Nicolas Petit

University of Liege - School of Law

Professor

B-4000 Liege

Belgium

Hoover Institution

Stanford, CA 94305

United States

University of South Australia - School of Law

Research Professor

GPO Box 2471

Adelaide SA 5001

Australia

SCHOLARLY PAPERS

64

DOWNLOADS
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Top 443

in Total Papers Downloads

38,477

CITATIONS
Rank 20,010

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Top 20,010

in Total Papers Citations

15

Scholarly Papers (64)

1.

The Concept of Dominance in EC Competition Law

Number of pages: 31 Posted: 05 Aug 2005
Tilburg Law & Economics Center (TILEC), University of Liege - School of Law, Charles River Associates, Incorporated, NERA Economic Consulting and Wilmer Cutler Pickering Hale and Dorr LLP
Downloads 2,853 (3,509)
Citation 4

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abuse of dominance, antitrust, EC competition law, market definition, barriers to entry, vertical integration, network effects, essential facilities, collective dominance, buyer power, economies of scale, economies of scope

2.

The Oligopoly Problem in EU Competition Law

Research Handbook in European Competition Law, I. Liannos and D. Geradin eds., Edward Elgar, September 2013
Number of pages: 80 Posted: 06 Feb 2012 Last Revised: 18 Feb 2013
Nicolas Petit
University of Liege - School of Law
Downloads 2,007 (6,362)

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Oligopoly, tacit collusion, competition, collective dominance, mergers, abuse of dominance

3.

Judicial Review in European Union Competition Law: A Quantitative and Qualitative Assessment

TILEC Discussion Paper No. 2011-008, Tilburg Law School Research Paper No. 01/2011
Number of pages: 41 Posted: 28 Oct 2010 Last Revised: 19 Apr 2011
Damien Geradin and Nicolas Petit
Tilburg Law & Economics Center (TILEC) and University of Liege - School of Law
Downloads 1,881 (7,116)
Citation 1

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judicial review, EU, competition, standards of review, general court, european court of justice, european commission, abuse of dominance, cartels, mergers, appeal

4.

Law and Regulation of Artificial Intelligence and Robots - Conceptual Framework and Normative Implications

Number of pages: 31 Posted: 14 Mar 2017
Nicolas Petit
University of Liege - School of Law
Downloads 1,664 (8,895)

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Artificial intelligence, robots, robotics, law, regulation, liability, tort, contract, innovation, ethics

5.

Price Discrimination Under Ec Competition Law: Another Antitrust Theory in Search of Limiting Principles

Global Competition Law Centre Working Paper Series No. 07/05
Number of pages: 47 Posted: 01 Aug 2005
Damien Geradin and Nicolas Petit
Tilburg Law & Economics Center (TILEC) and University of Liege - School of Law
Downloads 1,620 (9,124)
Citation 2

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Price discrimination, efficiency, antitrust, EC competition law, consumer welfare, abuse of dominance, monopolization discounts, rebates, selective price cuts, tying

6.

Vertical Restraints under EU Competition Law: Conceptual Foundations and Practical Framework

Number of pages: 46 Posted: 30 Dec 2010 Last Revised: 27 Feb 2013
Nicolas Petit and David Henry
University of Liege - School of Law and affiliation not provided to SSRN
Downloads 1,498 (10,365)

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antitrust, EU competition law, distribution, vertical restraints, online commerce, market shares

7.

Intel, Leveraging Rebates and the Goals of Article 102 TFEU

Number of pages: 35 Posted: 22 Feb 2015 Last Revised: 26 Aug 2015
Nicolas Petit
University of Liege - School of Law
Downloads 1,398 (11,608)

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antitrust, competition, abuse of dominance, exclusivity, rebates, law and economics

8.

Credit Rating Agencies, the Sovereign Debt Crisis and Competition Law

Number of pages: 42 Posted: 15 Aug 2011 Last Revised: 02 Sep 2011
Nicolas Petit
University of Liege - School of Law
Downloads 1,192 (14,905)

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Credit rating agencies, antitrust, competition law, financial markets, sovereign debt, oligopoly, dominance, conflict of interest, issuer pays

9.

Technology Giants, the Moligopoly Hypothezis and Holistic Competition: A Primer

Number of pages: 76 Posted: 22 Oct 2016 Last Revised: 24 Oct 2016
Nicolas Petit
University of Liege - School of Law
Downloads 1,104 (16,797)

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Technology, Digital Economy, Monopoly, Antitrust, Economics, Strategy, Disruption

10.

The Advocate General's Opinion in Intel v Commission: Eight Points of Common Sense for Consideration by the CJEU

Concurrences Review, No. 1
Number of pages: 14 Posted: 29 Nov 2016 Last Revised: 18 Apr 2018
Nicolas Petit
University of Liege - School of Law
Downloads 959 (20,752)

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Antitrust, Competition, Abuse of Dominance, Exclusivity, Rebates, Law and Economics, Effects, As Efficient Competitor

11.

Judicial Remedies Under EC Competition Law: Complex Issues Arising from the Modernization Process

Fordham Corporate Law, 2005
Number of pages: 35 Posted: 26 Jan 2006
Damien Geradin and Nicolas Petit
Tilburg Law & Economics Center (TILEC) and University of Liege - School of Law
Downloads 914 (22,252)

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judicial review, remedies, antitrust, competition law, EC, standing, European Commission, litigation, enforcement, damages

12.

From Formalism to Effects? – The Commission’s Communication on Enforcement Priorities in Applying Article 82 EC

World Competition: Law and Economics Review, Forthcoming
Number of pages: 19 Posted: 21 Sep 2009 Last Revised: 03 Nov 2009
Nicolas Petit
University of Liege - School of Law
Downloads 856 (24,529)

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dominance, abuse, European Commission, guidelines, guidance, economics, effects-based approach

13.

The Development of Agencies at EU and National Levels: Conceptual Analysis and Proposals for Reform

Number of pages: 61 Posted: 26 Jan 2004
Damien Geradin and Nicolas Petit
Tilburg Law & Economics Center (TILEC) and University of Liege - School of Law
Downloads 760 (28,897)
Citation 5

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Agencies, regulation, European Union, governance, accountability

14.

Theories of Self-Preferencing Under Article 102 TFEU: A Reply to Bo Vesterdorf

Number of pages: 18 Posted: 10 Apr 2015 Last Revised: 14 Jul 2015
Nicolas Petit
University of Liege - School of Law
Downloads 737 (30,172)

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antitrust, competition, abuse of dominance, essential facilities, discrimination, search advertising, search engines, competition on the merits

15.

The Judgment of the EU Court of Justice in Intel and the Rule of Reason in Abuse of Dominance Cases

European Law Review, October 2018 Forthcoming
Number of pages: 23 Posted: 12 Dec 2017 Last Revised: 12 Feb 2018
Nicolas Petit
University of Liege - School of Law
Downloads 736 (30,577)

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Antitrust, Competition, Abuse of Dominance, Exclusivity, Rebates, Efficiency, Law and Economics

16.

From Hard to Soft Enforcement of EC Competition Law - A Bestiary of 'Sunshine' Enforcement Instruments

Number of pages: 35 Posted: 19 Sep 2008
Nicolas Petit and Miguel Rato
University of Liege - School of Law and Partner at Shearman & Sterling LLP
Downloads 710 (31,711)

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Competition Law, Enforcement, Soft law, Informal Pronouncements, Follow-on Actions

17.

Patent=Monopoly: A Legal Fiction

Number of pages: 19 Posted: 02 Jan 2014 Last Revised: 09 Jan 2014
Sven Bostyn and Nicolas Petit
University of Liverpool - School of Law & Social Justice and University of Liege - School of Law
Downloads 687 (33,221)
Citation 1

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Patent, monopoly, IP, antitrust, exclusionary right, innovation, power over price

18.

Rebates and Article 102 TFEU: The European Commission's Duty to Apply the Guidance Paper

Number of pages: 12 Posted: 27 Nov 2015
Nicolas Petit
University of Liege - School of Law
Downloads 683 (33,492)

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antitrust, competition, abuse of dominance, rebates, soft law, binding effects, as efficient test, pricing abuses

19.

Significant Impediment to Industry Innovation: A Novel Theory of Harm in EU Merger Control?

Number of pages: 22 Posted: 06 Feb 2017 Last Revised: 10 Feb 2017
Nicolas Petit
University of Liege - School of Law
Downloads 673 (34,416)

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competition, innovation, mergers, concentration, R&D, patents, law, economics

20.

Two-Sided Markets and the Challenge of Turning Economic Theory into Antitrust Policy

Number of pages: 59 Posted: 20 Jan 2015 Last Revised: 13 Jan 2016
Dirk Auer and Nicolas Petit
University of Liege, School of Law, Students and University of Liege - School of Law
Downloads 666 (35,048)

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Two sided markets, industrial organisation, antitrust policy, competition, market power, merger, abuse of dominance, coordinated conduct

21.

Antitrust and Artificial Intelligence - A Research Agenda

Number of pages: 4 Posted: 07 Jul 2017
Nicolas Petit
University of Liege - School of Law
Downloads 647 (36,314)

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antitrust, competition law, artificial intelligence, algorithms, collusion, cartels, discrimination

22.

Econometrics and Antitrust Law - A Conceptual Clarification

GCLC Working Paper 03/08
Number of pages: 61 Posted: 04 Sep 2008 Last Revised: 16 Sep 2008
Nicolas Petit and Ermano Fegatilli
University of Liege - School of Law and University of Liege
Downloads 638 (36,658)

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Econometrics, competition law, antitrust law, mergers, abuse of dominance

23.

Algorithmic Pricing Agents and Tacit Collusion: A Technological Perspective

Number of pages: 14 Posted: 03 Oct 2017 Last Revised: 12 Oct 2017
Ashwin Ittoo and Nicolas Petit
University of Liege - HEC Management School and University of Liege - School of Law
Downloads 630 (37,913)

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Artificial Intelligence, Reinforcement Learning, Algorithms, Markets, Collusion, Pricing, Antitrust

24.

Injunctions for Frand-Pledged Standard Essential Patents: The Quest for an Appropriate Test of Abuse Under Article 102 TFEU

Number of pages: 46 Posted: 23 Dec 2013
Nicolas Petit
University of Liege - School of Law
Downloads 604 (39,427)

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antitrust, patents, courts, FRAND, injunctions, abuse, monopolization, article 102

25.

New Challenges for 21st Century Competition Authorities

Number of pages: 22 Posted: 29 Jan 2013
Nicolas Petit
University of Liege - School of Law
Downloads 589 (40,714)

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Antitrust law and economics, market definition, guidance, settlements, fines, enforcement, leniency

26.

Behavioral Economics and Abuse of Dominance – A Fresh Look at the Article 102 TFEU Case-Law

Number of pages: 14 Posted: 19 Jul 2010
Nicolas Petit and Norman Neyrinck
University of Liege - School of Law and University of Liege
Downloads 570 (42,510)

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Abuse of Dominance, Behavioral Economics, Market Definition, Bundling, Tying, Predatory Pricing

27.

Abuse of Dominance in Technology-Enabled Markets: Established Standards Reconsidered?

European Competition Journal, April 2013
Number of pages: 65 Posted: 30 Jan 2014 Last Revised: 31 Jan 2014
Miguel Rato and Nicolas Petit
Partner at Shearman & Sterling LLP and University of Liege - School of Law
Downloads 556 (43,913)

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Antitrust; abuse; dominance; technology; innovation; patents; network externalities; injunctions; FRAND; intellectual property; article 102; excessive pricing; tying; effects-based analysis

28.

The Antitrust and Intellectual Property Intersection in European Union Law

Handbook of Antitrust, Intellectual Property and High Tech, Roger D. Blair & D. Daniel Sokol editors, Cambridge University, 2017
Number of pages: 38 Posted: 19 Jun 2016 Last Revised: 19 Apr 2018
Nicolas Petit
University of Liege - School of Law
Downloads 525 (47,204)

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antitrust; intellectual property; patents; monopoly; law; rules; standards

29.

'Financial Fair Play' or 'Oligopoleague' of Football Clubs?: A Preliminary Review Under European Union Competition

Number of pages: 3 Posted: 16 Jun 2014
Nicolas Petit
University of Liege - School of Law
Downloads 497 (50,610)

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financial fair play; competition law; cartel; article 101; investment; self regulation

30.

The Future of the Court of Justice in EU Competition Law - New Role and Responsibilities

Number of pages: 24 Posted: 16 May 2012
Nicolas Petit
University of Liege - School of Law
Downloads 493 (51,143)

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competition law, Court of Justice, case-law, rule making, consistency, norms, standards, judicial review

31.

Why the EU Merger Regulation Should Not Enjoy a Monopoly Over Tacit Collusion - A Close Look at Five Common Misconceptions

Number of pages: 17 Posted: 01 Feb 2010
Nicolas Petit and David Henry
University of Liege - School of Law and Howrey LLP
Downloads 452 (57,024)

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Merger Control, Tacit Collusion, Oligopolies, Competition

32.

EU Competition Law Analysis of FRAND Disputes

The Cambridge Handbook of Technical Standardization Law, Jorge L. Contreras, ed., Cambridge University Press, Forthcoming
Number of pages: 28 Posted: 15 Dec 2016
Nicolas Petit
University of Liege - School of Law
Downloads 445 (58,111)

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FRAND, RAND, Standards, Standard-essential Patents, Royalties, Injunctions, Damages, Patent holdup, Antitrust, Remedies

33.

Innovation Competition, Unilateral Effects and Merger Control Policy

Number of pages: 51 Posted: 07 Feb 2018 Last Revised: 16 Feb 2018
Nicolas Petit
University of Liege - School of Law
Downloads 434 (60,566)

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mergers, antitrust, unilateral effects, innovation, competition, economics, models

34.

Huaweï v. ZTE: Judicial Conservatism at the Patent-Antitrust Intersection

CPI Antitrust Chronicles, Volume 10, Number 2, October 2015
Number of pages: 8 Posted: 27 Oct 2015
Nicolas Petit
University of Liege - School of Law
Downloads 428 (61,296)

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Patents, antitrust, standards, FRAND, injunctions, abuse of dominance

35.

Remedies for Coordinated Effects Under the EU Merger Regulation

Competition Law International, Vol. 6, No. 2, 2010
Number of pages: 15 Posted: 14 Jul 2010
Nicolas Petit
University of Liege - School of Law
Downloads 427 (61,112)

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Competition, Antitrust, Merger Control, Remedies, Collusion, Coordinated Effects

36.

The Economics of Parallel Trade – Iconoclast Views on a Dogma of EU Competition Law

Number of pages: 12 Posted: 21 Aug 2010 Last Revised: 05 Sep 2010
Nicolas Petit
University of Liege - School of Law
Downloads 401 (65,941)

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Parallel trade, competition law, intellectual property, consumer welfare

37.

The Smallest Salable Patent-Practicing Unit ('SSPPU') Experiment, General Purpose Technologies and the Coase Theorem

Number of pages: 8 Posted: 20 Feb 2016
Nicolas Petit
University of Liege - School of Law
Downloads 395 (67,109)

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Patents, standards, antitrust, intellectual property, innovation, Coase theorem

38.

Tying Law in Microsoft I and II: The Secret Art of Magic?

Brussels School of Competition Working Paper Series No. 1/2010
Number of pages: 10 Posted: 15 Aug 2011
Nicolas Petit and Norman Neyrinck
University of Liege - School of Law and University of Liege
Downloads 368 (72,911)

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WMP, IE, Windows Media Player, Internet Explorer, Microsoft, Tying, tying, competition law, competition, essential facility, refusal to supply, refusal, supply

39.

The Guidelines on the Application of Article 81(3) EC - A Critical Review

IEJE Working Paper No. 4/2009
Number of pages: 14 Posted: 02 Jul 2009
Nicolas Petit
University of Liege - School of Law
Downloads 356 (75,853)

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Competition law, Guidelines, Article 81, economics, guidance, agreements

40.

State-Created Barriers to Exit? The Example of the Acquisition of Alstom by General Electric

Number of pages: 27 Posted: 11 Nov 2014 Last Revised: 17 Feb 2015
Nicolas Petit
University of Liege - School of Law
Downloads 355 (76,102)

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National champions, M&A, strategic industries, State interference, barriers to entry, barriers to exit, industrial policy, competitive neutrality

41.

Judicial Review in French Competition Law and Economic Regulation - A Post-Commission v. Tetra Laval Assessment

Number of pages: 22 Posted: 28 Oct 2008 Last Revised: 26 Nov 2008
Nicolas Petit and Rabeux Louise
University of Liege - School of Law and affiliation not provided to SSRN
Downloads 344 (79,679)

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Judicial Review, National Courts, France, Competition Law, Sector Specific Regulation

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financial fair play; competition law; cartel; article 101; investment; self regulation

43.

Optimal Enforcement of Competition Policy: The Commitments Procedure Under Uncertainty

Number of pages: 36 Posted: 14 Oct 2014 Last Revised: 29 Apr 2015
Axel Gautier and Nicolas Petit
University of Liege - Research Center on Public and Population Economics and University of Liege - School of Law
Downloads 312 (88,074)

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Competition Policy; European Commission; Settlements; Commitments; Law Enforcement.

44.

'Stealth Licensing' - Or Antitrust Law and Trade Regulation Squeezing Patent Rights

Number of pages: 30 Posted: 20 Apr 2014
Nicolas Petit
University of Liege - School of Law
Downloads 306 (89,939)

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Patents; Compulsory Licenses; Antitrust Law; Trade; TRIPS; Competition; Innovation; Industrial Economics

45.

Price Squeezes with Positive Margins in EU Competition Law: Economic and Legal Anatomy of a Zombie

Number of pages: 10 Posted: 14 Oct 2014 Last Revised: 10 Nov 2014
Nicolas Petit
University of Liege - School of Law
Downloads 264 (105,901)

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antitrust, competition, abuse of dominance, price squeeze, margin squeeze, as efficient, law and economics

46.

The IEEE-SA Revised Patent Policy and Its Definition of 'Reasonable' Rates: A Transatlantic Antitrust Divide?

Fordham Intellectual Property, Media & Entertainment Law Journal, Vol. XXVII
Number of pages: 28 Posted: 06 Mar 2016 Last Revised: 27 Apr 2016
Nicolas Petit
University of Liege - School of Law
Downloads 259 (107,674)

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Patents, standard setting organization, FRAND, antitrust, intellectual property, innovation, per se restriction

47.

Industrial Policy and Competition Enforcement: Is There, Could There and Should There Be a Nexus?

2012 GCLC Annual Conference, 8-9 November 2012, Residence Palace, Brussels
Number of pages: 50 Posted: 28 Feb 2013
Nicolas Petit and Norman Neyrinck
University of Liege - School of Law and University of Liege
Downloads 259 (107,674)

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Competition law, Industrial Policy, Economics, European Union, Market Failures, Mergers, Abuse of Dominant Position, Innovation, Efficiency

48.

Antitrust versus the Press: Two Systems of Belief About Monopoly

Number of pages: 37 Posted: 10 Feb 2018
Dirk Auer and Nicolas Petit
University of Liege, School of Law, Students and University of Liege - School of Law
Downloads 256 (109,443)

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49.

Competition Policy and the Euromed Partnership

European Foreign Affairs Review, Vol. 8, pp. 153-180, 2003
Number of pages: 25 Posted: 25 Jan 2004
Damien Geradin and Nicolas Petit
Tilburg Law & Economics Center (TILEC) and University of Liege - School of Law
Downloads 254 (109,906)

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Antitrust, competition, development, infrastructure

50.

Artificial Intelligence and Automated Law Enforcement: A Review Paper

Number of pages: 12 Posted: 21 Mar 2018 Last Revised: 26 Mar 2018
Nicolas Petit
University of Liege - School of Law
Downloads 244 (116,401)

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Artificial Intelligence; Law Enforcement; Ethics; Law; Due Process; Regulation

51.

Chinese State Capitalism and Western Antitrust Policy

Number of pages: 16 Posted: 20 Jun 2016 Last Revised: 23 Jun 2016
Nicolas Petit
University of Liege - School of Law
Downloads 242 (115,462)

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antitrust; merger; corporate governance; State Owned Enterprises; China; Communist Party; industrial policy

52.

Competition Rules in the Euromed Countries with a Special Emphasis on Network Industries

Number of pages: 19 Posted: 26 Jan 2004
Damien Geradin and Nicolas Petit
Tilburg Law & Economics Center (TILEC) and University of Liege - School of Law
Downloads 234 (119,425)

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Antitrust, regulation, competition, development, network industries

53.

The Judgment of the European Court of Justice in VEBIC: Filling a Gap in Regulation 1/2003

Number of pages: 8 Posted: 06 Jul 2011
Nicolas Petit
University of Liege - School of Law
Downloads 216 (129,237)

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Competition Law, Effectiveness, Procedural Autonomy, Appeals

54.

The Commission's Non Contractual Liability in the Field of Merger Control - Don't Use a Hammer When You Need a Screwdriver

Global Competition Policy, Vol. 1, July 2007
Number of pages: 10 Posted: 31 Jul 2008
Nicolas Petit and Miguel Rato
University of Liege - School of Law and Partner at Shearman & Sterling LLP
Downloads 216 (129,237)

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Merger, non contractual liability, competition law

55.

Re-Pricing Through Disruption in Oligopolies with Tacit Collusion: A Framework for Abuse of Collective Dominance

Number of pages: 15 Posted: 24 Jun 2015 Last Revised: 23 Oct 2015
Nicolas Petit
University of Liege - School of Law
Downloads 215 (129,816)

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tacit collusion, oligopoly, abuse, dominance, disruption, article 102, shared monopolization, type I and II errors, price signalling

56.

Patent 'Trespass' and the Royalty Gap: Exploring the Nature and Impact of Patent Holdout

Number of pages: 73 Posted: 07 Jun 2017 Last Revised: 11 Aug 2017
Bowman Heiden and Nicolas Petit
Center for Intellectual Property - Chalmers University of Technology, University of Gothenburg, and Norwegian University of Science and Technology and University of Liege - School of Law
Downloads 206 (135,135)

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Patent, holdout, holdup, FRAND, RAND, standards, SDO, SSO, economics, antitrust

57.

A Review of the Legal Consequences Arising from ECJ and CFI's Judgments

Number of pages: 73 Posted: 26 Aug 2008
Nicolas Petit and Alexandre Defossez
University of Liege - School of Law and University of Liege - School of Law
Downloads 194 (143,630)

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European Law, Court of Justice, Court of First Instance, Legal Implications, Res Judicata

58.

Exclusive Dealing, Market Shares and the Safe Harbour of Regulation 2790/1999 - Time for a Rethink?

IEJE Working Paper No. 5/2009
Number of pages: 19 Posted: 02 Jul 2009
Nicolas Petit and Marc Abenhaim
University of Liege - School of Law and affiliation not provided to SSRN
Downloads 178 (154,623)

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Vertical agreements, single branding, exclusive purchasing, markets share, threshold, Regulation 2790/1999, foreclosure

59.

Smallest Salable Patent Practicing Unit and Component Licensing - Why 1$ is Not 1$

Number of pages: 32 Posted: 19 Apr 2017
Axel Gautier and Nicolas Petit
University of Liege - Research Center on Public and Population Economics and University of Liege - School of Law
Downloads 160 (171,612)

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patent, royalty, FRAND, SEP, standard-essential patent, damages, wireless communications, SSPPU

60.
Downloads 117 (218,144)
Citation 2

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competition, authorities, regulatory, sector specific regulation, EC

61.

Deterring the State Versus the Firm: Soft and Hard Deterrence Regimes in EU Law

Columbia Journal of European Law, Vol. 23, No. 1, 2016
Number of pages: 47 Posted: 04 May 2016
Sanja Bogojević and Nicolas Petit
University of Lund and University of Liege - School of Law
Downloads 96 (250,633)

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Deterrence; sanctions; penalties; State; firm; environmental law; competition law; antitrust; European law

62.

Market Power in the Credit Rating Industry: State of Play and Proposal for Reforms

CPI Antitrust Chronicle, January 2014 (2)
Number of pages: 11 Posted: 10 Feb 2014
Bertrand Candelon, Axel Gautier and Nicolas Petit
University of Maastricht - Department of Economics, University of Liege - Research Center on Public and Population Economics and University of Liege - School of Law
Downloads 86 (268,719)

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credit rating agencies; financial markets; rating inflation; competition; market power; oligopoly; economic cycle

63.

Implications of Competitive Neutrality for Competition Agencies: A Process Perspective

Number of pages: 7 Posted: 20 Jun 2015
Nicolas Petit
University of Liege - School of Law
Downloads 85 (270,679)

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Competition, agencies, enforcement, SOEs, home bias, process competitive neutrality

64.

Price Discrimination Under Ec Competition Law: Another Antitrust Doctrine in Search of Limiting Principles?

Journal of Competition Law and Economics, Vol. 2, Issue 3, pp. 479-531, 2006
Posted: 14 Jul 2008
Damien Geradin and Nicolas Petit
Tilburg Law & Economics Center (TILEC) and University of Liege - School of Law

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