Bo Zhao

Federal Reserve Bank of Boston

Senior Economist

600 Atlantic Avenue

T-10

Boston, MA 02210

United States

http://sites.google.com/site/bozhao/

SCHOLARLY PAPERS

40

DOWNLOADS
Rank 44,460

SSRN RANKINGS

Top 44,460

in Total Papers Downloads

1,458

SSRN CITATIONS
Rank 34,596

SSRN RANKINGS

Top 34,596

in Total Papers Citations

7

CROSSREF CITATIONS

16

Scholarly Papers (40)

1.

Forecasting the New England States’ Tax Revenues in the Time of the Covid-19 Pandemic

Federal Reserve Bank of Boston Research Paper Series Current Policy Perspectives Paper No. 88356
Number of pages: 15 Posted: 23 Jul 2020 Last Revised: 30 Jul 2020
Bo Zhao
Federal Reserve Bank of Boston
Downloads 188 (218,495)

Abstract:

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COVID-19, revenue forecasting, state tax revenue, NEPPC

2.

The Effect of Changing Employers’ Access to Criminal Histories on Ex-Offenders’ Labor Market Outcomes: Evidence from the 2010–2012 Massachusetts Cori Reform

FRB of Boston Working Paper No. 16-30
Number of pages: 67 Posted: 28 Mar 2017 Last Revised: 30 Mar 2017
Osborne Jackson and Bo Zhao
Federal Reserve Bank of Boston and Federal Reserve Bank of Boston
Downloads 137 (283,718)

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ex-offenders, criminal history, Massachusetts CORI Reform, ban the box

3.

Does Changing Employers’ Access to Criminal Histories Affect Ex-Offenders’ Recidivism?: Evidence from the 2010–2012 Massachusetts Cori Reform

FRB of Boston Working Paper No. 16-31
Number of pages: 36 Posted: 28 Mar 2017 Last Revised: 30 Mar 2017
Osborne Jackson and Bo Zhao
Federal Reserve Bank of Boston and Federal Reserve Bank of Boston
Downloads 84 (395,201)

Abstract:

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recidivism, ex-offenders, Massachusetts, CORI

4.

Do Credit Market Barriers Exist for Minority and Woman Entrepreneurs?

Syracuse University Center for Policy Research Working Paper No. 74
Number of pages: 54 Posted: 20 Apr 2011
affiliation not provided to SSRN, Federal Reserve Bank of Boston and Syracuse University, Maxwell School of Citizenship and Public Affairs
Downloads 81 (403,673)
Citation 5

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credit, discrimination, entrepreneur, minority-owned business, small business

5.

The Lack of Affordable Housing in New England: How Big a Problem? Why is it Growing? What are We Doing About it?

New England Public Policy Center Working Paper No. 06-1
Number of pages: 173 Posted: 01 Mar 2012
Northeastern University, Federal Reserve Bank of Boston and Federal Reserve Banks - Federal Reserve Bank of Boston
Downloads 65 (454,962)
Citation 1

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housing policy, New England, affordable housing, house prices

6.

Small Businesses in Springfield, Massachusetts: A Look at Latino Entrepreneurship

Number of pages: 50 Posted: 16 Sep 2011
Federal Reserve Bank of Boston, affiliation not provided to SSRN, Federal Reserve Banks - Federal Reserve Bank of Boston, affiliation not provided to SSRN, affiliation not provided to SSRN, Federal Reserve Bank of Boston - Research Department, Federal Reserve Bank of Boston, affiliation not provided to SSRN and Federal Reserve Bank of Boston
Downloads 60 (473,337)

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small businesses, minority-owned businesses, Latino-owned businesses

Measuring Disparities in Non-School Costs and Revenue Capacity Among Massachusetts Cities and Towns

FRB of Boston Working Paper No. 06-19
Number of pages: 33 Posted: 27 Jan 2007 Last Revised: 30 Aug 2008
Katharine Bradbury and Bo Zhao
Federal Reserve Bank of Boston and Federal Reserve Bank of Boston
Downloads 45 (546,713)
Citation 3

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fiscal disparities, municipal costs, revenue capacity, property tax, state aid, tax limitation

Measuring Disparities in Non-School Costs and Revenue Capacity Among Massachusetts Cities and Towns

FRB of Boston Working Paper No. 06-19, FRB of Boston Public Policy Discussion Paper No. 06-3
Number of pages: 33 Posted: 22 Sep 2011
Katharine Bradbury and Bo Zhao
Federal Reserve Bank of Boston and Federal Reserve Bank of Boston
Downloads 15 (750,196)
Citation 1

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fiscal disparities, municipal costs, revenue capacity, property tax, state aid, tax limitation

Why Do Real Estate Brokers Continue to Discriminate? Evidence from the 2000 Housing Discrimination Study

Syracuse University Center for Policy Research Working Paper No. 67
Number of pages: 46 Posted: 18 Apr 2011
Bo Zhao, Jan Ondrich and John Yinger
Federal Reserve Bank of Boston, Syracuse University - Center for Policy Research and Syracuse University, Maxwell School of Citizenship and Public Affairs
Downloads 53 (509,401)
Citation 6

Abstract:

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housing discrimination, audit, fixed-effects logit

Why Do Real Estate Brokers Continue to Discriminate? Evidence from the 2000 Housing Discrimination Study

Journal of Urban Economics, Vol. 59, No. 3, 2006
Posted: 22 Sep 2011
Bo Zhao, Jan Ondrich and John Yinger
Federal Reserve Bank of Boston, Syracuse University - Center for Policy Research and Syracuse University, Maxwell School of Citizenship and Public Affairs

Abstract:

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Housing discrimination, Audit, Fixed-effects logit

Designing State Aid Formulas: The Case of a New Formula for Distributing Municipal Aid in Massachusetts

FRB of Boston Working Paper No. 08-1
Number of pages: 48 Posted: 25 May 2008
Bo Zhao and Katharine Bradbury
Federal Reserve Bank of Boston and Federal Reserve Bank of Boston
Downloads 31 (625,619)

Abstract:

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formula design, state aid formula, equalizing aid, fiscal equalization

Designing State Aid Formulas: The Case of a New Formula for Distributing Municipal Aid in Massachusetts

FRB of Boston Working Paper No. 08-1, FRB of Boston Public Policy Discussion Paper No. 08-2
Number of pages: 48 Posted: 22 Sep 2011
Bo Zhao and Katharine Bradbury
Federal Reserve Bank of Boston and Federal Reserve Bank of Boston
Downloads 20 (707,564)

Abstract:

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formula design, state aid formula, equalizing aid, fiscal equalization

10.

Consequences of State Disinvestment in Public Higher Education: Lessons for the New England States

FRB Boston Research Data Report No. 19-1
Number of pages: 26 Posted: 25 Feb 2019 Last Revised: 18 Mar 2022
Bo Zhao
Federal Reserve Bank of Boston
Downloads 50 (513,594)

Abstract:

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regional economy, New England, higher education, fiscal policy

11.

The Role of Economic, Fiscal, and Financial Shocks in the Evolution of Public Sector Pension Funding

FRB of Boston Working Paper No. 13-26
Number of pages: 26 Posted: 08 May 2014
Robert K. Triest and Bo Zhao
Federal Reserve Bank of Boston - Research Department and Federal Reserve Bank of Boston
Downloads 47 (527,004)

Abstract:

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12.

Saving for a Rainy Day: Estimating the Appropriate Size of U.S. State Budget Stabilization Funds

FRB of Boston Working Paper No. 14-12
Number of pages: 46 Posted: 11 Jan 2015
Bo Zhao
Federal Reserve Bank of Boston
Downloads 46 (531,523)
Citation 4

Abstract:

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rainy day funds, budget stabilization funds, revenue cyclicality

Walking a Tightrope: Are U.S. State and Local Governments on a Fiscally Sustainable Path?

FRB of Boston Working Paper No. 13-18
Number of pages: 45 Posted: 30 Jan 2014
Bo Zhao and David Coyne
Federal Reserve Bank of Boston and University of California, San Diego (UCSD) - Department of Economics
Downloads 45 (546,713)
Citation 2

Abstract:

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fiscal sustainability, state and local fiscal trends

Walking a Tightrope: Are U.S. State and Local Governments on a Fiscally Sustainable Path?

Public Budgeting & Finance, Vol. 37, Issue 3, pp. 3-23, 2017
Number of pages: 21 Posted: 06 Sep 2017
Bo Zhao and David Coyne
Federal Reserve Bank of Boston and University of California, San Diego (UCSD) - Department of Economics
Downloads 0

Abstract:

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14.

Reintegrating the Ex-Offender Population in the U.S. Labor Market: Lessons from the Cori Reform in Massachusetts

FRB Boston Research Data Report No. 17-1
Number of pages: 24 Posted: 07 Sep 2017 Last Revised: 18 Mar 2022
Federal Reserve Bank of Boston, Federal Reserve Banks - Federal Reserve Bank of Boston and Federal Reserve Bank of Boston
Downloads 43 (545,746)

Abstract:

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15.

Reinvigorating Springfield’s Economy: Lessons from Resurgent Cities

FRB of Boston Public Policy Discussion Paper No. 09-6
Number of pages: 73 Posted: 09 Dec 2009
Federal Reserve Bank of Boston - Research Department, Federal Reserve Bank of Boston, affiliation not provided to SSRN, affiliation not provided to SSRN, Federal Reserve Bank of Boston, affiliation not provided to SSRN, affiliation not provided to SSRN, Federal Reserve Bank of Boston and Federal Reserve Bank of Boston
Downloads 43 (545,746)
Citation 1

Abstract:

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Measuring Municipal Fiscal Disparities in Connecticut

Federal Reserve Bank of Boston, New England Public Policy Center Research Report 15-1
Number of pages: 22 Posted: 13 May 2015
Bo Zhao and Jennifer Weiner
Federal Reserve Bank of Boston and Federal Reserve Banks - Federal Reserve Bank of Boston
Downloads 28 (645,935)

Abstract:

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Measuring Municipal Fiscal Disparities in Connecticut

FRB Boston Research Data Report No. 15-1
Number of pages: 22 Posted: 07 Sep 2017
Bo Zhao and Jennifer Weiner
Federal Reserve Bank of Boston and Federal Reserve Banks - Federal Reserve Bank of Boston
Downloads 14 (759,267)

Abstract:

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17.

Jobs in Springfield, Massachusetts: Understanding and Remedying the Causes of Low Resident Employment Rates

FRB of Boston Public Policy Discussion Paper No. 09-11
Number of pages: 47 Posted: 27 Feb 2010
Federal Reserve Bank of Boston - Research Department, Federal Reserve Bank of Boston, affiliation not provided to SSRN, affiliation not provided to SSRN, Federal Reserve Bank of Boston, affiliation not provided to SSRN, Federal Reserve Bank of Boston and Federal Reserve Bank of Boston
Downloads 38 (570,847)
Citation 1

Abstract:

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18.

The Fiscal Impact of Potential Local-Option Taxes in Massachusetts

FRB of Boston Public Policy Brief No. 10-2
Number of pages: 38 Posted: 22 Sep 2011
Bo Zhao
Federal Reserve Bank of Boston
Downloads 32 (603,930)
Citation 1

Abstract:

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19.

Transparency in State Debt Disclosure

FRB of Boston Working Paper No. 17-10
Number of pages: 42 Posted: 09 Nov 2017
Bo Zhao and Wen Wang
Federal Reserve Bank of Boston and Rutgers, The State University of New Jersey - Rutgers University, Newark
Downloads 31 (609,880)

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fiscal transparency, state debt, GASB, accounting choices, dependent agencies

20.

Disinvesting in the Future?: A Comprehensive Examination of the Effects of State Appropriations for Public Higher Education

FRB of Boston Working Paper No. 18-1
Number of pages: 77 Posted: 17 Jun 2018 Last Revised: 21 Feb 2019
Bo Zhao
Federal Reserve Bank of Boston
Downloads 30 (616,009)

Abstract:

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state appropriations, public higher education, community colleges, state funding cuts

21.

A More Equitable Approach to Cutting State Aid

FRB of Boston Public Policy Brief No. 11-2
Number of pages: 4 Posted: 30 Nov 2011
Bo Zhao and David Coyne
Federal Reserve Bank of Boston and University of California, San Diego (UCSD) - Department of Economics
Downloads 25 (648,790)

Abstract:

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fiscal health, fiscal gap, state aid, aid cut, fiscal equalization

22.

How to Design a State Education Aid Formula That is Equitable, Adequate, and Politically Feasible: The Case of Connecticut

FRB of Boston Working Paper No. 21-1
Number of pages: 53 Posted: 22 Apr 2021
Bo Zhao
Federal Reserve Bank of Boston
Downloads 20 (685,221)

Abstract:

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education cost; revenue capacity; state education aid; aid formula

23.

Measuring Disparities in Cost and Spending across Connecticut School Districts

FRB Boston Research Data Report No. 20-2
Number of pages: 28 Posted: 22 Apr 2021
Bo Zhao and Nicholas Chiumenti
Federal Reserve Bank of Boston and Federal Reserve Banks - Federal Reserve Bank of Boston
Downloads 19 (692,830)

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NEPPC; Connecticut; municipal aid; education funding; COVID-19

Achieving Greater Fiscal Stability: Guidance for the New England States

Federal Reserve Bank of Boston, New England Public Policy Center Research Report No. 15-2
Number of pages: 16 Posted: 11 Oct 2015
Yolanda K. Kodrzycki and Bo Zhao
Federal Reserve Bank of Boston - Research Department and Federal Reserve Bank of Boston
Downloads 15 (750,196)
Citation 1

Abstract:

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Rainy Day Funds, Fiscal Sustainability

Achieving Greater Fiscal Stability: Guidance for the New England States

FRB Boston Research Data Report No. 15-2
Number of pages: 16 Posted: 07 Sep 2017
Yolanda K. Kodrzycki and Bo Zhao
Federal Reserve Bank of Boston - Research Department and Federal Reserve Bank of Boston
Downloads 4 (857,094)

Abstract:

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25.

Municipal Aid Evaluation and Reform

FRB of Boston NEPPC Working Paper No. 11-1
Number of pages: 29 Posted: 22 Sep 2011
Bo Zhao
Federal Reserve Bank of Boston
Downloads 19 (692,830)

Abstract:

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state aid, fiscal equalization

26.

From Urban Core to Wealthy Towns: Nonschool Fiscal Disparities Across Connecticut Municipalities

FRB of Boston Working Paper No. 15-14
Number of pages: 45 Posted: 01 Jan 2016
Bo Zhao
Federal Reserve Bank of Boston
Downloads 18 (700,527)

Abstract:

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fiscal disparities, municipal gap, municipal cost, revenue-raising capacity, property tax, state grants

27.

Designing Formulas for Distributing Reductions in State Aid

FRB of Boston NEPPC Working Paper No. 11-2
Number of pages: 32 Posted: 22 Sep 2011 Last Revised: 23 Sep 2011
Bo Zhao and David Coyne
Federal Reserve Bank of Boston and University of California, San Diego (UCSD) - Department of Economics
Downloads 18 (700,527)
Citation 1

Abstract:

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fiscal health, fiscal gap, state aid, aid cut, fiscal equalization

28.

Does Springfield Receive its Fair Share of Municipal Aid? Implications for Aid Formula Reform in Massachusetts

FRB of Boston Public Policy Brief No. 10-4
Number of pages: 45 Posted: 22 Sep 2011
Federal Reserve Bank of Boston, Federal Reserve Bank of Boston, affiliation not provided to SSRN, affiliation not provided to SSRN, affiliation not provided to SSRN, Federal Reserve Bank of Boston - Research Department, Federal Reserve Bank of Boston and Federal Reserve Bank of Boston
Downloads 18 (700,527)

Abstract:

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state aid, fiscal equalization

29.

State Disinvestment in Higher Education: The Impact on Public Research Universities' Patent Applications

FRB of Boston Working Paper No. 19-2
Number of pages: 36 Posted: 25 Feb 2019
Bo Zhao
Federal Reserve Bank of Boston
Downloads 16 (716,123)

Abstract:

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state appropriations, state funding cuts, higher education, public universities, patent applications

30.

Making Municipal Aid Count: Mind the Gap!

Communities & Banking, pp. 23-25, Spring 2011
Number of pages: 3 Posted: 22 Sep 2011
David Coyne and Bo Zhao
University of California, San Diego (UCSD) - Department of Economics and Federal Reserve Bank of Boston
Downloads 16 (716,123)

Abstract:

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31.

Reforming Municipal Aid in Massachusetts: The Case for a Gap-Based Formula

FRB of Boston Public Policy Brief No. 10-2
Number of pages: 4 Posted: 21 Sep 2011
Bo Zhao and David Coyne
Federal Reserve Bank of Boston and University of California, San Diego (UCSD) - Department of Economics
Downloads 12 (749,999)

Abstract:

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32.

Measuring Non-School Fiscal Imbalances of New England Municipalities

FRB of Boston Public Policy Brief No. 07-6
Number of pages: 4 Posted: 22 Sep 2011
Bo Zhao and Katharine Bradbury
Federal Reserve Bank of Boston and Federal Reserve Bank of Boston
Downloads 11 (758,716)

Abstract:

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33.

Reforming Connecticut’s Education Aid Formula to Achieve Equity and Adequacy across School Districts

FRB Boston Research Data Report No. 21-1
Number of pages: 23 Posted: 22 Apr 2021
Bo Zhao
Federal Reserve Bank of Boston
Downloads 8 (785,934)

Abstract:

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Connecticut; education funding; municipal aid; New England; NEPPC; revenue capacity; education cost; state education aid; aid formula

34.

Making Cuts in State Aid More Equitable

Communities & Banking, pp. 24-26, Spring 2012
Number of pages: 3 Posted: 04 Mar 2012
Bo Zhao and David Coyne
Federal Reserve Bank of Boston and University of California, San Diego (UCSD) - Department of Economics
Downloads 7 (795,222)

Abstract:

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35.

Opting in with the Joneses: What Affects the Timing of Municipal Adoption of a Local-Option Meals Tax?

FRB of Boston Working Paper No. 21-14
Number of pages: 29 Posted: 27 Dec 2021
Bo Zhao
Federal Reserve Bank of Boston
Downloads 6 (804,504)

Abstract:

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hazard model, fiscal stress, policy diffusion, local-option tax, yardstick competition

36.

Measuring Non-School Fiscal Disparities Among Municipalities

National Tax Journal, Vol. 62, No. 1, 2009
Posted: 22 Sep 2011
Katharine Bradbury and Bo Zhao
Federal Reserve Bank of Boston and Federal Reserve Bank of Boston

Abstract:

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37.

The Fiscal Impact of Local-Option Taxes on Municipalities: The Case of Massachusetts

Municipal Finance Journal, Vol. 31, No. 4, pp. 63-86, 2011
Posted: 22 Sep 2011
Bo Zhao
Federal Reserve Bank of Boston

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Representative tax system, local-option tax capacity, fiscal disparity

38.

Designing State Aid Formulas

Journal of Policy Analysis and Management, Vol. 28, No. 2, pp. 278-295, 2009
Posted: 22 Sep 2011
Bo Zhao and Katharine Bradbury
Federal Reserve Bank of Boston and Federal Reserve Bank of Boston

Abstract:

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39.

Does the Number of Houses a Broker Shows Depend on a Homeseeker's Race?

Journal of Urban Economics, Vol. 57, No. 1, 2005
Posted: 22 Sep 2011
Bo Zhao
Federal Reserve Bank of Boston

Abstract:

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Discrimination, Housing, Audits, Poisson model

40.

Do Lenders Discriminate Against Minority and Woman Entrepreneurs?

Journal of Urban Economics, Vol. 63, No. 2, 2008
Posted: 22 Sep 2011
affiliation not provided to SSRN, Federal Reserve Bank of Boston and Syracuse University, Maxwell School of Citizenship and Public Affairs

Abstract:

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Small-business credit, Lending discrimination