agreements; bilateral trade; regional trade; World Trade Organization

126.

Energy Trade in the MENA Region: Looking Beyond the Pan-Arab Electricity Market

Journal of World Energy Law and Business, Vol. 10, Issue 6, pp. 520-549, Oxford University Press, 2017
Number of pages: 30 Posted: 30 Nov 2017
Rafael Leal-Arcas, Nelson Akondo and Juan Alemany Rios
Queen Mary University of London, School of Law, Queen Mary University of London, School of Law and Queen Mary, University of London
Downloads 110 (308,877)
Citation 2

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Energy Trade, MENA Region, Electricity Trade, Gas Trade, Energy Sustainability, Clean Energy, Regional Trade Agreements

127.

Working Together: How to Make Trade Contribute to Climate Action

International Centre for Trade and Sustainable Development, Information Note No. 18, pp. 1-8, Geneva, November 2013, Queen Mary School of Law Legal Studies Research Paper No. 159/2013
Number of pages: 9 Posted: 28 Nov 2013 Last Revised: 17 Dec 2013
Rafael Leal-Arcas
Queen Mary University of London, School of Law
Downloads 101 (327,198)

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climate action, regional trade agreements, climate change mitigation, emissions trading scheme, energy trade, sustainable development, renewable energy, aviation, shipping, WTO

128.

Linking Energy and Climate Change

Outreach, pp. 4, 28 November 2012
Number of pages: 16 Posted: 03 Dec 2012
Rafael Leal-Arcas
Queen Mary University of London, School of Law
Downloads 101 (327,198)

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climate change mitigation, energy, fossil fuels, renewable energy

129.

Climate Change Mitigation Law and Policy of the BRICs

Queen Mary University of London, School of Law Legal Studies Research Paper No. 342/2020, pp. 1-60
Number of pages: 60 Posted: 07 Jan 2021 Last Revised: 14 Jun 2021
Queen Mary University of London, School of Law, affiliation not provided to SSRN, affiliation not provided to SSRN, affiliation not provided to SSRN and affiliation not provided to SSRN
Downloads 97 (335,900)

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climate change mitigation, BRICs

130.

Re-Thinking Global Climate Change: A Local, Bottom-Up Perspective

Seton Hall Journal of Diplomacy and International Relations, Vol. XX, No. 1, pp. 4-20, 2018
Number of pages: 9 Posted: 23 Apr 2019
Rafael Leal-Arcas
Queen Mary University of London, School of Law
Downloads 97 (335,900)

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clean energy, energy transition, behavioral economics, prosumers, climate change

131.

Regulation, Innovation, and Technology for 21st Century Energy Goals

Journal of Law and Cyber Warfare, Vol. 8, Issue 1, pp. 30-107, 2020, Queen Mary School of Law Legal Studies Research Paper No. 312/2019
Number of pages: 85 Posted: 11 Mar 2019 Last Revised: 03 Jun 2020
Rafael Leal-Arcas, Gemma Fearnley and Chana Gluck
Queen Mary University of London, School of Law, Queen Mary University of London, School of Law and Queen Mary University of London
Downloads 93 (344,931)

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132.

The EU and Brazil: Trading Partners in Different Fora

The Jean Monnet/Robert Schuman Paper Series, Vol. 8, No. 11, pp. 1-12, June 2008
Number of pages: 12 Posted: 10 Jan 2009
Rafael Leal-Arcas
Queen Mary University of London, School of Law
Downloads 89 (354,581)
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Brazil, European Union, international trade, unilateralism, bilateralism/regionalism, multilateralism

133.

The GATS and Temporary Migration Policy

INTERNATIONAL ECONOMIC LAW AND NATIONAL AUTONOMY, pp. 193-215, M. Lewis & S. Frankel, eds., Cambridge University Press, 2010
Number of pages: 23 Posted: 05 Oct 2010
Rafael Leal-Arcas
Queen Mary University of London, School of Law
Downloads 88 (357,094)

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GATS, Mode 4, Temporary Migration Policy, Domestic Regulation, Knowledge-Based Society, Highly-Skilled Workers

134.

Natural Gas, US Shale Dynamics and Energy Security: A View from the European Union

Published in Raszewski, S. (ed.) The International Political Economy of Oil and Gas: Governing the Resources in Changing Contexts, Palgrave Macmillan, pp. 73-86, Queen Mary School of Law Legal Studies Research Paper No. 265/2017
Number of pages: 13 Posted: 26 Nov 2017 Last Revised: 18 Jan 2018
Rafael Leal-Arcas
Queen Mary University of London, School of Law
Downloads 86 (362,136)

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Gas Exporting Countries Forum, Natural Gas, Shale Gas Revolution, Liquefied Natural Gas, Energy Security, Energy Supply

135.

Unconventional Sources of Fossil Fuel in the European Union and China: Perspectives on Trade, Climate Change and Energy Security

published as R. Leal-Arcas, “Unconventional sources of fossil fuel in the European Union and China: Perspectives on trade, climate change and energy security,” in Hefele, P., Palocz-Andresen, M., Rech, M. and Kohler, J.-H. (eds.) Climate and Energy Protection in the EU and China, Cham: Switzerland, , Queen Mary School of Law Legal Studies Research Paper No. 288/2018
Number of pages: 16 Posted: 26 Nov 2018
Rafael Leal-Arcas
Queen Mary University of London, School of Law
Downloads 85 (364,821)

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unconventional sources of fossil fuel, natural gas, geopolitics, energy security, climate change, international trade

136.

Aiming At Sustainable Trade in the Context of the Rule of Law: What Role for Citizens and How International Trade Can Help Reduce Fossil-Fuel Consumption

Trade, Law and Development, Vol. 11, Issue 2, 2019, pp. 193-238, Queen Mary School of Law Legal Studies Research Paper
Number of pages: 48 Posted: 12 Dec 2019 Last Revised: 03 Jun 2020
Rafael Leal-Arcas, Danai Papadea and Rosie Richardson
Queen Mary University of London, School of Law, Queen Mary University of London and Queen Mary University of London
Downloads 84 (367,436)
Citation 1

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137.

Geoengineering a Future for Humankind: Some Technical and Ethical Considerations

Carbon and Climate Law Review, Vol. 6, No. 2, pp. 128-148, 2012
Number of pages: 21 Posted: 19 Sep 2012 Last Revised: 17 Jul 2014
Rafael Leal-Arcas and Andrew Filis
Queen Mary University of London, School of Law and Queen Mary, University of London
Downloads 83 (370,031)
Citation 1

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geoengineering, climate change mitigation, trade and geoengineering, governance

138.

Smart Grids as a Way to Democratize Energy

Yale Journal of International Affairs, 2020
Number of pages: 3 Posted: 14 Nov 2020
Rafael Leal-Arcas
Queen Mary University of London, School of Law
Downloads 82 (372,734)

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smart grids, energy decentralization, energy democratization

139.

Review of 'EU Foreign Relations Law: Constitutional Fundamentals' (Oxford and Portland, Hart, 2008)

European Foreign Affairs Review, Vol. 15, No. 1, pp. 137-138, 2010
Number of pages: 2 Posted: 04 Jan 2010 Last Revised: 15 Oct 2010
Rafael Leal-Arcas
Queen Mary University of London, School of Law
Downloads 82 (372,734)

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EU foreign relations law, Constitutional Treaty, Lisbon Treaty, cross-pillarisation of EU policies

140.

Climate Change Mitigation Law and Policy in the BRICS

Forthcoming in Leonie Reins and Jonathan Verschuuren (eds.), Research Handbook on Climate Change Mitigation Law, 2nd edition, Edward Elgar Publishing 2021
Number of pages: 54 Posted: 09 Mar 2021
Rafael Leal-Arcas
Queen Mary University of London, School of Law
Downloads 81 (375,486)

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climate change mitigation; Paris Agreement; Kyoto Protocol; NDCs; BRICS; renewable energy

141.

Electrifying the Energy Sector: The Case of Slovakia and the Czech Republic

Kentucky Journal of Equine, Agriculture, & Natural Resources Law, Vol. 13, Issue 1, pp. 1-83, 2020-2021, Queen Mary School of Law Legal Studies Research Paper No. 329/2020
Number of pages: 83 Posted: 14 Feb 2020 Last Revised: 16 Feb 2021
Rafael Leal-Arcas, Brian Burstein and Maria Mattera
Queen Mary University of London, School of Law, Queen Mary University of London and Queen Mary University of London
Downloads 79 (380,948)

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142.

Energy Decentralization and Decarbonization: The Case of Romania and Malta

Natural Resources Journal, Vol. 60, Issue 1, pp. 117-166, 2020, Queen Mary School of Law Legal Studies Research Paper No. 320/2019
Number of pages: 50 Posted: 29 Sep 2019 Last Revised: 07 Apr 2020
Rafael Leal-Arcas, Andrew Filis and Victoria Nalule
Queen Mary University of London, School of Law, Queen Mary, University of London and Queen Mary University of London
Downloads 79 (380,948)
Citation 1

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energy decentralization and decarbonization, electricity sector, smart grids, smart meters

International Cooperation on Climate Change Mitigation: The Role of Climate Clubs

European Energy and Environmental Law Review, Vol. 30, Issue 5, 2021, pp. 195-218; Queen Mary University of London, School of Law Legal Studies Research Paper No. 362/2021, pp. 1-38.
Number of pages: 24 Posted: 11 Jun 2021 Last Revised: 11 Oct 2021
Rafael Leal-Arcas
Queen Mary University of London, School of Law
Downloads 64 (432,971)

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climate clubs, minilateralism, legitimacy, multilateralism, accountability, international trade

International Cooperation on Climate Change Mitigation: The Role of Climate Clubs

Queen Mary Law Research Paper No. 362/2021
Number of pages: 38 Posted: 10 Jun 2021 Last Revised: 13 Sep 2021
Rafael Leal-Arcas and Andrew Filis
Queen Mary University of London, School of Law and Queen Mary, University of London
Downloads 13 (720,090)

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144.

Towards a New Climate Change Agreement Post-2015

Queen Mary School of Law Legal Studies Research Paper No. 210/2015
Number of pages: 12 Posted: 19 Oct 2015
Rafael Leal-Arcas
Queen Mary University of London, School of Law
Downloads 72 (401,440)

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145.

Energy, Electricity and Smart Grids in Latvia and Portugal – Developments and Concerns

2 KY. J. EQUINE, AGRI., & NAT. RESOURCES L. Vol. 12, pp. 1-70
Number of pages: 70 Posted: 03 Mar 2021 Last Revised: 21 Jun 2021
Rafael Leal-Arcas, Filipa Santos and Danai Papadea
Queen Mary University of London, School of Law, Queen Mary University of London and Queen Mary University of London
Downloads 70 (407,636)

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electricity sector, Latvia, Portugal, European Union, clean energy, smart grids, electricity markets

146.

The EU and China in a New World Order: Challenges Ahead

EUCROSS Jean Monnet network Working Paper, July 2019, pp. 1-20
Number of pages: 21 Posted: 30 Jul 2019
Rafael Leal-Arcas
Queen Mary University of London, School of Law
Downloads 67 (417,244)
Citation 1

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European Union, China, trade, global economic governance

147.

Small is Beautiful: Why a Club Approach is the Way to Go in Climate Change Mitigation

Leal, W. and Surroop, D. (eds.) The Nexus: Energy, environment and climate change, Springer, pp. 305-317; ISBN: 978-3-319-63611-5 , Queen Mary School of Law Legal Studies Research Paper No. 264/2017
Number of pages: 16 Posted: 12 Nov 2017 Last Revised: 18 Jan 2018
Rafael Leal-Arcas
Queen Mary University of London, School of Law
Downloads 67 (417,244)

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Bottom-Up Approach to Climate Change Mitigation, Major Economies Forum, Variable Geometry

148.

University Initiatives in Climate Change Mitigation and Adaptation (Table of Contents)

UNIVERSITY INITIATIVES IN CLIMATE CHANGE MITIGATION AND ADAPTATION, Springer, 2018
Number of pages: 5 Posted: 04 Sep 2018
Walter Leal Filho and Rafael Leal-Arcas
Hamburg University of Applied Sciences (HAW) and Queen Mary University of London, School of Law
Downloads 66 (420,590)

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climate change mitigation, climate change adaptation

149.

Exploring Energy Decentralization: The Promotion of Electric Vehicles and Storage

Financing the Energy Transition: Status and Future Challenges, European Energy Publications, Athens: Eurasia Publications, pp. 25-50, 2020
Number of pages: 23 Posted: 08 Aug 2020
Rafael Leal-Arcas
Queen Mary University of London, School of Law
Downloads 62 (434,171)

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energy decentralization, electric vehicles, storage

150.

The Future of International Economic Law and the Rule of Law

The Future of International Economic Law and the Rule of Law, Eliva Press, 2020; ISBN: 978-1-952751-75-2
Number of pages: 19 Posted: 22 Sep 2020
Rafael Leal-Arcas
Queen Mary University of London, School of Law
Downloads 61 (437,670)

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international economic law, rule of law, WTO, sustainable trade, sustainable development, international investment arbitration, Belt and Road Initiative, carbon border adjustments

151.

Multilateral and Bilateral Energy Investment Treaties

Handbook of International Investment Law and Policy, Springer 2019
Number of pages: 16 Posted: 14 Jan 2020
Rafael Leal-Arcas and Victoria Nalule
Queen Mary University of London, School of Law and Queen Mary University of London
Downloads 61 (437,670)

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bilateral energy investment treaties; multilateral energy investment treaties

152.

External Relations of the European Union in the Energy Sector: EU-Russia Energy (Trade) Relations

Forthcoming in Aubin Nzaou-Kongo et al. (eds.) Energy Law and Policy in a Climate-Constrained World, Houston: Law, Policy and Society, University of Houston Press, 2021, Queen Mary Law Research Paper No. 348/2021
Number of pages: 20 Posted: 20 Jan 2021
Rafael Leal-Arcas and Iuliia Dragunova
Queen Mary University of London, School of Law and affiliation not provided to SSRN
Downloads 58 (448,495)

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European Union, energy, international trade, Russia, Energy Community, treaty regimes, competence issues, EU treaties

153.

Power to the People: From Top-Down to Bottom-Up Approaches

in Esty, D. and S. Biniaz (eds.) Cool Heads in a Warming World: How Trade Policy Can Help Fight Climate Change, pp. 257-280, Yale Center for Environmental Law & Policy, 2020
Number of pages: 24 Posted: 03 Apr 2020
Rafael Leal-Arcas
Queen Mary University of London, School of Law
Downloads 55 (459,625)

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trade; climate mitigation; green economic growth; sustainable energy; citizens’ empowerment

154.

EU Trade Law (Introduction)

EU TRADE LAW, Elgar European Law Series, Edward Elgar Publishing Ltd, 2019; ISBN: 978 1 78897 740 1
Number of pages: 12 Posted: 21 May 2019
Rafael Leal-Arcas
Queen Mary University of London, School of Law
Downloads 52 (471,210)

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The EU in the GATT/WTO; Treaty of Lisbon; mixed agreements; efficiency v accountability; international trade agreements

155.

Cidadãos no centro da transição energética: Um novo modelo de governança (Citizens at the Center of the Energy Transition: A New Governance Model)

Environmental Law and Economics, Thomson Reuters, 2019, pp. 231-244
Number of pages: 18 Posted: 27 Jun 2019
Rafael Leal-Arcas
Queen Mary University of London, School of Law
Downloads 44 (505,252)

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behavioral economic analysis, clean energy, prosumers, smart cities

156.

Review of External Economic Relations and Foreign Policy in the European Union

European Law Books, 2005
Number of pages: 2 Posted: 12 Sep 2011 Last Revised: 17 May 2013
Rafael Leal-Arcas
Queen Mary University of London, School of Law
Downloads 43 (509,695)

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EU division of competences, EU external economic relations law, EU foreign policy

157.

Promoting Access to Modern Energy Sources in Small Island Developing States

OUTREACH, Stakeholderforum, p. 8, August 2014
Number of pages: 12 Posted: 30 Aug 2014
Rafael Leal-Arcas
Queen Mary University of London, School of Law
Downloads 41 (518,986)

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energy security, energy access, energy equality, modern energy sources, small island developing states

158.
Downloads 38 (533,398)

Compliance to Promote Sustainability

in T. Trennepohl and N. Trennepohl (eds.), COMPLIANCE AND ENVIRONMENTAL LAW, Thomson Reuters, pp. 453-464, 2020
Number of pages: 9 Posted: 24 May 2021
Rafael Leal-Arcas
Queen Mary University of London, School of Law
Downloads 26 (618,321)

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Compliance to Promote Sustainability

Queen Mary Law Research Paper No. 361/2021
Number of pages: 9 Posted: 25 May 2021
Rafael Leal-Arcas
Queen Mary University of London, School of Law
Downloads 12 (728,650)

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159.

Connections between climate change and international trade

House of Commons International Trade Committee, written evidence
Number of pages: 8 Posted: 20 Sep 2021
Rafael Leal-Arcas
Queen Mary University of London, School of Law
Downloads 35 (548,829)

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international trade, climate change mitigation, sustainability, carbon border adjustment mechanism, technology

160.

The Great Energy Transition in the European Union, Volume 1

The Great Energy Transition in the European Union, Volume 1, Eliva Press, 2020; ISBN-13: 978-9975-3417-1-4.
Number of pages: 22 Posted: 03 Jun 2020
Rafael Leal-Arcas
Queen Mary University of London, School of Law
Downloads 35 (548,829)

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energy decentralization, energy transition, democratization, decarbonization, deregulation, digitalization

161.

Environment-led Conditionality in the EU’s and US’s Generalized System of Preferences

Forthcoming in P. Delimatsis and L. Reins (eds.) Encyclopedia on Trade and Environmental Law, Edward Elgar Publishing, 2021, Queen Mary School of Law Legal Studies Research Paper No. 335/2020
Number of pages: 12 Posted: 30 Jun 2020 Last Revised: 04 Jan 2021
Rafael Leal-Arcas and Saana Saveljeff
Queen Mary University of London, School of Law and affiliation not provided to SSRN
Downloads 34 (554,213)

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Generalized system of preferences, anti-globalism, imports, MFN principle, trade in goods, environmental provisions

162.

The Great Energy Transition in the European Union, Volume 2

The Great Energy Transition in the European Union, Volume 2, Eliva Press, 2020; ISBN-13: 978-9975-3417-3-8.
Number of pages: 20 Posted: 03 Jun 2020
Rafael Leal-Arcas
Queen Mary University of London, School of Law
Downloads 31 (570,605)

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energy decentralization, energy transition, democratization, decarbonization, deregulation, digitalization

163.

International Trade, Investment and the Rule of Law (Table of Contents and Introduction)

INTERNATIONAL TRADE, INVESTMENT AND THE RULE OF LAW, Eliva Press, 2020; ISBN-10: 9975307191; ISBN-13: 978-9975307192
Number of pages: 17 Posted: 17 Apr 2020
Rafael Leal-Arcas
Queen Mary University of London, School of Law
Downloads 27 (594,576)

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Rule of Law, international trade law, investment law and policy, energy and finance, corporate social responsibility

164.

Regulation and innovative finance for sustainable energy

Emory International Law Review, Vol. 34, Issue 2, pp. 435-532, 2020
Number of pages: 98 Posted: 24 May 2021
Rafael Leal-Arcas
Queen Mary University of London, School of Law
Downloads 24 (614,401)

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renewable energy usage, energy efficiency, energy security, sustainable energy, energy finance

165.

Climate Clubs for a Sustainable Future: The role of international trade and investment law (Table of Contents and Introduction)

Climate Clubs for a Sustainable Future: The role of international trade and investment law; Energy and Environmental Law and Policy Series, Kluwer Law International, 2021; ISBN-13: 978-94-035-3715-3
Number of pages: 29 Posted: 24 Aug 2021
Rafael Leal-Arcas
Queen Mary University of London, School of Law
Downloads 23 (621,183)

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climate clubs, minilateralism, legitimacy, multilateralism, accountability, international trade, bilateral investment treaties

166.

International Trade, Energy Transition and Climate Change Obligations: The perspective of small Pacific islands and the Caribbean Community

Trade, Law and Development, Vol. 13.2, 2021 (forthcoming)
Number of pages: 52 Posted: 25 Oct 2021
Rafael Leal-Arcas
Queen Mary University of London, School of Law
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International trading system, sustainability, Sustainable Development Goals, energy transition, small Pacific islands, climate change obligations, CARICOM

167.

International Cooperation on Climate Change Mitigation: The Role of Climate Clubs

Queen Mary Law Research Paper No. 362/2021
Number of pages: 38 Posted: 13 Sep 2021
Rafael Leal-Arcas and Andrew Filis
Queen Mary University of London, School of Law and Queen Mary, University of London
Downloads 20 (649,417)

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climate clubs, minilateralism, legitimacy, multilateralism, accountability, international trade

168.

Trade Redemption: How Trade Agreements Can Help Decarbonize the Economy

in De Luca, A. and Lubello, V. (eds) The European Union Renewable Energy Transition, Wolters Kluwer, 2019, pp. 77-125
Number of pages: 61 Posted: 02 Sep 2021
Rafael Leal-Arcas
Queen Mary University of London, School of Law
Downloads 11 (709,621)

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decarbonization, international trade, climate change mitigation, sustainable energy, renewable energy

169.

Electrifying the energy sector: The case of Slovakia and the Czech Republic

1 KY. J. EQUINE, AGRI., & NAT. RESOURCES L. 12
Number of pages: 83 Posted: 16 Feb 2021 Last Revised: 03 Mar 2021
Rafael Leal-Arcas
Queen Mary University of London, School of Law
Downloads 11 (709,621)

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domestic energy, Czech Republic, Slovakia, smart grids, electric mobility, nuclear energy, decentralized electricity

170.

Energy Transit in the Caucasus: A Legal Analysis

Caucasus International Vol. 6 • No: 2 • Winter 2016
Number of pages: 22 Posted: 18 Jun 2019
Rafael Leal-Arcas
Queen Mary University of London, School of Law
Downloads 11 (709,621)
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Baku-Tbilisi-Ceyhan Pipeline, the South Caucasus Pipeline, Nabucco Pipeline project, Energy Charter Model Agreements on Cross-border Pipelines, Energy Charter draft Transit Protocol

171.

Paving the Way to the Paris COP21

OUTREACH, Stekeholderforum, December 2014
Number of pages: 2 Posted: 18 Jun 2019
Rafael Leal-Arcas
Queen Mary University of London, School of Law
Downloads 8 (733,398)

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Climate Diplomacy, GHG Emissions, Paris Agreement, COP21

172.

Proposing a Global Emissions Trading Scheme: The Inclusion of Aviation and Shipping

OUTREACH, Stakeholderforum, 2013
Number of pages: 3 Posted: 18 Jun 2019
Rafael Leal-Arcas
Queen Mary University of London, School of Law
Downloads 8 (733,398)

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Global Emissions Trading Scheme; Aviation; Shipping

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EU external trade relations, EU trade agreements, WTO, mixed agreements, EU institutions

174.

Climate Migrants: Legal Options

Procedia – Social and Behavioral Sciences, Vol. 37, pp. 86-96, 2012
Posted: 24 Apr 2012 Last Revised: 16 May 2012
Rafael Leal-Arcas
Queen Mary University of London, School of Law

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climate change adaptation, climate change, climate migration, cross-border migration, refugee law

175.

Geoengineering the Climate: An Overview

Oil, Gas & Energy Law Intelligence, Vol. 10, No. 3, pp. 1-15, March 2012
Posted: 21 Mar 2012
Rafael Leal-Arcas
Queen Mary University of London, School of Law

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geoengineering, climate change mitigation, greenhouse gases, low-carbon energy alternatives, shortwave radiation management

176.

Review of 'External Economic Relations and Foreign Policy in the European Union'

European Law Books, November 2005
Posted: 20 Apr 2006
Rafael Leal-Arcas
Queen Mary University of London, School of Law

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External Economic Relations, Foreign Policy, European Union

Other Papers (1)

Total Downloads: 20
1.

Book Review: Transnational Gas Markets and Euro-Russian Energy Relations by A.V. Belyi

Oil, Gas & Energy Law (OGEL) Journal, April 2016
Number of pages: 2 Posted: 26 Apr 2016 Last Revised: 27 Apr 2016
Rafael Leal-Arcas
Queen Mary University of London, School of Law
Downloads 20

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transnational gas markets, Euro-Russian energy relations