Helen L. Norton

University of Colorado Law School

Associate Professor of Law

401 UCB

Boulder, CO 80309

United States

SCHOLARLY PAPERS

35

DOWNLOADS
Rank 7,923

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Top 7,923

in Total Papers Downloads

7,201

SSRN CITATIONS
Rank 42,645

SSRN RANKINGS

Top 42,645

in Total Papers Citations

7

CROSSREF CITATIONS

10

Scholarly Papers (35)

1.

Intermediaries and Hate Speech: Fostering Digital Citizenship for Our Information Age

Boston University Law Review, Vol. 91, p. 1435, 2011, U of Maryland Legal Studies Research Paper No. 2011-16
Number of pages: 51 Posted: 21 Feb 2011 Last Revised: 11 Mar 2014
Danielle Keats Citron and Helen L. Norton
University of Virginia School of Law and University of Colorado Law School
Downloads 1,823 (11,068)
Citation 1

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cyber hate, hate speech, digital citizenship

2.

Siri-ously? Free Speech Rights and Artificial Intelligence

110 Northwestern University Law Review 1169 (2016), Arizona Legal Studies Discussion Paper No. 15-29
Number of pages: 27 Posted: 14 Aug 2015 Last Revised: 06 Oct 2016
Toni M. Massaro and Helen L. Norton
University of Arizona College of Law and University of Colorado Law School
Downloads 894 (32,498)
Citation 1

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first amendment, freedom of speech, speech theory, constitutional law, constitutional theory, personhood, computer speech, robots, artificial intelligence, strong artificial intelligence, machine speech, fundamental rights, autonomy, theories of rights

3.

Free Speech and Democracy: A Primer for 21st Century Reformers

54 UC Davis Law Review 1631 (2021), Arizona Legal Studies Discussion Paper No. 20-27, U of Colorado Law Legal Studies Research Paper No. 20-43
Number of pages: 55 Posted: 18 Jun 2020 Last Revised: 26 Feb 2021
Toni M. Massaro and Helen L. Norton
University of Arizona College of Law and University of Colorado Law School
Downloads 775 (39,608)

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Constitutional law, first Amendment, democracy, free speech, political speech, separation of powers, federalism, state action doctrine, liberalism

4.

SIRI-OUSLY 2.0: What Artificial Intelligence Reveals about the First Amendment

101 Minnesota Law Review 2481 (2017), Arizona Legal Studies Discussion Paper No. 17-01, Ohio State Public Law Working Paper No. 374, U of Colorado Law Legal Studies Research Paper No. 17-3
Number of pages: 47 Posted: 10 Jan 2017 Last Revised: 27 Sep 2017
Toni M. Massaro, Helen L. Norton and Margot E. Kaminski
University of Arizona College of Law, University of Colorado Law School and University of Colorado Law School
Downloads 596 (56,114)
Citation 1

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First Amendment, Freedom of Speech, Speech Theory, Constitutional Law, Constitutional Theory, Personhood, Computer Speech, Robots, Artificial Intelligence, Strong Artificial Intelligence, Machine Speech, Fundamental Rights, Autonomy, Theories of Rights

5.

Constraining Public Employee Speech: Government's Control of its Workers' Speech to Protect its Own Expression

Duke Law Journal, Vol. 59, No. 1, 2009, U of Colorado Law Legal Studies Research Paper No. 09-16
Number of pages: 69 Posted: 12 Mar 2009 Last Revised: 19 Sep 2018
Helen L. Norton
University of Colorado Law School
Downloads 269 (140,832)
Citation 1

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First Amendment, government speech, Garcetti, Pickering, public employees, government workers, free speech

6.

Government Speech 2.0

Denver University Law Review, Vol. 87, p. 899, 2010, U of Colorado Law Legal Studies Research Paper No. 10-10, U of Maryland Legal Studies Research Paper No. 2010-12
Number of pages: 46 Posted: 28 Jul 2010 Last Revised: 19 Sep 2018
Helen L. Norton and Danielle Keats Citron
University of Colorado Law School and University of Virginia School of Law
Downloads 203 (184,094)

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First Amendment, government speech, constitutional law, cyberlaw, Twitter, social media, transparency

7.

Truth and Lies in the Workplace: Employer Speech and the First Amendment

Minnesota Law Review, Vol. 101, 2016
Number of pages: 56 Posted: 28 Feb 2016 Last Revised: 29 Oct 2016
Helen L. Norton
University of Colorado Law School
Downloads 194 (191,899)
Citation 1

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First Amendment, employer speech, commercial speech, workers' rights, constitutional law

8.

The Supreme Court's Post-Racial Turn Towards A Zero-Sum Understanding of Equality

William & Mary Law Review, Vol. 52, p. 197, 2010, U of Colorado Law Legal Studies Research Paper No. 10-13
Number of pages: 63 Posted: 05 Apr 2010 Last Revised: 19 Sep 2018
Helen L. Norton
University of Colorado Law School
Downloads 193 (192,763)

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Ricci, disparate impact, constitutional law, equal protection, employment discrimination, civil rights

9.

The Government's Lies and the Constitution

91 Indiana Law Journal 73 (2015)
Number of pages: 48 Posted: 07 Mar 2015 Last Revised: 25 Sep 2018
Helen L. Norton
University of Colorado Law School
Downloads 175 (210,105)

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government lies, government falsehoods, government deception, government disloyalty, government coercion, lies, falsehoods, first amendment, due process

10.

The Measure of Government Speech: Identifying Expression's Source

Boston University Law Review, Vol. 88, No. 587, 2008, U of Colorado Law Legal Studies Research Paper No. 08-14
Number of pages: 46 Posted: 30 Jun 2008 Last Revised: 19 Sep 2018
Helen L. Norton
University of Colorado Law School
Downloads 174 (211,123)

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first amendment, government speech, transparency, Johanns

11.

Lies and the Constitution

2012 Supreme Court Review 161 (2013), U of Colorado Law Legal Studies Research Paper No. 13-2
Number of pages: 31 Posted: 12 Feb 2013 Last Revised: 27 Aug 2017
Helen L. Norton
University of Colorado Law School
Downloads 131 (266,271)
Citation 2

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First Amendment, lies, falsehoods, Alvarez

12.

The Government's Manufacture of Doubt

16 First Am. L. Rev. 342 (2018), U of Colorado Law Legal Studies Research Paper No. 18-1
Number of pages: 25 Posted: 10 Jan 2018 Last Revised: 18 Jul 2019
Helen L. Norton
University of Colorado Law School
Downloads 123 (279,139)

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government speech, lies and misrepresentations, manufacture of doubt, first amendment, government lies, government secrets

13.

The Equal Protection Implications of Government's Hateful Speech

54 William and Mary Law Review 159 (2012), U of Colorado Law Legal Studies Research Paper No. 12-05
Number of pages: 53 Posted: 28 Mar 2012 Last Revised: 12 Oct 2012
Helen L. Norton
University of Colorado Law School
Downloads 123 (279,139)

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government speech, hate speech, equal protection, first amendment

14.

Reshaping Federal Jurisdiction: Congress's Latest Challenge to Judicial Review

Wake Forest Law Review, Vol. 41, pp. 1003-1043, 2006, University of Maryland Legal Studies Research Paper No. 2006-41
Number of pages: 42 Posted: 30 Nov 2006
Helen L. Norton
University of Colorado Law School
Downloads 121 (282,605)

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15.

You Can't Ask (or Say) that: The First Amendment and Civil Rights Restrictions on Decisionmaker Speech

William & Mary Bill of Rights Journal, Vol. 11, p. 727-778, 2003, U of Maryland Legal Studies Research Paper No. 2003-7
Number of pages: 53 Posted: 27 Oct 2003 Last Revised: 19 Sep 2018
Helen L. Norton
University of Colorado Law School
Downloads 121 (282,605)
Citation 1

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civil rights, First Amendment, commercial speech, employer speech, housing law, inquiry ban, reliance ban, employer inquiries

16.

Government Lies and the Press Clause

89 U. Colo. L. Rev. 453 (2018)
Number of pages: 23 Posted: 14 Jul 2017 Last Revised: 02 Jul 2019
Helen L. Norton
University of Colorado Law School
Downloads 117 (289,419)

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government speech, lies, falsehoods, First Amendment, Press Clause, free speech, free press

17.

Campaign Speech Law with a Twist: When the Government is the Speaker, Not the Regulator

Emory Law Journal, Vol. 61, p. 209, 2011, U of Colorado Law Legal Studies Research Paper No. 08-11
Number of pages: 57 Posted: 11 May 2011 Last Revised: 13 Apr 2012
Helen L. Norton
University of Colorado Law School
Downloads 105 (311,931)

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constitutional law, First Amendment, government speech, election law, campaign finance reform

18.

Government Workers and Government Speech

First Amendment Law Review, Vol. 7, 2008
Number of pages: 17 Posted: 29 Oct 2008 Last Revised: 24 Nov 2008
Helen L. Norton
University of Colorado Law School
Downloads 102 (318,137)

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First Amendment, public employees, government speech, civil rights

19.

Government Speech and the War on Terror

86 Fordham Law Review 543 (2017), U of Colorado Law Legal Studies Research Paper No. 17-13
Number of pages: 21 Posted: 14 Jul 2017 Last Revised: 01 Dec 2017
Helen L. Norton
University of Colorado Law School
Downloads 92 (339,864)

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constitutional law, government speech, war, national security, free speech, First Amendment, due process, equal protection

20.

Not for Attribution: Government's Interest in Protecting the Integrity of its Own Expression

U.C. Davis Law Review, Vol. 37, pp. 1317-1350, 2003-2004, U of Maryland Legal Studies Research Paper No. 2006-35
Number of pages: 35 Posted: 21 Jun 2004
Helen L. Norton
University of Colorado Law School
Downloads 88 (349,535)

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First Amendment, government speech, expressive integrity

21.

Stepping Through Grutter's Open Doors: What the University of Michigan Affirmative Action Cases Mean for Race-Conscious Government Decisionmaking

Temple Law Review, Vol. 78, No. 3, p. 543-578, Fall 2005 , U of Maryland Legal Studies Research Paper No. 2005-47
Number of pages: 37 Posted: 25 Aug 2005
Helen L. Norton
University of Colorado Law School
Downloads 85 (356,954)

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Constitutional law, affirmative action, diversity, equal protection, employment, financial aid

22.

Discrimination, The Speech That Enables It, And The First Amendment

2020 U. Chi. L. For. 209 (2020), 2020 University of Chicago Legal Forum 209 (2020), U of Colorado Law Legal Studies Research Paper No. 20-37
Number of pages: 46 Posted: 14 Jul 2020 Last Revised: 13 Jan 2021
Helen L. Norton
University of Colorado Law School
Downloads 77 (378,290)

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discrimination, civil rights, First Amendment, free speech, employment, housing

23.

Setting the Tipping Point for Disclosing the Identity of Anonymous Online Speakers: Lessons from Other Disclosure Contexts

Wake Forest Law Review, Vol. 49, 2014
Number of pages: 17 Posted: 20 May 2014
Helen L. Norton
University of Colorado Law School
Downloads 73 (389,729)

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disclosure, anonymous, online

24.

Powerful Speakers and Their Listeners

90 U. Colo. L. Rev. 441 (2019), U of Colorado Law Legal Studies Research Paper No. 18-29
Number of pages: 33 Posted: 22 Aug 2018 Last Revised: 30 Oct 2019
Helen L. Norton
University of Colorado Law School
Downloads 60 (431,789)

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First Amendment, listeners, deception, coercion, powerful speakers, commercial speech, professional speech, employer speech, reproductive health care speech, vulnerable listeners, free speech

25.

Government Speech in Transition

57 S. Dak. L. Rev. 421 (2012), U of Colorado Law Legal Studies Research Paper No. 12-14
Number of pages: 7 Posted: 13 Jul 2012 Last Revised: 15 Dec 2012
Helen L. Norton
University of Colorado Law School
Downloads 55 (449,916)

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26.

Secrets, Lies, and Disclosure

27 Journal of Law & Politics 641 (2012), U of Colorado Law Legal Studies Research Paper No. 12-17
Number of pages: 15 Posted: 13 Aug 2012
Helen L. Norton
University of Colorado Law School
Downloads 54 (453,564)

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First Amendment, campaign finance, disclosure, election, constitutional law

27.

The Government's Speech and the Constitution - Introduction (Excerpt)

The Government's Speech and the Constitution (Cambridge University Press 2019), U of Colorado Law Legal Studies Research Paper No. 19-26
Number of pages: 10 Posted: 09 Aug 2019 Last Revised: 30 Oct 2019
Helen L. Norton
University of Colorado Law School
Downloads 53 (457,375)

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government speech, constitutional law, first amendment, free speech law, due process clause, equal protetion clause, establishment clause, remedies, accountability, lies, falsehoods

28.

(At Least) Thirteen Ways of Looking at Election Lies

71 Oklahoma L. Rev. 117 (2018), U of Colorado Law Legal Studies Research Paper No. 18-27
Number of pages: 24 Posted: 08 Aug 2018 Last Revised: 30 Oct 2019
Helen L. Norton
University of Colorado Law School
Downloads 50 (469,116)

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elections, campaigns, lies, falsehoods, First Amendment, free speech, election lies, campaign lies, voting lies

29.

Shining a Light on Democracy's Dark Lagoon

South Carolina Law Review, Vol. 61, No. 535, 2010, U of Colorado Law Legal Studies Research Paper No. 10-17
Number of pages: 15 Posted: 09 Jun 2010
Helen L. Norton
University of Colorado Law School
Downloads 47 (481,351)

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first amendment, government speech

30.

Remedies and the Government's Constitutionally Harmful Speech

9 ConLawNOW 49 (2018), U of Colorado Law Legal Studies Research Paper No. 18-35
Number of pages: 16 Posted: 10 Jan 2018 Last Revised: 08 Oct 2018
Helen L. Norton
University of Colorado Law School
Downloads 44 (494,329)

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remedies, Constitution, government speech, government lies, First Amendment, injunctions, declaratory relief, equal protection

31.

Employers' Duties of Honesty and Accuracy

21 Employee Rights and Employment Policy Journal 575 (2017)
Number of pages: 13 Posted: 05 Jan 2017 Last Revised: 07 Mar 2018
Helen L. Norton
University of Colorado Law School
Downloads 43 (498,759)

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Employer Speech, Fraudulent Misrepresentation, Negligent Misrepsentation

32.

Robotic Speakers and Human Listeners

41 Seattle University Law Review 1145 (2018), U of Colorado Law Legal Studies Research Paper No. 18-30
Number of pages: 8 Posted: 06 Sep 2018 Last Revised: 30 Oct 2019
Helen L. Norton
University of Colorado Law School
Downloads 41 (507,816)

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artificial intelligence, robots, free speech, listeners, speakers First Amendment, robotics

33.

Imaginary Threats to Government's Expressive Interests

Case Western Reserve Law Review, Forthcoming, University of Colorado Law Legal Studies Research Paper No. 05-11
Number of pages: 20 Posted: 12 Apr 2011
Helen L. Norton
University of Colorado Law School
Downloads 35 (536,998)

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constitutional law, First Amendment, government speech, student speech

34.

Government Speech and Political Courage

68 Stan. L. Rev. Online 61 (2015)
Number of pages: 7 Posted: 26 Sep 2016
Helen L. Norton
University of Colorado Law School
Downloads 33 (547,544)

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government speech, First Amendment, confederate flag

35.

Pregnancy and the First Amendment

87 Fordham Law Review 2417 (2019), U of Colorado Law Legal Studies Research Paper No. 19-20
Number of pages: 16 Posted: 24 May 2019 Last Revised: 30 Oct 2019
Helen L. Norton
University of Colorado Law School
Downloads 32 (552,853)

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pregnancy, First Amendment, reproductive rights, professional speech, listeners' rights