Helen L. Norton

University of Colorado Law School

Associate Professor of Law

401 UCB

Boulder, CO 80309

United States

SCHOLARLY PAPERS

31

DOWNLOADS
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Top 8,322

in Total Papers Downloads

5,112

CITATIONS
Rank 28,678

SSRN RANKINGS

Top 28,678

in Total Papers Citations

8

Scholarly Papers (31)

1.

Intermediaries and Hate Speech: Fostering Digital Citizenship for Our Information Age

Boston University Law Review, Vol. 91, p. 1435, 2011, U of Maryland Legal Studies Research Paper No. 2011-16
Number of pages: 51 Posted: 21 Feb 2011 Last Revised: 11 Mar 2014
Danielle Keats Citron and Helen L. Norton
University of Maryland Francis King Carey School of Law and University of Colorado Law School
Downloads 1,274 (13,820)

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cyber hate, hate speech, digital citizenship

2.

Siri-ously? Free Speech Rights and Artificial Intelligence

110 Northwestern University Law Review 1169 (2016), Arizona Legal Studies Discussion Paper No. 15-29
Number of pages: 27 Posted: 14 Aug 2015 Last Revised: 06 Oct 2016
Toni M. Massaro and Helen L. Norton
University of Arizona College of Law and University of Colorado Law School
Downloads 752 (30,073)

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first amendment, freedom of speech, speech theory, constitutional law, constitutional theory, personhood, computer speech, robots, artificial intelligence, strong artificial intelligence, machine speech, fundamental rights, autonomy, theories of rights

3.

SIRI-OUSLY 2.0: What Artificial Intelligence Reveals about the First Amendment

101 Minnesota Law Review 2481 (2017), Arizona Legal Studies Discussion Paper No. 17-01, Ohio State Public Law Working Paper No. 374, U of Colorado Law Legal Studies Research Paper No. 17-3
Number of pages: 47 Posted: 10 Jan 2017 Last Revised: 27 Sep 2017
Toni M. Massaro, Helen L. Norton and Margot E. Kaminski
University of Arizona College of Law, University of Colorado Law School and University of Colorado Law School
Downloads 461 (57,002)

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First Amendment, Freedom of Speech, Speech Theory, Constitutional Law, Constitutional Theory, Personhood, Computer Speech, Robots, Artificial Intelligence, Strong Artificial Intelligence, Machine Speech, Fundamental Rights, Autonomy, Theories of Rights

4.

Constraining Public Employee Speech: Government's Control of its Workers' Speech to Protect its Own Expression

Duke Law Journal, Vol. 59, No. 1, 2009, U of Colorado Law Legal Studies Research Paper No. 09-16
Number of pages: 69 Posted: 12 Mar 2009 Last Revised: 19 Sep 2018
Helen L. Norton
University of Colorado Law School
Downloads 253 (112,792)

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First Amendment, government speech, Garcetti, Pickering, public employees, government workers, free speech

5.

The Supreme Court's Post-Racial Turn Towards A Zero-Sum Understanding of Equality

William & Mary Law Review, Vol. 52, p. 197, 2010, U of Colorado Law Legal Studies Research Paper No. 10-13
Number of pages: 63 Posted: 05 Apr 2010 Last Revised: 19 Sep 2018
Helen L. Norton
University of Colorado Law School
Downloads 183 (154,230)

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Ricci, disparate impact, constitutional law, equal protection, employment discrimination, civil rights

6.

Government Speech 2.0

Denver University Law Review, Vol. 87, p. 899, 2010, U of Colorado Law Legal Studies Research Paper No. 10-10, U of Maryland Legal Studies Research Paper No. 2010-12
Number of pages: 46 Posted: 28 Jul 2010 Last Revised: 19 Sep 2018
Helen L. Norton and Danielle Keats Citron
University of Colorado Law School and University of Maryland Francis King Carey School of Law
Downloads 180 (156,501)
Citation 1

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First Amendment, government speech, constitutional law, cyberlaw, Twitter, social media, transparency

7.

The Measure of Government Speech: Identifying Expression's Source

Boston University Law Review, Vol. 88, No. 587, 2008, U of Colorado Law Legal Studies Research Paper No. 08-14
Number of pages: 46 Posted: 30 Jun 2008 Last Revised: 19 Sep 2018
Helen L. Norton
University of Colorado Law School
Downloads 167 (167,155)
Citation 1

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first amendment, government speech, transparency, Johanns

8.

Truth and Lies in the Workplace: Employer Speech and the First Amendment

Minnesota Law Review, Vol. 101, 2016
Number of pages: 56 Posted: 28 Feb 2016 Last Revised: 29 Oct 2016
Helen L. Norton
University of Colorado Law School
Downloads 166 (168,027)

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First Amendment, employer speech, commercial speech, workers' rights, constitutional law

9.

The Government's Lies and the Constitution

91 Indiana Law Journal 73 (2015)
Number of pages: 48 Posted: 07 Mar 2015 Last Revised: 25 Sep 2018
Helen L. Norton
University of Colorado Law School
Downloads 156 (177,264)

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government lies, government falsehoods, government deception, government disloyalty, government coercion, lies, falsehoods, first amendment, due process

10.

The Equal Protection Implications of Government's Hateful Speech

54 William and Mary Law Review 159 (2012), U of Colorado Law Legal Studies Research Paper No. 12-05
Number of pages: 53 Posted: 28 Mar 2012 Last Revised: 12 Oct 2012
Helen L. Norton
University of Colorado Law School
Downloads 119 (219,905)

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government speech, hate speech, equal protection, first amendment

11.

Reshaping Federal Jurisdiction: Congress's Latest Challenge to Judicial Review

Wake Forest Law Review, Vol. 41, pp. 1003-1043, 2006, University of Maryland Legal Studies Research Paper No. 2006-41
Number of pages: 42 Posted: 30 Nov 2006
Helen L. Norton
University of Colorado Law School
Downloads 119 (219,905)
Citation 5

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12.

Lies and the Constitution

2012 Supreme Court Review 161 (2013), U of Colorado Law Legal Studies Research Paper No. 13-2
Number of pages: 31 Posted: 12 Feb 2013 Last Revised: 27 Aug 2017
Helen L. Norton
University of Colorado Law School
Downloads 115 (225,514)

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First Amendment, lies, falsehoods, Alvarez

13.

You Can't Ask (or Say) that: The First Amendment and Civil Rights Restrictions on Decisionmaker Speech

William & Mary Bill of Rights Journal, Vol. 11, p. 727-778, 2003, U of Maryland Legal Studies Research Paper No. 2003-7
Number of pages: 53 Posted: 27 Oct 2003 Last Revised: 19 Sep 2018
Helen L. Norton
University of Colorado Law School
Downloads 115 (225,514)

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civil rights, First Amendment, commercial speech, employer speech, housing law, inquiry ban, reliance ban, employer inquiries

14.

Government Workers and Government Speech

First Amendment Law Review, Vol. 7, 2008
Number of pages: 17 Posted: 29 Oct 2008 Last Revised: 24 Nov 2008
Helen L. Norton
University of Colorado Law School
Downloads 97 (253,950)

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First Amendment, public employees, government speech, civil rights

15.

Campaign Speech Law with a Twist: When the Government is the Speaker, Not the Regulator

Emory Law Journal, Vol. 61, p. 209, 2011, U of Colorado Law Legal Studies Research Paper No. 08-11
Number of pages: 57 Posted: 11 May 2011 Last Revised: 13 Apr 2012
Helen L. Norton
University of Colorado Law School
Downloads 89 (268,359)

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constitutional law, First Amendment, government speech, election law, campaign finance reform

16.

Not for Attribution: Government's Interest in Protecting the Integrity of its Own Expression

U.C. Davis Law Review, Vol. 37, pp. 1317-1350, 2003-2004, U of Maryland Legal Studies Research Paper No. 2006-35
Number of pages: 35 Posted: 21 Jun 2004
Helen L. Norton
University of Colorado Law School
Downloads 88 (270,235)
Citation 1

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First Amendment, government speech, expressive integrity

17.

Government Lies and the Press Clause

89 U. Colo. L. Rev. 453 (2018)
Number of pages: 23 Posted: 14 Jul 2017 Last Revised: 25 Sep 2018
Helen L. Norton
University of Colorado Law School
Downloads 87 (272,215)

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government speech, lies, falsehoods, First Amendment, Press Clause, free speech, free press

18.

Government Speech and the War on Terror

86 Fordham Law Review 543 (2017), U of Colorado Law Legal Studies Research Paper No. 17-13
Number of pages: 21 Posted: 14 Jul 2017 Last Revised: 01 Dec 2017
Helen L. Norton
University of Colorado Law School
Downloads 86 (274,163)

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constitutional law, government speech, war, national security, free speech, First Amendment, due process, equal protection

19.

The Government's Manufacture of Doubt

16 First Am. L. Rev. 342 (2018), U of Colorado Law Legal Studies Research Paper No. 18-1
Number of pages: 25 Posted: 10 Jan 2018 Last Revised: 19 Sep 2018
Helen L. Norton
University of Colorado Law School
Downloads 85 (276,108)

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government speech, lies and misrepresentations, manufacture of doubt, first amendment, government lies, government secrets

20.

Stepping Through Grutter's Open Doors: What the University of Michigan Affirmative Action Cases Mean for Race-Conscious Government Decisionmaking

Temple Law Review, Vol. 78, No. 3, p. 543-578, Fall 2005 , U of Maryland Legal Studies Research Paper No. 2005-47
Number of pages: 37 Posted: 25 Aug 2005
Helen L. Norton
University of Colorado Law School
Downloads 84 (278,162)

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Constitutional law, affirmative action, diversity, equal protection, employment, financial aid

21.

Setting the Tipping Point for Disclosing the Identity of Anonymous Online Speakers: Lessons from Other Disclosure Contexts

Wake Forest Law Review, Vol. 49, 2014
Number of pages: 17 Posted: 20 May 2014
Helen L. Norton
University of Colorado Law School
Downloads 68 (314,126)

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disclosure, anonymous, online

22.

Government Speech in Transition

57 S. Dak. L. Rev. 421 (2012), U of Colorado Law Legal Studies Research Paper No. 12-14
Number of pages: 7 Posted: 13 Jul 2012 Last Revised: 15 Dec 2012
Helen L. Norton
University of Colorado Law School
Downloads 52 (358,604)

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23.

Secrets, Lies, and Disclosure

27 Journal of Law & Politics 641 (2012), U of Colorado Law Legal Studies Research Paper No. 12-17
Number of pages: 15 Posted: 13 Aug 2012
Helen L. Norton
University of Colorado Law School
Downloads 49 (368,018)

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First Amendment, campaign finance, disclosure, election, constitutional law

24.

Shining a Light on Democracy's Dark Lagoon

South Carolina Law Review, Vol. 61, No. 535, 2010, U of Colorado Law Legal Studies Research Paper No. 10-17
Number of pages: 15 Posted: 09 Jun 2010
Helen L. Norton
University of Colorado Law School
Downloads 44 (384,586)

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first amendment, government speech

25.

Remedies and the Government's Constitutionally Harmful Speech

9 ConLawNOW 49 (2018), U of Colorado Law Legal Studies Research Paper No. 18-35
Number of pages: 16 Posted: 10 Jan 2018 Last Revised: 08 Oct 2018
Helen L. Norton
University of Colorado Law School
Downloads 39 (402,493)

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remedies, Constitution, government speech, government lies, First Amendment, injunctions, declaratory relief, equal protection

26.

Employers' Duties of Honesty and Accuracy

21 Employee Rights and Employment Policy Journal 575 (2017)
Number of pages: 13 Posted: 05 Jan 2017 Last Revised: 07 Mar 2018
Helen L. Norton
University of Colorado Law School
Downloads 37 (410,331)

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Employer Speech, Fraudulent Misrepresentation, Negligent Misrepsentation

27.

Imaginary Threats to Government's Expressive Interests

Case Western Reserve Law Review, Forthcoming, University of Colorado Law Legal Studies Research Paper No. 05-11
Number of pages: 20 Posted: 12 Apr 2011
Helen L. Norton
University of Colorado Law School
Downloads 32 (430,562)

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constitutional law, First Amendment, government speech, student speech

28.

Powerful Speakers and Their Listeners

University of Colorado Law Review, Forthcoming, U of Colorado Law Legal Studies Research Paper No. 18-29
Number of pages: 25 Posted: 22 Aug 2018 Last Revised: 19 Sep 2018
Helen L. Norton
University of Colorado Law School
Downloads 30 (439,254)

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First Amendment, listeners, deception, coercion, powerful speakers, commercial speech, professional speech, employer speech, reproductive health care speech, vulnerable listeners, free speech

29.

(At Least) Thirteen Ways of Looking at Election Lies

71 Oklahoma L. Rev. 117 (2018), U of Colorado Law Legal Studies Research Paper No. 18-27
Number of pages: 24 Posted: 08 Aug 2018 Last Revised: 19 Sep 2018
Helen L. Norton
University of Colorado Law School
Downloads 30 (439,254)

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elections, campaigns, lies, falsehoods, First Amendment, free speech, election lies, campaign lies, voting lies

30.

Government Speech and Political Courage

68 Stan. L. Rev. Online 61 (2015)
Number of pages: 7 Posted: 26 Sep 2016
Helen L. Norton
University of Colorado Law School
Downloads 29 (443,892)

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government speech, First Amendment, confederate flag

31.

Robotic Speakers and Human Listeners

41 Seattle University Law Review 1145 (2018), U of Colorado Law Legal Studies Research Paper No. 18-30
Number of pages: 8 Posted: 06 Sep 2018 Last Revised: 01 Oct 2018
Helen L. Norton
University of Colorado Law School
Downloads 26 (458,669)

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artificial intelligence, robots, free speech, listeners, speakers First Amendment, robotics