Wilko Bolt

De Nederlandsche Bank (Dutch Central Bank)

P.O. Box 98

1000 AB Amsterdam

Netherlands

VU University Amsterdam

De Boelelaan 1105

Amsterdam, ND North Holland 1081 HV

Netherlands

SCHOLARLY PAPERS

30

DOWNLOADS
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Top 8,498

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10,240

SSRN CITATIONS
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SSRN RANKINGS

Top 6,083

in Total Papers Citations

186

CROSSREF CITATIONS

117

Scholarly Papers (30)

1.

Getting the Balance Right: Crypto, Stablecoin and CBDC

De Nederlandsche Bank Working Paper No. 736, 2022
Number of pages: 21 Posted: 25 Jan 2022
Wilko Bolt, Vera Lubbersen and Peter Wierts
De Nederlandsche Bank (Dutch Central Bank), De Nederlandsche Bank and Bank for International Settlements (BIS)
Downloads 1,059 (40,504)

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digital payments, crypto’s, stablecoins, CBDC, regulation

2.
Downloads 1,023 (42,591)
Citation 46

On the Value of Virtual Currencies

Bank of Canada Working Paper No. 2016-42
Number of pages: 40 Posted: 22 Apr 2016 Last Revised: 01 Sep 2016
Wilko Bolt and Maarten R.C. van Oordt
De Nederlandsche Bank (Dutch Central Bank) and VU University Amsterdam
Downloads 660 (75,718)
Citation 12

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Virtual currencies, exchange rates, payment systems, speculation, bitcoin, blockchain, cryptocurrencies

On the Value of Virtual Currencies

De Nederlandsche Bank Working Paper No. 521
Number of pages: 41 Posted: 24 Sep 2016
Wilko Bolt and Maarten R.C. van Oordt
De Nederlandsche Bank (Dutch Central Bank) and VU University Amsterdam
Downloads 363 (155,982)
Citation 41

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virtual currencies, exchange rates, payment systems, speculation, bitcoin

3.

Economics of Payment Cards: A Status Report

Economic Perspectives, Vol. 32, No. 4, 2008
Number of pages: 13 Posted: 10 Nov 2008
Wilko Bolt and Sujit Chakravorti
De Nederlandsche Bank (Dutch Central Bank) and Chakra Advisors LLC
Downloads 721 (68,547)
Citation 1

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retail financial services, payment card networks, competition, Production, Pricing, and Market Structure, Size Distribution of Firms, Banks, Other Depository Institutions, Micro Finance Institutions, Mortgages, Financial Markets

4.

Pricing in Retail Payment Systems: A Public Policy Perspective on Pricing of Payment Cards

De Nederlandsche Bank Working Paper No. 331
Number of pages: 34 Posted: 03 Jan 2012
Wilko Bolt and Sujit Chakravorti
De Nederlandsche Bank (Dutch Central Bank) and Chakra Advisors LLC
Downloads 700 (71,214)
Citation 7

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retail payments, market interventions, pricing, public policy

The Global Macroeconomics of a Trade War. The Eagle Model on the US-China Trade Conflict

De Nederlandsche Bank Working Paper No. 623, 2019
Number of pages: 30 Posted: 05 Feb 2019
De Nederlandsche Bank (Dutch Central Bank), De Nederlandsche Bank and Universiteit van Amsterdam
Downloads 535 (98,808)
Citation 6

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flash crash, spillovers, financial stability, connectedness

The Global Macroeconomics of a Trade War: The EAGLE Model on the US-China Trade Conflict

Tinbergen Institute Discussion Paper 2019-015/VIII
Number of pages: 28 Posted: 12 Mar 2019
De Nederlandsche Bank (Dutch Central Bank), De Nederlandsche Bank and Universiteit van Amsterdam
Downloads 100 (503,785)
Citation 2

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Trade Policy, Exchange Rates, Trade Diversion, Local Currency Pricing

The Global Macroeconomics of a Trade War: the Eagle Model on the Us-China Trade Conflict

CEPR Discussion Paper No. DP13495
Number of pages: 29 Posted: 04 Feb 2019
De Nederlandsche Bank (Dutch Central Bank), De Nederlandsche Bank and Universiteit van Amsterdam
Downloads 4 (1,178,575)
Citation 2
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Exchange Rates, Local Currency Pricing, trade diversion, trade policy

6.

The Effect of Transaction Pricing on the Adoption of Electronic Payments: A Cross-Country Comparison.

FRB Philadelphia Working Paper No. 05-28
Number of pages: 28 Posted: 22 Dec 2005
De Nederlandsche Bank (Dutch Central Bank), Florida State University - Department of Finance and Bank of the Netherlands - Research Department
Downloads 433 (128,754)
Citation 12

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Electronic payments, Transaction pricing, Demand elasticity, Social benefits

7.
Downloads 414 (135,592)
Citation 12

Pandemic Payment Patterns

De Nederlandsche Bank Working Paper No. 701
Number of pages: 40 Posted: 05 Jan 2021
De Nederlandsche Bank (DNB), De Nederlandsche Bank, University of Amsterdam - SEO Economic Research and De Nederlandsche Bank (Dutch Central Bank)
Downloads 293 (196,361)
Citation 13

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COVID-19, consumer payment behaviour, consumption, payment diary data

Pandemic Payment Patterns

TILEC Discussion Paper No. 2020-033
Number of pages: 37 Posted: 04 Feb 2021 Last Revised: 10 Mar 2021
De Nederlandsche Bank (DNB), De Nederlandsche Bank, University of Amsterdam - SEO Economic Research and De Nederlandsche Bank (Dutch Central Bank)
Downloads 121 (436,976)
Citation 7

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COVID-19, consumer payment behaviour, consumption, payment diary data

8.
Downloads 380 (149,419)
Citation 3

SEPA, Efficiency, and Payment Card Competition

ECB Working Paper No. 1140
Number of pages: 43 Posted: 17 Jan 2010
Wilko Bolt and Heiko Schmiedel
De Nederlandsche Bank (Dutch Central Bank) and European Central Bank - Securities Settlement Systems Policy Division
Downloads 297 (193,633)
Citation 2

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SEPA, card network competition, optimal pricing, economic welfare

SEPA, Efficiency, and Payment Card Competition

De Nederlandsche Bank Working Paper No. 239
Number of pages: 40 Posted: 21 Oct 2011
Wilko Bolt and Heiko Schmiedel
De Nederlandsche Bank (Dutch Central Bank) and European Central Bank - Securities Settlement Systems Policy Division
Downloads 83 (568,961)
Citation 5

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SEPA, card network competition, optimal pricing, economic welfare

9.

Retail Payment Systems: Competition, Innovation, and Implications

De Nederlandsche Bank Working Paper No. 362
Number of pages: 27 Posted: 22 Dec 2012
Wilko Bolt
De Nederlandsche Bank (Dutch Central Bank)
Downloads 373 (152,582)
Citation 3

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Payments, pricing, competition, innovation

10.

Digitization of Retail Payment

De Nederlandsche Bank Working Paper No. 270
Number of pages: 46 Posted: 27 Oct 2011
Wilko Bolt and Sujit Chakravorti
De Nederlandsche Bank (Dutch Central Bank) and Chakra Advisors LLC
Downloads 364 (156,774)
Citation 6

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retail financial services, electronic payments, pricing, public policy

11.

Public Good Issues in Target: Natural Monopoly, Scale Economies, Network Effects and Cost Allocation

ECB Working Paper No. 505
Number of pages: 24 Posted: 29 Jul 2005
Wilko Bolt and David B. Humphrey
De Nederlandsche Bank (Dutch Central Bank) and Florida State University - Department of Finance
Downloads 362 (157,748)
Citation 1

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public good, natural monopoly, most efficient scale, partial subsidy

12.

Skewed Pricing in Two-Sided Markets: An Io Approach

Number of pages: 21 Posted: 10 Feb 2005
Wilko Bolt and Alexander F. Tieman
De Nederlandsche Bank (Dutch Central Bank) and International Monetary Fund (IMF)
Downloads 333 (172,653)
Citation 13

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Two-sided markets, skewed pricing, corner solution, social optimum

13.

Payment Network Scale Economies, SEPA, and Cash Replacement

FRB of Philadelphia Working Paper No. 07-32
Number of pages: 29 Posted: 16 Jan 2008
Wilko Bolt and David B. Humphrey
De Nederlandsche Bank (Dutch Central Bank) and Florida State University - Department of Finance
Downloads 332 (173,190)
Citation 5

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Debit cards, scale economies, SEPA, cash replacement

14.

Banking Competition, Risk, and Regulation

IMF Working Paper No. 04/11
Number of pages: 26 Posted: 15 Feb 2006
Wilko Bolt and Alexander F. Tieman
De Nederlandsche Bank (Dutch Central Bank) and International Monetary Fund (IMF)
Downloads 329 (174,890)

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Banking competition, risk profile, failure rate, capital adequacy requirements

15.

Pricing Electronic Payments Services: An Io Approach

Number of pages: 29 Posted: 23 Jul 2003
Alexander F. Tieman and Wilko Bolt
International Monetary Fund (IMF) and De Nederlandsche Bank (Dutch Central Bank)
Downloads 299 (193,564)
Citation 1

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electronic payment systems, double monopoly, pricing, system competition

16.

Consumer Choice and Merchant Acceptance of Payment Media

FRB of Chicago Working Paper No. 2008-11
Number of pages: 47 Posted: 29 Nov 2008
Wilko Bolt and Sujit Chakravorti
De Nederlandsche Bank (Dutch Central Bank) and Chakra Advisors LLC
Downloads 291 (199,768)
Citation 22

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Retail Financial Services, Network Effects, Social Welfare, Multihoming

Identifying Booms and Busts in House Prices Under Heterogeneous Expectations

De Nederlandsche Bank Working Paper No. 450
Number of pages: 43 Posted: 04 Dec 2014
De Nederlandsche Bank (Dutch Central Bank), Bruegel, University of Amsterdam - Faculty of Economics and Business (FEB), Government of Canada - Bank of Canada and CeNDEF, University of Amsterdam
Downloads 211 (271,859)
Citation 16

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housing prices, heterogenous agents model, bounded rationality, bubbles

Identifying Booms and Busts in House Prices Under Heterogeneous Expectations

Tinbergen Institute Discussion Paper 14-157/II
Number of pages: 40 Posted: 24 Dec 2014
De Nederlandsche Bank (Dutch Central Bank), Bruegel, University of Amsterdam - Faculty of Economics and Business (FEB), Government of Canada - Bank of Canada and CeNDEF, University of Amsterdam
Downloads 73 (614,316)
Citation 16

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housing prices, heterogenous agents model, bounded rationality, bubbles

18.

Retail Payments and Card Use in the Netherlands: Pricing, Scale, and Antitrust

Competition Policy International, Vol. 3, No. 1, Spring 2007
Number of pages: 15 Posted: 23 May 2007
Wilko Bolt
De Nederlandsche Bank (Dutch Central Bank)
Downloads 240 (241,456)
Citation 1

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multi-sided platforms, two-sided markets, two-sided platforms, card payments, payment systems, scale economies

19.
Downloads 196 (291,717)
Citation 1

Competition in Bank-Provided Payment Services

FRB of Philadelphia Working Paper No. 13-17
Number of pages: 28 Posted: 11 May 2013
Wilko Bolt and David B. Humphrey
De Nederlandsche Bank (Dutch Central Bank) and Florida State University - Department of Finance
Downloads 71 (624,112)

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Payments, competition, banks, frontier analysis

Competition in Bank-Provided Payment Services

ECB Working Paper No. 1539
Number of pages: 40 Posted: 11 May 2013
Wilko Bolt and David B. Humphrey
De Nederlandsche Bank (Dutch Central Bank) and Florida State University - Department of Finance
Downloads 66 (649,760)

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Payments, competition, banks, frontier analysis

Competition in Bank-Provided Payment Services

De Nederlandsche Bank Working Paper No. 401
Number of pages: 41 Posted: 20 Nov 2013
Wilko Bolt and David B. Humphrey
De Nederlandsche Bank (Dutch Central Bank) and Florida State University - Department of Finance
Downloads 59 (688,892)
Citation 1

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Payments, competition, banks, frontier analysis

20.

Bank Profitability During Recessions

De Nederlandsche Bank Working Paper No. 251
Number of pages: 42 Posted: 24 Oct 2011
De Nederlandsche Bank (Dutch Central Bank), De Nederlandsche Bank, De Nederlandsche Bank - Research Department, VU University Amsterdam and Erasmus University Rotterdam (EUR) - Erasmus School of Economics (ESE)
Downloads 182 (311,850)
Citation 12

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Bank profitability, Business cycle

21.
Downloads 176 (321,305)

Consumer Credit and Payment Cards

De Nederlandsche Bank Working Paper No. 332
Number of pages: 47 Posted: 03 Jan 2012
De Nederlandsche Bank (Dutch Central Bank), affiliation not provided to SSRN and European Central Bank - Securities Settlement Systems Policy Division
Downloads 97 (514,249)

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Payment pricing, Card competition, Consumer credit, Complementarity

Consumer Credit and Payment Cards

ECB Working Paper No. 1387
Number of pages: 49 Posted: 05 Nov 2011
De Nederlandsche Bank (Dutch Central Bank), affiliation not provided to SSRN and European Central Bank - Securities Settlement Systems Policy Division
Downloads 79 (586,658)

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Payment pricing, card competition, consumer credit, complementarity

22.

A Frontier Measure of U.S. Banking Competition

De Nederlandsche Bank Working Paper No. 359
Number of pages: 43 Posted: 10 Dec 2012
Wilko Bolt and David B. Humphrey
De Nederlandsche Bank (Dutch Central Bank) and Florida State University - Department of Finance
Downloads 161 (347,108)
Citation 6

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Competition, banks, frontier analysis

23.

Social Welfare and Cost Recovery in Two-Sided Markets

IMF Working Paper No. 05/194
Number of pages: 14 Posted: 03 Mar 2006
Wilko Bolt and Alexander F. Tieman
De Nederlandsche Bank (Dutch Central Bank) and International Monetary Fund (IMF)
Downloads 148 (372,198)
Citation 2

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Two-sided markets, social optimum, cost recovery, operational losses

24.

Pricing Debit Card Payment Services: An Io Approach

IMF Working Paper No. 03/202
Number of pages: 34 Posted: 14 Feb 2006
Wilko Bolt and Alexander F. Tieman
De Nederlandsche Bank (Dutch Central Bank) and International Monetary Fund (IMF)
Downloads 148 (372,198)

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Debit card payment systems, two-sided monopolistic pricing, social optimum

25.

Tourist Test or Tourist Trap? Unintended Consequences of Debit Card Interchange Fee Regulation

De Nederlandsche Bank Working Paper No. 405
Number of pages: 33 Posted: 21 Dec 2013
Wilko Bolt, Nicole Jonker and Mirjam Plooij
De Nederlandsche Bank (Dutch Central Bank), De Nederlandsche Bank (DNB) and De Nederlandsche Bank
Downloads 143 (382,471)
Citation 6

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Debit cards, Tourist Test, Interchange fee regulation, Perverse effects

26.

Using Debit Card Payments Data for Nowcasting Dutch Household Consumption

De Nederlandsche Bank Working Paper No. 571
Number of pages: 31 Posted: 04 Oct 2017 Last Revised: 12 Oct 2017
Erasmus University Rotterdam (EUR), De Nederlandsche Bank (Dutch Central Bank) and De Nederlandsche Bank
Downloads 128 (417,008)
Citation 2

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Nowcasting, Debit Card Payments, Household Consumption, Midas

27.

Assessing Bank Competition for Consumer Loans

De Nederlandsche Bank Working Paper No. 457
Number of pages: 39 Posted: 23 Jan 2015 Last Revised: 27 Jan 2015
Wilko Bolt and David B. Humphrey
De Nederlandsche Bank (Dutch Central Bank) and Florida State University - Department of Finance
Downloads 122 (432,520)
Citation 4

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consumer loans, bank competition, frontier analysis

28.

The Bank of Amsterdam and the limits of fiat money

De Nederlandsche Bank Working Paper No. 764
Number of pages: 37 Posted: 03 Feb 2023
De Nederlandsche Bank (Dutch Central Bank), Bank for International Settlements, Bank for International Settlements (BIS) and Bank for International Settlements (BIS)
Downloads 106 (479,942)

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central banks, negative equity, fiat money, trust

29.

On Myopic Equilibria in Dynamic Games with Endogenous Discounting

IMF Working Paper No. 06/302
Number of pages: 18 Posted: 19 Jan 2007
Wilko Bolt and Alexander F. Tieman
De Nederlandsche Bank (Dutch Central Bank) and International Monetary Fund (IMF)
Downloads 90 (535,142)

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Banks, Loans, Economic models

30.

Complex Methods in Economics: An Example of Behavioral Heterogeneity in House Prices

De Nederlandsche Bank Working Paper No. 329
Number of pages: 32 Posted: 28 Dec 2011 Last Revised: 16 Feb 2012
De Nederlandsche Bank (Dutch Central Bank), Bruegel, University of Amsterdam - Faculty of Economics and Business (FEB) and CeNDEF, University of Amsterdam
Downloads 64 (649,185)
Citation 2

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critical transitions, heterogenous agents model, bounded rationality, housing prices