Robert L. Hetzel

Federal Reserve Banks - Federal Reserve Bank of Richmond

P.O. Box 27622

Richmond, VA 23261

United States

SCHOLARLY PAPERS

64

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7,736

SSRN CITATIONS
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Top 5,199

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24

CROSSREF CITATIONS

232

Scholarly Papers (64)

1.

The Contributions of Milton Friedman to Economics

FRB Richmond Economic Quarterly, vol. 93, no. 1, Winter 2007, pp. 1-30
Number of pages: 30 Posted: 09 Dec 2012
Robert L. Hetzel
Federal Reserve Banks - Federal Reserve Bank of Richmond
Downloads 1,063 (28,698)
Citation 2

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2.

Monetary Policy in the 2008-2009 Recession

FRB Richmond Economic Quarterly, Vol. 95, No. 2, Spring 2009, pp. 201-233
Number of pages: 33 Posted: 13 Dec 2012
Robert L. Hetzel
Federal Reserve Banks - Federal Reserve Bank of Richmond
Downloads 860 (38,737)
Citation 2

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3.

How Do Central Banks Control Inflation?

FRB Richmond Economic Quarterly, vol. 90, no. 3, Summer 2004, pp. 47-63
Number of pages: 17 Posted: 05 Dec 2012
Robert L. Hetzel
Federal Reserve Banks - Federal Reserve Bank of Richmond
Downloads 712 (50,019)

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4.

Government Intervention in Financial Markets: Stabilizing or Destabilizing?

Financial Market Regulation in the Wake of Financial Crises: The Historical Experience Conference p. 207, 2009
Number of pages: 18 Posted: 08 Jul 2012
Robert L. Hetzel
Federal Reserve Banks - Federal Reserve Bank of Richmond
Downloads 526 (73,576)

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5.

German Monetary History in the First Half of the Twentieth Century

FRB Richmond Economic Quarterly, vol. 88, no. 1, Winter 2002, pp. 1-35
Number of pages: 35 Posted: 02 Dec 2012
Robert L. Hetzel
Federal Reserve Banks - Federal Reserve Bank of Richmond
Downloads 340 (122,200)
Citation 3

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6.

Too Big to Fail: Origins, Consequences, and Outlook

FRB Richmond Economic Review, vol. 77, no. 6, November/December 1991, pp. 3-15
Number of pages: 13 Posted: 06 Nov 2012
Robert L. Hetzel
Federal Reserve Banks - Federal Reserve Bank of Richmond
Downloads 333 (124,954)

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Should Greece Remain in the Eurozone?

FRB Richmond Working Paper No. 15-04R
Number of pages: 32 Posted: 05 May 2015 Last Revised: 06 Aug 2015
Robert L. Hetzel
Federal Reserve Banks - Federal Reserve Bank of Richmond
Downloads 247 (169,123)

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Should Greece Remain in the Eurozone?

FRB Economic Quarterly, Vol. 100, No. 3, Third Quarter 2014, pp. 241-278
Number of pages: 38 Posted: 21 Aug 2015
Robert L. Hetzel
Federal Reserve Banks - Federal Reserve Bank of Richmond
Downloads 51 (518,796)

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8.

German Monetary History in the Second Half of the Twentieth Century: From the Deutsche Mark to the Euro

FRB Richmond Economic Quarterly, vol. 88, no. 2, Spring 2002, pp. 29-64
Number of pages: 36 Posted: 02 Dec 2012
Robert L. Hetzel
Federal Reserve Banks - Federal Reserve Bank of Richmond
Downloads 267 (157,154)

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9.

The Taylor Rule: Is It a Useful Guide to Understanding Monetary Policy?

FRB Richmond Economic Quarterly, Vol. 86, No. 2, Spring 2000, pp. 1-33
Number of pages: 33 Posted: 28 Nov 2012
Robert L. Hetzel
Federal Reserve Banks - Federal Reserve Bank of Richmond
Downloads 265 (158,275)

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10.

The Monetarist-Keynesian Debate and the Phillips Curve: Lessons from the Great Inflation

FRB Economic Quarterly, Vol. 99, No. 2, Second Quarter 2013, pp. 83-116, Federal Reserve Bank of Richmond Research Paper
Number of pages: 34 Posted: 29 May 2014
Robert L. Hetzel
Federal Reserve Banks - Federal Reserve Bank of Richmond
Downloads 264 (158,923)
Citation 1

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11.

Arthur Burns and Inflation

FRB Richmond Economic Quarterly, vol. 84, no. 1, Winter 1998, pp. 21-44
Number of pages: 24 Posted: 21 Nov 2012
Robert L. Hetzel
Federal Reserve Banks - Federal Reserve Bank of Richmond
Downloads 161 (249,588)
Citation 1

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12.

Henry Thornton: Seminal Monetary Theorist and Father of the Modern Central Bank

FRB Richmond Economic Review, vol. 73, no. 4, July/August 1987, pp. 3-16
Number of pages: 14 Posted: 27 Oct 2012
Robert L. Hetzel
Federal Reserve Banks - Federal Reserve Bank of Richmond
Downloads 154 (258,933)
Citation 1

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13.

COVID-19 and the Fed’s Monetary Policy

Mercatus COVID-19 Response Working Paper Series
Number of pages: 43 Posted: 14 Oct 2020
Robert L. Hetzel
Federal Reserve Banks - Federal Reserve Bank of Richmond
Downloads 144 (273,287)
Citation 2

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Federal Reserve System, monetary policy, inflation, COVID-19, coronavirus, Phillips curve, Federal Open Market Committee, pandemic

14.

The Evolution of U.S. Monetary Policy

FRB Richmond Working Paper No. 18-1
Posted: 08 Jan 2018 Last Revised: 07 Apr 2018
Robert L. Hetzel
Federal Reserve Banks - Federal Reserve Bank of Richmond
Downloads 138 (282,462)

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federal reserve, monetary policy

15.

Japanese Monetary Policy and Deflation

FRB Richmond Economic Quarterly, Vol. 89, No. 3, Summer 2003, pp. 21-52
Number of pages: 32 Posted: 05 Dec 2012
Robert L. Hetzel
Federal Reserve Banks - Federal Reserve Bank of Richmond
Downloads 136 (285,681)

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16.

The Treasury-Fed Accord: A New Narrative Account

FRB Richmond Economic Quarterly, vol. 87, no. 1, Winter 2001, pp. 33-56
Number of pages: 24 Posted: 02 Dec 2012
Robert L. Hetzel and Ralph Leach
Federal Reserve Banks - Federal Reserve Bank of Richmond and affiliation not provided to SSRN
Downloads 116 (321,158)
Citation 7

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17.

A Monetarist Critique of ECB Monetary Policy in the Great Recession

FRB Richmond Working Paper No. 13-07R
Number of pages: 25 Posted: 17 Jul 2013 Last Revised: 22 Nov 2014
Robert L. Hetzel
Federal Reserve Banks - Federal Reserve Bank of Richmond
Downloads 113 (327,163)
Citation 1

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18.

Money, Banking, and Monetary Policy from the Formation of the Federal Reserve Until Today

FRB Richmond Working Paper No. 16-1
Number of pages: 27 Posted: 16 Mar 2016
Robert L. Hetzel and Gary Richardson
Federal Reserve Banks - Federal Reserve Bank of Richmond and University of California at Irvine
Downloads 112 (329,244)

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19.

The Rules versus Discretion Debate Over Monetary Policy in the 1920s

Economic Review, vol. 71, no. 6, November/December 1985, pp. 3-14
Number of pages: 12 Posted: 23 Oct 2012
Robert L. Hetzel
Federal Reserve Banks - Federal Reserve Bank of Richmond
Downloads 110 (333,377)
Citation 1

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20.

What Remains of Milton Friedman's Monetarism?

FRB Richmond Working Paper No. 17-9
Posted: 24 Jul 2017 Last Revised: 24 Oct 2017
Robert L. Hetzel
Federal Reserve Banks - Federal Reserve Bank of Richmond
Downloads 108 (337,508)

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monetary policy, Milton Friedman

21.

What Caused the Great Recession in the Eurozone?

FRB Richmond Working Paper No. 16-10
Number of pages: 34 Posted: 25 Aug 2016
Robert L. Hetzel
Federal Reserve Banks - Federal Reserve Bank of Richmond
Downloads 102 (350,593)

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22.

A Monetarist Money Demand Function

FRB Richmond Economic Review, Vol. 70, No. 6, November/December 1984, pp. 15-19
Number of pages: 5 Posted: 24 Aug 2012
Robert L. Hetzel
Federal Reserve Banks - Federal Reserve Bank of Richmond
Downloads 93 (371,942)

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23.

COVID-19 and the Federal Reserve’s Credit Policy

Mercatus COVID-19 Response Working Paper Series
Number of pages: 52 Posted: 05 Aug 2020
Robert L. Hetzel
Federal Reserve Banks - Federal Reserve Bank of Richmond
Downloads 73 (428,499)
Citation 1

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Federal Reserve system, monetary policy, COVID-19, pandemic, economic policy, credit

24.

Price Stability and Japanese Monetary Policy

FRB Richmond Working Paper No. 04-01
Number of pages: 47 Posted: 04 Dec 2012
Robert L. Hetzel
Federal Reserve Banks - Federal Reserve Bank of Richmond
Downloads 73 (428,499)
Citation 1

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Japanese monetary policy, Bank of Japan, deflation, liquidity trap

25.

The Formulation of Monetary Policy

FRB Richmond Working Paper No. 84-2
Number of pages: 25 Posted: 24 Aug 2012
Robert L. Hetzel
Federal Reserve Banks - Federal Reserve Bank of Richmond
Downloads 73 (428,499)
Citation 1

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26.

A Quantity Theory Framework for Monetary Policy

FRB Richmond Economic Quarterly, vol. 79, no. 3, Summer 1993, pp. 35-47
Number of pages: 13 Posted: 09 Nov 2012
Robert L. Hetzel
Federal Reserve Banks - Federal Reserve Bank of Richmond
Downloads 69 (441,740)

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27.

Does Monetarism Retain Relevance?

FRB Richmond Economic Quarterly, vol. 98, no. 2, Second Quarter 2012, pp. 77-110
Number of pages: 34 Posted: 20 Dec 2012
Robert L. Hetzel
Federal Reserve Banks - Federal Reserve Bank of Richmond
Downloads 64 (458,954)

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28.

Japanese Monetary Policy: A Quantity Theory Perspective

FRB Richmond Economic Quarterly, vol. 85, no. 1, Winter 1999, pp. 1-25
Number of pages: 25 Posted: 26 Nov 2012
Robert L. Hetzel
Federal Reserve Banks - Federal Reserve Bank of Richmond
Downloads 60 (473,851)
Citation 1

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29.

The Case for a Monetary Rule in a Constitutional Democracy

FRB Richmond Economic Quarterly, Vol. 83, No. 2, Spring 1997, pp. 45-66
Number of pages: 21 Posted: 19 Nov 2012
Robert L. Hetzel
Federal Reserve Banks - Federal Reserve Bank of Richmond
Downloads 59 (477,687)

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30.

Indexed Bonds as an Aid to Monetary Policy

FRB Richmond Economic Review, Vol. 78, No. 1, January/February 1992, pp. 13-23
Number of pages: 11 Posted: 07 Nov 2012
Robert L. Hetzel
Federal Reserve Banks - Federal Reserve Bank of Richmond
Downloads 55 (493,280)

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31.

What is the Monetary Standard, or, How Did the Volcker-Greenspan FOMCs Tame Inflation?

FRB Richmond Economic Quarterly, Vol. 94, No. 2, Spring 2008, pp. 147-171
Number of pages: 25 Posted: 11 Dec 2012
Robert L. Hetzel
Federal Reserve Banks - Federal Reserve Bank of Richmond
Downloads 44 (541,537)

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32.

M2 and Monetary Policy

FRB Richmond Economic Review, Vol. 75, No. 5, September/October 1989, pp. 14-29
Number of pages: 16 Posted: 02 Nov 2012
Robert L. Hetzel
Federal Reserve Banks - Federal Reserve Bank of Richmond
Downloads 40 (561,234)

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33.

Sterilized Foreign Exchange Intervention: The Fed Debate in the 1960s

FRB Richmond Economic Quarterly, vol. 82, no. 2, Spring 1996, pp. 21-46
Number of pages: 26 Posted: 17 Nov 2012
Robert L. Hetzel
Federal Reserve Banks - Federal Reserve Bank of Richmond
Downloads 38 (571,502)

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34.

Rules vs. Discretion Revisited: A Proposal to Make the Strategy of Monetary Policy Transparent

Mercatus Research Paper
Number of pages: 53 Posted: 16 Jul 2019
Robert L. Hetzel
Federal Reserve Banks - Federal Reserve Bank of Richmond
Downloads 37 (576,712)

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Federal Reserve System, rules versus discretion, FOMC

35.

After the Accord: Reminiscences on the Birth of the Modern Fed

FRB Richmond Economic Quarterly, vol. 87, no. 1, Winter 2001, pp. 57-64
Number of pages: 8 Posted: 02 Dec 2012
Robert L. Hetzel and Ralph Leach
Federal Reserve Banks - Federal Reserve Bank of Richmond and affiliation not provided to SSRN
Downloads 35 (587,710)
Citation 2

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36.

The Real Bills Views of the Founders of the Fed

FRB RIchmond Economic Quarterly, vol. 100, no. 2, Second Quarter 2014, pp. 159-181
Number of pages: 23 Posted: 31 Jul 2015
Robert L. Hetzel
Federal Reserve Banks - Federal Reserve Bank of Richmond
Downloads 34 (593,180)

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37.

The Free Trade Debate: The Illusion of Security versus Growth

FRB Richmond Economic Quarterly, vol. 80, no. 2, Spring 1994, pp. 39-58
Number of pages: 20 Posted: 14 Nov 2012
Robert L. Hetzel
Federal Reserve Banks - Federal Reserve Bank of Richmond
Downloads 33 (598,910)

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38.

Should Increased Regulation of Bank Risk-Taking Come from Regulators or from the Market?

FRB Richmond Economic Quarterly, Vol. 95, No. 2, Spring 2009, pp. 161-200
Number of pages: 40 Posted: 13 Dec 2012
Robert L. Hetzel
Federal Reserve Banks - Federal Reserve Bank of Richmond
Downloads 32 (604,631)
Citation 1

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39.

A Critique of Theories of Money Stock Determination

Federal Reserve Bank of Richmond Working Paper No. 86-6
Number of pages: 33 Posted: 24 Oct 2012
Robert L. Hetzel
Federal Reserve Banks - Federal Reserve Bank of Richmond
Downloads 29 (622,967)

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40.

What is the Monetary Standard

FRB Richmond Working Paper No. 15-16
Number of pages: 29 Posted: 06 Jan 2016
Robert L. Hetzel
Federal Reserve Banks - Federal Reserve Bank of Richmond
Downloads 28 (629,317)

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41.

The Cause of the Dollar Depreciation

FRB Richmond Economic Review, Vol. 64, No. 3, May/June 1978, pp. 15-27
Number of pages: 13 Posted: 24 Aug 2012
Robert L. Hetzel and Thomas Lawler
Federal Reserve Banks - Federal Reserve Bank of Richmond and affiliation not provided to SSRN
Downloads 28 (629,317)

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42.

The Monetary Responsibilities of a Central Bank

FRB Richmond Economic Review, vol. 74, no. 5, September/October 1988, pp. 19-28
Number of pages: 13 Posted: 31 Oct 2012
Robert L. Hetzel
Federal Reserve Banks - Federal Reserve Bank of Richmond
Downloads 26 (642,743)

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43.

Monetary Policy in the Early 1980's

FRB Richmond Working Paper No. 84-1
Number of pages: 39 Posted: 24 Aug 2012
Robert L. Hetzel
Federal Reserve Banks - Federal Reserve Bank of Richmond
Downloads 26 (642,743)

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44.

A Proposal to Clarify the Objectives and Strategy of Monetary Policy

FRB Richmond Working Paper No. 16-11
Posted: 02 Dec 2016
Robert L. Hetzel
Federal Reserve Banks - Federal Reserve Bank of Richmond
Downloads 25 (649,548)

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45.

Monetary Policy in the Early 1980s

Economic Review, Vol. 72, No. 2, March/April 1986, pp. 20-32
Number of pages: 13 Posted: 24 Oct 2012
Robert L. Hetzel
Federal Reserve Banks - Federal Reserve Bank of Richmond
Downloads 25 (649,548)

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46.

The Rise and Fall of the Quantity Theory in Nineteenth Century Britain: Implications for Early Fed Thinking

Economic Quarterly, Issue Q4, pp. 281-320, 2016
Number of pages: 40 Posted: 12 Feb 2018 Last Revised: 29 Apr 2020
Robert L. Hetzel
Federal Reserve Banks - Federal Reserve Bank of Richmond
Downloads 24 (656,750)

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quantity theory, gold standard, monetary standard

47.

How Useful is M2 Today?

FRB Richmond Economic Review, Vol. 78, No. 5, September/October 1992, pp. 12-16
Number of pages: 15 Posted: 07 Nov 2012
Robert L. Hetzel
Federal Reserve Banks - Federal Reserve Bank of Richmond
Downloads 24 (656,750)

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48.

What Difference Would an Inflation Target Make?

FRB Richmond Economic Quarterly, vol. 91, no. 2, Spring 2005, pp. 45-72
Number of pages: 28 Posted: 06 Dec 2012
Robert L. Hetzel
Federal Reserve Banks - Federal Reserve Bank of Richmond
Downloads 23 (663,892)

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49.

Free Enterprise and Central Banking in Formerly Communist Countries

FRB Richmond Economic Review, vol. 76, no. 3, May/June 1990, pp. 13-19
Number of pages: 7 Posted: 03 Nov 2012
Robert L. Hetzel
Federal Reserve Banks - Federal Reserve Bank of Richmond
Downloads 23 (663,892)

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50.

Maintaining Price Stability: A Proposal

FRB Richmond Economic Review, vol. 76, no. 2, March/April 1990, pp. 53-55
Number of pages: 3 Posted: 03 Nov 2012
Robert L. Hetzel
Federal Reserve Banks - Federal Reserve Bank of Richmond
Downloads 23 (663,892)

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51.

Learning from the Pandemic Monetary Policy Experiment

Mercatus Research Paper
Number of pages: 28 Posted: 28 Apr 2022
Robert L. Hetzel
Federal Reserve Banks - Federal Reserve Bank of Richmond
Downloads 22 (671,213)

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monetary policy, Federal Reserve System; Jerome Powell, Arthur Burns, Paul Volcker, Alan Greenspan, William McChesney Martin, monetarism, Phillips curve, NAIRU, flexible average inflation targeting, stop-go, Milton Friedman, money, inflation, M2, Federal Open Market Committee

52.

The Quantity Theory Tradition and the Role of Monetary Policy

FRB Richmond Economic Review, Vol. 67, No. 3, May/June 1981, pp. 19-26
Number of pages: 8 Posted: 24 Aug 2012
Robert L. Hetzel
Federal Reserve Banks - Federal Reserve Bank of Richmond
Downloads 22 (671,213)

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53.

Allan Meltzer: How He Underestimated His Own Contribution to the Modern Concept of a Central Bank

FRB Richmond Working Paper No. 18-2
Number of pages: 11 Posted: 11 Jan 2018 Last Revised: 07 Apr 2018
Robert L. Hetzel
Federal Reserve Banks - Federal Reserve Bank of Richmond
Downloads 20 (686,095)

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federal reserve system, central bank, monetary policy

54.

A Shift-Adjusted M2 Indicator for Monetary Policy

FRB Richmond Economic Quarterly, vol. 80, no. 3, Summer 1994, pp. 25-47
Number of pages: 23 Posted: 14 Nov 2012
Robert L. Hetzel and Robert Darin
Federal Reserve Banks - Federal Reserve Bank of Richmond and Independent
Downloads 18 (701,377)

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55.

A Primer on the Importance of the Money Supply

FRB Richmond Economic Review, Vol. 63, No. 5, September/October 1977, pp. 3-13
Number of pages: 11 Posted: 24 Aug 2012
Robert L. Hetzel
Federal Reserve Banks - Federal Reserve Bank of Richmond
Downloads 17 (709,254)

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56.

An Empirical Measure of the Real Rate of Interest

FRB Richmond Economic Quarterly, vol. 81, no. 1, Winter 1995, pp. 17-47
Number of pages: 31 Posted: 15 Nov 2012
Robert Darin and Robert L. Hetzel
Independent and Federal Reserve Banks - Federal Reserve Bank of Richmond
Downloads 16 (717,034)

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57.

Making the Systematic Part of Monetary Policy Transparent

FRB Richmond Economic Quarterly, vol. 92, no. 3, Summer 2006, pp. 255-290
Number of pages: 36 Posted: 08 Dec 2012
Robert L. Hetzel
Federal Reserve Banks - Federal Reserve Bank of Richmond
Downloads 15 (725,165)

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58.

A Mandate for Price Stability

FRB Richmond Economic Review, vol. 76, no. 2, March/April 1990, pp. 45-53
Number of pages: 9 Posted: 03 Nov 2012
Robert L. Hetzel
Federal Reserve Banks - Federal Reserve Bank of Richmond
Downloads 15 (725,165)

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59.

The Relationship between Money and Expenditure in 1982

FRB Richmond Economic Review, Vol. 69, No. 3, May/June 1983, pp. 11-19
Number of pages: 9 Posted: 24 Aug 2012
Robert L. Hetzel
Federal Reserve Banks - Federal Reserve Bank of Richmond
Downloads 11 (759,753)

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60.

Predicting the Rate of Inflation in 1976

FRB Richmond Economic Review, Vol. 62, January/February 1976, pp. 13-18
Number of pages: 6 Posted: 24 Aug 2012
Robert L. Hetzel
Federal Reserve Banks - Federal Reserve Bank of Richmond
Downloads 11 (759,753)

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61.

The Behavior of the M1 Demand Function in the Early 1980s

FRB Richmond Economic Review, Vol. 70, No. 6, November/December 1984, pp. 20-29
Number of pages: 10 Posted: 24 Aug 2012
Robert L. Hetzel
Federal Reserve Banks - Federal Reserve Bank of Richmond
Downloads 10 (768,616)
Citation 2

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62.

The Recovery from the Great Recession: Did the FOMC Learn the Right Lessons?

Mercatus Working Paper Series
Number of pages: 36 Posted: 26 Feb 2021
Robert L. Hetzel
Federal Reserve Banks - Federal Reserve Bank of Richmond
Downloads 9 (777,674)

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Federal Reserve System, monetary policy, inflation, COVID-19, Federal Open Market Committee, FOMC, employment

63.

The October 1979 Regime of Monetary Control and the Behavior of the Money Supply in 1980

FRB Richmond Economic Review, Vol. 68, No. 4, July/August 1982, pp. 3-15
Number of pages: 13 Posted: 24 Aug 2012
Robert L. Hetzel
Federal Reserve Banks - Federal Reserve Bank of Richmond
Downloads 9 (777,674)

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64.

World Recession: What Went Wrong?

Economic Affairs, Vol. 29, No. 3, pp. 17-21, September 2009
Number of pages: 5 Posted: 08 Oct 2009
Robert L. Hetzel
Federal Reserve Banks - Federal Reserve Bank of Richmond
Downloads 3 (834,686)

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