Deborah L. Brake

University of Pittsburgh - School of Law

Associate Dean for Research & Faculty Development John E. Murray Faculty Scholar, Professor of Law

3900 Forbes Ave.

Pittsburgh, PA 15260

United States

SCHOLARLY PAPERS

27

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4,879

CITATIONS
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Top 44,902

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3

Scholarly Papers (27)

1.

The Struggle for Sex Equality in Sport and the Theory Behind Title IX

University of Michigan Journal of Law Reform, Vol. 34, No. 1&2, 2001, U. of Pittsburgh Legal Studies Research Paper
Number of pages: 126 Posted: 08 Nov 2007 Last Revised: 03 Aug 2017
Deborah L. Brake
University of Pittsburgh - School of Law
Downloads 1,537 (10,088)

Abstract:

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Education Law, Employment Practices, Sports, Women

2.

Sport and Masculinity: The Promise and Limits of Title IX

MASCULINITIES AND LAW: A MULTIDIMENSIONAL APPROACH, Frank Rudy Cooper, Ann C. McGinley, eds., New York University Press, 2011, U. of Pittsburgh Legal Studies Research Paper No. 2011-08
Number of pages: 34 Posted: 14 Mar 2011
Deborah L. Brake
University of Pittsburgh - School of Law
Downloads 423 (62,511)

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sport, masculinities, Title IX, gender, hyper-masculinity, gender subordination, hegemonic masculinity, race, class, sexual orientation, multidimensionality

3.

Wrestling with Gender: Constructing Masculinity by Refusing to Wrestle Women

Nevada Law Journal, Vol. 13, 2013, U. of Pittsburgh Legal Studies Research Paper No. 2013-02
Number of pages: 48 Posted: 26 Jan 2013 Last Revised: 17 Jan 2018
Deborah L. Brake
University of Pittsburgh - School of Law
Downloads 403 (66,246)

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Title IX, wrestling, backlash, masculinity, law and social change, sex discrimination, gender equality, female athletes, sex equality, sports

4.

The Failure of Title Vii as a Rights-Claiming System

North Carolina Law Review, Vol. 86, p. 859, 2008, Hofstra Univ. Legal Studies Research Paper No. 07-25, U. of Pittsburgh Legal Studies Research Paper No. 2007-06
Number of pages: 79 Posted: 30 Aug 2007 Last Revised: 25 Jun 2008
Deborah L. Brake and Joanna L. Grossman
University of Pittsburgh - School of Law and Southern Methodist University - Dedman School of Law
Downloads 274 (102,484)

Abstract:

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discrimination, Title VII, gender, retaliation

5.

The Invisible Pregnant Athlete and the Promise of Title IX

Harvard Journal of Law and Gender, Vol. 31, p. 323, 2008, U. of Pittsburgh Legal Studies Research Paper No. 2008-32
Number of pages: 45 Posted: 26 Nov 2008
Deborah L. Brake
University of Pittsburgh - School of Law
Downloads 239 (118,106)

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pregnancy, athletes, Title IX, feminist legal theory

6.

Title IX as Pragmatic Feminism

Cleveland State Law Review, Vol. 55, p. 513, 2007, U. of Pittsburgh Legal Studies Research Paper No. 2008-04
Number of pages: 35 Posted: 15 Feb 2008 Last Revised: 25 May 2008
Deborah L. Brake
University of Pittsburgh - School of Law
Downloads 189 (147,916)
Citation 1

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civil rights, women/gender, discrimination law, sports, feminist legal theory

7.

The Heart of the Game: Putting Race and Educational Equity at the Center of Title IX

Virginia Sports & Entertainment Law Journal, Vol. 7, p. 199, 2008, U. of Pittsburgh Legal Studies Research Paper No. 2008-20, U of Cincinnati Public Law Research Paper No. 08-19
Number of pages: 51 Posted: 07 Aug 2008 Last Revised: 05 May 2010
Deborah L. Brake and Verna L. Williams
University of Pittsburgh - School of Law and University of Cincinnati - College of Law
Downloads 179 (155,380)

Abstract:

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Title IX, sports, race, gender, discrimination, civil rights, education

8.

Fighting the Rape Culture Wars Through the Preponderance of the Evidence Standard

Montana Law Review, Vol. 78, p. 109, 2017, U. of Pittsburgh Legal Studies Research Paper No. 2017-14
Number of pages: 46 Posted: 22 May 2017
Deborah L. Brake
University of Pittsburgh - School of Law
Downloads 171 (161,813)

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Title IX, sexual assault, campus sexual assault, sexual misconduct, sexual violence, Dear Colleague Letter, preponderance of the evidence, rape culture, rape myths, fair and equitable grievance procedure

9.

Discrimination Inward and Upward: Lessons on Law and Social Inequality from the Troubling Case of Women Coaches

Indiana Journal of Law and Social Equality, Vol. 2, p. 1, 2013, U. of Pittsburgh Legal Studies Research Paper No. 2014-09
Number of pages: 37 Posted: 20 Feb 2014
Deborah L. Brake
University of Pittsburgh - School of Law
Downloads 139 (192,566)

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discrimination, sex, gender, women coaches, Title IX, inequality, female athletes

10.

Perceiving Subtle Sexism: Mapping the Social-Psychological Forces and Legal Narratives that Obscure Gender Bias

U. of Pittsburgh Legal Studies Research Paper, Columbia Journal of Gender and Law, Vol. 16, 2007
Number of pages: 45 Posted: 23 Jul 2008
Deborah L. Brake
University of Pittsburgh - School of Law
Downloads 134 (198,411)

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Title IX, sexual harassment, peer sexual harassment, student harasser, discrimination, school liability, civil rights, gender equity, hostile environment

11.

Unprotected Sex: The Pregnancy Discrimination Act at 35

Duke Journal of Gender Law & Policy, Vol. 21, p. 67, 2013, Hofstra Univ. Legal Studies Research Paper No. 13-14, U. of Pittsburgh Legal Studies Research Paper No. 2013-33
Number of pages: 58 Posted: 02 Oct 2013 Last Revised: 20 Mar 2014
Deborah L. Brake and Joanna L. Grossman
University of Pittsburgh - School of Law and Southern Methodist University - Dedman School of Law
Downloads 132 (200,737)

Abstract:

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gender, pregnancy discrimination, disability

12.

When Equality Leaves Everyone Worse Off: The Problem of Leveling Down in Equality Law

William and Mary Law Review, Vol. 46, P. 513, 2004, U. of Pittsburgh Legal Studies Research Paper
Number of pages: 106 Posted: 25 Jun 2008
Deborah L. Brake
University of Pittsburgh - School of Law
Downloads 112 (227,372)
Citation 1

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civil rights, equalization, equity, inequity, bias, prejudice, favoritism

13.

On Not 'Having It Both Ways' and Still Losing: Reflections on Fifty Years of Pregnancy Litigation Under Title VII

Boston University Law Review, Vol. 95, p. 995, 2015, U. of Pittsburgh Legal Studies Research Paper No. 2015-17
Number of pages: 21 Posted: 19 May 2015
Deborah L. Brake
University of Pittsburgh - School of Law
Downloads 85 (273,165)

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Pregnancy Discrimination Act, Title VII, employment discrimination, pregnant women, accommodation, light-duty work

14.

Retaliation

Minnesota Law Review, Vol. 90, P. 18, 2005, U. of Pittsburgh Legal Studies Research Paper Series
Number of pages: 88 Posted: 25 Jul 2008
Deborah L. Brake
University of Pittsburgh - School of Law
Downloads 85 (273,165)

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civil rights, discrimination, equality, inequality, social practice, international discrimination, retaliation

15.

The Shifting Sands of Employment Discrimination: From Unjustified Impact to Disparate Treatment in Pregnancy and Pay

Georgetown Law Journal, Forthcoming, U. of Pittsburgh Legal Studies Research Paper No. 2016-36
Number of pages: 93 Posted: 14 Dec 2016
Deborah L. Brake
University of Pittsburgh - School of Law
Downloads 84 (275,162)

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Employment Discrimination, Disparate Treatment, Disparate Impact, Pregnancy Discrimination, Pay Discrimination, Equal Pay

16.

What Counts as 'Discrimination' in Ledbetter and the Implications for Sex Equality Law

U. of Pittsburgh Legal Studies Research Paper Series No. 2008-23, South Carolina Law Review, Vol. 59, p. 657, 2008
Number of pages: 17 Posted: 18 Aug 2008 Last Revised: 19 Aug 2008
Deborah L. Brake
University of Pittsburgh - School of Law
Downloads 84 (275,162)

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equal protection, discrimination, sex equality, Title VII, Fourteenth Amendment

17.

The Cruelest of the Gender Police: Student-to-Student Sexual Harassment and Anti-Gay Peer Harassment Under Title IX

Georgetown Journal of Gender and the Law, Vol. 1, p. 37, 1999, U. of Pittsburgh Legal Studies Research Paper
Number of pages: 72 Posted: 08 Jun 2010
Deborah L. Brake
University of Pittsburgh - School of Law
Downloads 74 (296,497)
Citation 1

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peer sexual harassment, sexual harassment, anti-gay harassment, sex discrimination law, Title IX, gender equity, gender-role policing, school liability, sex stereotypes, equal protection, anti-gay harassment, Davis v. Monroe County Board of Education

18.

Retaliation in an EEO World

Indiana Law Journal, Vol. 89, p. 115, 2014, U. of Pittsburgh Legal Studies Research Paper No. 2014-04
Number of pages: 56 Posted: 24 Jan 2014
Deborah L. Brake
University of Pittsburgh - School of Law
Downloads 72 (301,191)

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Retaliation, employment discrimination, workplace discrimination, EEO policies, EEO office, Equal Employment Opportunity, reasonable belief doctrine, internal complaint procedures, internal discrimination policies

19.

Revisiting Title IX's Feminist Legacy: Moving Beyond the Three-Part Test

University of Pittsburgh School of Law Legal Studies Research Paper, American University Journal of Gender, Social Policy & the Law, Vol. 12, p. 453, 2004
Number of pages: 30 Posted: 21 Jun 2008
Deborah L. Brake
University of Pittsburgh - School of Law
Downloads 70 (305,905)

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civil rights, title IX, gender, athletics, sports, women, inequality

20.

The Trouble with 'Bureaucracy'

7 California Law Review Online 66 (2016), U. of Pittsburgh Legal Studies Research Paper No. 2016-27
Number of pages: 14 Posted: 22 Sep 2016
Deborah L. Brake
University of Pittsburgh - School of Law
Downloads 66 (315,746)

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campus sexual assault, Title IX, Clery Act, higher education, sexual, sex, sexual equality, OCR, Department of Education, universities, sexual violence, sex discrimination

21.

Lessons from the Gender Equality Movement: Using Title IX to Foster Inclusive Masculinities in Men's Sport

Law and Inequality: A Journal of Theory and Practice, 2016, Forthcoming, U. of Pittsburgh Legal Studies Research Paper No. 2016-13
Number of pages: 39 Posted: 19 Apr 2016
Deborah L. Brake
University of Pittsburgh - School of Law
Downloads 64 (320,914)

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Sport, masculinity, LGBT rights, Title IX, sex discrimination, harassment, hazing, sexual assault

22.

School Liability for Peer Sexual Harassment after Davis: Shifting from Intent to Causation in Discrimination Law

Hastings Women's Law Journal, Vol. 12, p. 5, 2001, U. of Pittsburgh Legal Studies Research Paper Series
Number of pages: 36 Posted: 25 Jul 2008
Deborah L. Brake
University of Pittsburgh - School of Law
Downloads 59 (334,285)

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Title IX, sexual harassment, peer sexual harassment, student harasser, discrimination, school liability, civil rights, gender equity, hostile environment

23.

Introduction to Amici Curiae Brief in Young V. United Parcel Service, Inc.

Women's Rights Law Reporter, Vol. 36, p. 66, 2015, U. of Pittsburgh Legal Studies Research Paper No. 2015-18, Hofstra Univ. Legal Studies Research Paper No. 2015-06
Number of pages: 47 Posted: 21 May 2015
Deborah L. Brake and Joanna L. Grossman
University of Pittsburgh - School of Law and Southern Methodist University - Dedman School of Law
Downloads 53 (351,888)

Abstract:

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Pregnancy Discrimination Act, Title VII, employment discrimination, pregnant women, accommodation, light-duty work

24.

Back to Basics: Excavating the Sex Discrimination Roots of Campus Sexual Assault

Tennessee Journal of Race, Gender & Social Justice, Vol. 6, p. 7, 2017, U. of Pittsburgh Legal Studies Research Paper No. 2017-20
Number of pages: 35 Posted: 03 Aug 2017
Deborah L. Brake
University of Pittsburgh - School of Law
Downloads 45 (377,295)

Abstract:

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Sexual assault, campus sexual assault, Title IX, Office for Civil Rights, Dear Colleague Letter, sexual harassment, sex discrimination, feminist legal theory, liberal feminism, dominance feminism

25.

Retaliation in the EEO Office

Tulsa Law Review, Vol. 50, p. 1, 2014, U. of Pittsburgh Legal Studies Research Paper No. 2014-38
Number of pages: 43 Posted: 28 Sep 2014 Last Revised: 29 Sep 2014
Deborah L. Brake
University of Pittsburgh - School of Law
Downloads 44 (380,620)

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retaliation, Title VII, discrimination, EEO compliance, equal employment opportunity, manager rule

26.

Tortifying Retaliation: Protected Activity at the Intersection of Fault, Duty, and Causation

Ohio State Law Journal, Vol. 75, p. 1371, 2014, U. of Pittsburgh Legal Studies Research Paper No. 2014-43
Number of pages: 38 Posted: 09 Dec 2014
Deborah L. Brake
University of Pittsburgh - School of Law
Downloads 38 (402,204)

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retaliation, Title VII, reasonable belief, manager rule, employment discrimination, torts

27.

Reviving Paycheck Fairness: Why and How the Factor-Other-Than-Sex Defense Matters

Idaho Law Review, Vol. 52, No. 891, 2016, U. of Pittsburgh Legal Studies Research Paper No. 2017-06
Number of pages: 25 Posted: 26 Apr 2017
Deborah L. Brake
University of Pittsburgh - School of Law
Downloads 24 (464,657)

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Equal Pay Act, Pay Discrimination, Gender Wage Gap, Lilly Ledbetter, Pregnancy Discrimination, Disparate Treatment, Disparate Impact, Sex Discrimination