Ralph de Haas

European Bank for Reconstruction and Development

One Exchange Square

London, EC2A 2JN

United Kingdom

www.ebrd.com

Tilburg University - Department of Finance

Associate Professor of Finance

P.O. Box 90153

Tilburg, 5000 LE

Netherlands

SCHOLARLY PAPERS

44

DOWNLOADS
Rank 5,601

SSRN RANKINGS

Top 5,601

in Total Papers Downloads

6,411

CITATIONS
Rank 4,336

SSRN RANKINGS

Top 4,336

in Total Papers Citations

124

Scholarly Papers (44)

1.

How Important are Foreign Banks in the Financial Development of European Transition Countries?

CESifo Working Paper Series No. 1100
Number of pages: 35 Posted: 28 Jan 2004
University of Groningen, University of Groningen, Faculty of Economics and Business, Department of Economics, University of Groningen, University of Groningen - Faculty of Economics and Business and European Bank for Reconstruction and Development
Downloads 464 (48,874)
Citation 9

Abstract:

financial development, financial institutions, foreign bank entry, transition economies, bank performance.

2.

Hedge Funds: Back to Basics

Economisch Statistische Berichten Jaargang, Vol. 86, No. 4327, pp. 763-765, 2001
Number of pages: 5 Posted: 01 Mar 2004
Ralph de Haas
European Bank for Reconstruction and Development
Downloads 456 (49,799)

Abstract:

hedge funds, financial supervision

When Arm's Length is Too Far. Relationship Banking Over the Business Cycle

BOFIT Discussion Paper No. 14/2014
Number of pages: 42 Posted: 30 Aug 2014
City University London - Sir John Cass Business School, KU Leuven, Department Accounting, Finance and Insurance, European Bank for Reconstruction and Development and De Nederlandsche Bank
Downloads 212 (121,168)
Citation 1

Abstract:

relationship banking, credit constraints, business cycle

When Arm's Length is Too Far. Relationship Banking Over the Business Cycle

CESifo Working Paper Series No. 4877
Number of pages: 52 Posted: 23 Jul 2014
City University London - Sir John Cass Business School, KU Leuven, Department Accounting, Finance and Insurance, European Bank for Reconstruction and Development and De Nederlandsche Bank
Downloads 92 (240,924)
Citation 1

Abstract:

relationship banking, credit constraints, business cycle

When Arm's Length Is Too Far. Relationship Banking Over the Business Cycle

Journal of Financial Economics (JFE), Forthcoming
Number of pages: 58 Posted: 17 Jul 2014 Last Revised: 03 Jan 2017
City University London - Sir John Cass Business School, KU Leuven, Department Accounting, Finance and Insurance, European Bank for Reconstruction and Development and De Nederlandsche Bank
Downloads 44 (358,352)
Citation 1

Abstract:

Relationship banking, credit constraints, business cycle

When Arm's Length is Too Far. Relationship Banking Over the Business Cycle

CentER Discussion Paper Series No. 2014-042, European Banking Center Discussion Paper Series No. 2014-003
Number of pages: 52 Posted: 03 Jul 2014
City University London - Sir John Cass Business School, KU Leuven, Department Accounting, Finance and Insurance, European Bank for Reconstruction and Development and De Nederlandsche Bank
Downloads 17 (485,212)
Citation 1

Abstract:

Relationship banking, credit constraints, business cycle

4.

Does Foreign Bank Entry Reduce Small Firms' Access to Credit? Evidence from European Transition Economies

DNB Working Paper No. 50
Number of pages: 25 Posted: 28 Aug 2005
Ralph de Haas and Ilko Naaborg
European Bank for Reconstruction and Development and University of Groningen
Downloads 349 (62,626)
Citation 5

Abstract:

Foreign banks, transition economies, small-business lending

5.

Housing Prices, Bank Lending, and Monetary Policy

De Nederlandsche Bank Research Series Supervision Paper No. 31
Number of pages: 23 Posted: 29 Feb 2004
Ralph de Haas and Irene de Greef
European Bank for Reconstruction and Development and De Nederlandsche Bank
Downloads 328 (70,914)
Citation 4

Abstract:

housing price, bank lending, monetary policy, mortgages

6.

International Shock Transmission after the Lehman Brothers Collapse: Evidence from Syndicated Lending

American Economic Review Papers & Proceedings, 102(3): 231–237, May 2012,
Number of pages: 7 Posted: 18 Jan 2012 Last Revised: 05 Jul 2012
Ralph de Haas and Neeltje van Horen
European Bank for Reconstruction and Development and De Nederlandsche Bank
Downloads 326 (41,621)
Citation 6

Abstract:

cross-border lending, bank-funding shocks, crisis transmission

7.

The Crisis as a Wake-Up Call: Do Banks Tighten Screening and Monitoring During a Financial Crisis‘

Number of pages: 35 Posted: 17 Feb 2009 Last Revised: 10 Oct 2011
Ralph de Haas and Neeltje van Horen
European Bank for Reconstruction and Development and De Nederlandsche Bank
Downloads 312 (77,791)
Citation 2

Abstract:

bank lending, financial crisis, loan retention, screening and monitoring, syndication

8.

Foreign Banks in Central and Eastern Europe: Asset or Risk Factor?

Maandschrift Economie, Vol. 67, No. 3, pp. 188-209, 2003
Number of pages: 21 Posted: 29 Feb 2004
Ralph de Haas and Iman van Lelyveld
European Bank for Reconstruction and Development and De Nederlandsche Bank
Downloads 265 (95,687)

Abstract:

transition countries, foreign banks, financial stability

9.

Overproduction Depresses Coffee Price

Economisch Statistische Berichten Jaargang, Vol. 87, No. 4382, pp. 812-814, 2002
Number of pages: 3 Posted: 01 Mar 2004
Ralph de Haas
European Bank for Reconstruction and Development
Downloads 250 (93,114)

Abstract:

coffee market, crisis

10.

Microfinance at the Margin: Experimental Evidence from Bosnia and Herzegovina

Number of pages: 41 Posted: 14 Mar 2012 Last Revised: 23 May 2016
Institute for Fiscal Studies (IFS), European Bank for Reconstruction and Development, European Bank for Reconstruction and Development (EBRD) and Yale University
Downloads 232 (81,067)
Citation 3

Abstract:

microfinance, liquidity constraints, human capital, randomized controlled trial

Running for the Exit? International Bank Lending During a Financial Crisis

De Haas, R. and N. Van Horen (2013), Running for the exit? International bank lending during a financial crisis, Review of Financial Studies, 26(1), 244-285.
Number of pages: 52 Posted: 28 Oct 2011 Last Revised: 17 Dec 2012
Ralph de Haas and Neeltje van Horen
European Bank for Reconstruction and Development and De Nederlandsche Bank
Downloads 119 (200,461)
Citation 15

Abstract:

Cross-border lending, bank-borrower closeness, syndicated lending

Running for the Exit: International Banks and Crisis Transmission

Number of pages: 43 Posted: 02 Feb 2011
Neeltje van Horen and Ralph de Haas
De Nederlandsche Bank and European Bank for Reconstruction and Development
Downloads 104 (221,446)
Citation 15

Abstract:

Crisis Transmission, Sudden Stop, Cross-Border Lending, Syndicated Loans

12.

What Determines the Composition of Banks' Loan Portfolios? Evidence from Transition Countries

Journal of Banking and Finance, Vol. 34, No. 2, pp. 388-398, 2010
Number of pages: 45 Posted: 17 Dec 2007 Last Revised: 09 Apr 2010
Ralph de Haas, Daniel Ferreira and Anita Taci
European Bank for Reconstruction and Development, London School of Economics - Department of Finance and European Bank for Reconstruction and Development (EBRD)
Downloads 215 (110,688)
Citation 7

Abstract:

Foreign banks, SMEs, Legal environment, Portfolio composition

Show Me Yours and I'll Show You Mine: Sharing Borrower Information in a Competitive Credit Market

CentER Discussion Paper Series No. 2015-027, European Banking Center Discussion Paper No. 2015-007
Number of pages: 52 Posted: 29 Apr 2015
Jaap W.B. Bos, Ralph de Haas and Matteo Millone
Maastricht University, European Bank for Reconstruction and Development and VU University Amsterdam - Department of Finance and Financial Sector Management
Downloads 111 (211,177)

Abstract:

Information sharing, credit market competition, hazard models

Show Me Yours and I'll Show You Mine: Sharing Borrower Information in a Competitive Credit Market

BAFFI CAREFIN Centre Research Paper No. 2015-8
Number of pages: 58 Posted: 22 May 2015 Last Revised: 06 Mar 2016
Jaap W.B. Bos, Ralph de Haas and Matteo Millone
Maastricht University, European Bank for Reconstruction and Development and VU University Amsterdam - Department of Finance and Financial Sector Management
Downloads 81 (261,458)

Abstract:

Information sharing, credit market competition, hazard models

14.

The Impacts of Microfinance: Evidence from Joint-Liability Lending in Mongolia

American Economic Journal: Applied Economics, 2015, 7(1), 90-122.
Number of pages: 33 Posted: 21 Dec 2011 Last Revised: 04 May 2015
University College London - Department of Economics, Institute for Fiscal Studies (IFS), European Bank for Reconstruction and Development, Institute for Fiscal Studies (IFS) and European Bank for Reconstruction and Development (EBRD)
Downloads 185 (88,837)

Abstract:

microcredit, group lending, poverty, access to finance, randomized field experiment

15.

Internal Capital Markets in Multinational Banks: Implications for European Transition Economies

DNB Working Paper No. 51
Number of pages: 27 Posted: 28 Aug 2005
Ralph de Haas and Ilko Naaborg
European Bank for Reconstruction and Development and University of Groningen
Downloads 152 (158,751)
Citation 5

Abstract:

Foreign banks, transition economies, internal capital markets

16.

Financial Stability: The Role of De Nederlandsche Bank

Economisch Statistische Berichten Jaargang, Vol.86, No. 4323, pp. 696-699, 2001
Number of pages: 8 Posted: 01 Mar 2004
Ralph de Haas and Marc de Vor
European Bank for Reconstruction and Development and Bank of the Netherlands
Downloads 152 (159,645)

Abstract:

financial stability, central banking

17.

Internal Capital Markets and Lending by Multinational Bank Subsidiaries

Journal of Financial Intermediation, Vol. 19, No. 1, pp. 1-25, 2010
Number of pages: 38 Posted: 12 Aug 2008 Last Revised: 06 Oct 2011
Ralph de Haas and Iman van Lelyveld
European Bank for Reconstruction and Development and De Nederlandsche Bank
Downloads 139 (156,220)
Citation 34

Abstract:

multinational banks, credit supply, internal capital markets

18.

Banks, Institutions, and Soft Budget Constraints during Transition

Tijdschrift Politieke Ekonomie, Vol. 23, No. 3, pp. 57-79, 2002
Number of pages: 25 Posted: 11 Mar 2004
Ralph de Haas
European Bank for Reconstruction and Development
Downloads 125 (191,079)

Abstract:

institutions, financial development, transition economies, soft budget constraint

19.

Multinational Banks and the Global Financial Crisis: Weathering the Perfect Storm?

Journal of Money, Credit, and Banking, 2014, 46(1), 333-364.
Number of pages: 32 Posted: 24 Nov 2011 Last Revised: 30 Jan 2014
Ralph de Haas and Iman van Lelyveld
European Bank for Reconstruction and Development and De Nederlandsche Bank
Downloads 102 (207,519)
Citation 6

Abstract:

multinational banks, financial stability, crisis transmission, bank funding

The Inner Workings of the Board: Evidence from Emerging Markets

CentER Discussion Paper Series No. 2017-016, EBC Discussion Paper Series No. 2017-002
Number of pages: 30 Posted: 22 Mar 2017
Ralph de Haas, Daniel Ferreira and Tom Kirchmaier
European Bank for Reconstruction and Development, London School of Economics - Department of Finance and London School of Economics - Centre for Economic Performance
Downloads 100 (230,864)

Abstract:

Boards of directors, corporate governance, emerging markets

The Inner Workings of the Board: Evidence from Emerging Markets

CEPR Discussion Paper No. DP12317
Number of pages: 37 Posted: 26 Sep 2017
Ralph de Haas, Daniel Ferreira and Tom Kirchmaier
European Bank for Reconstruction and Development, London School of Economics - Department of Finance and London School of Economics - Centre for Economic Performance
Downloads 1 (583,631)
  • Add to Cart

Abstract:

Boards of directors, corporate governance, emerging markets

21.

Foreign Currency Lending in Emerging Europe: Bank Level Evidence

European Banking Center Discussion Paper No. 2010-31, CentER Discussion Paper Series No. 2010-135
Number of pages: 46 Posted: 17 Jan 2011 Last Revised: 29 May 2013
Martin Brown and Ralph de Haas
University of St. Gallen - Swiss Institute of Banking and Finance and European Bank for Reconstruction and Development
Downloads 74 (218,785)
Citation 1

Abstract:

Foreign currency lending, currency mismatch, foreign banks, financial stability

22.

The Impacts of Microcredit: Evidence from Bosnia and Herzegovina

American Economic Journal: Applied Economics (2015), 7(1), 183-203.
Number of pages: 21 Posted: 10 Dec 2013 Last Revised: 04 May 2015
Institute for Fiscal Studies (IFS), European Bank for Reconstruction and Development, European Bank for Reconstruction and Development (EBRD) and Yale University
Downloads 72 (251,541)
Citation 1

Abstract:

Microfinance; liquidity constraints; human capital; randomized controlled trial

23.

In the Wake of the Crisis: Dealing with Distressed Debt Across the Transition Region

European Bank for Reconstruction and Development (EBRD) Working Paper No. 112
Number of pages: 16 Posted: 18 Jan 2011
Ralph de Haas and Stephan Knobloch
European Bank for Reconstruction and Development and European Bank for Reconstruction and Development (EBRD)
Downloads 72 (255,293)

Abstract:

distressed debt, insolvency, financial crisis

Mining Matters: Natural Resource Extraction and Local Business Constraints

De Nederlandsche Bank Working Paper No. 533
Number of pages: 64 Posted: 17 Nov 2016
Ralph de Haas and Steven Poelhekke
European Bank for Reconstruction and Development and VU University Amsterdam
Downloads 30 (413,519)

Abstract:

Mining, natural resources, business environment

Mining Matters: Natural Resource Extraction and Local Business Constraints

Number of pages: 52 Posted: 25 May 2016
Ralph de Haas and Steven Poelhekke
European Bank for Reconstruction and Development and VU University Amsterdam
Downloads 21 (461,800)

Abstract:

Mining, natural resources, business environment

Mining Matters: Natural Resource Extraction and Local Business Constraints

CESifo Working Paper Series No. 6198
Number of pages: 37 Posted: 21 Dec 2016
Ralph de Haas and Steven Poelhekke
European Bank for Reconstruction and Development and VU University Amsterdam
Downloads 18 (479,326)

Abstract:

mining, natural resources, business environment

The Great Recession and Social Preferences: Evidence from Ukraine

Number of pages: 40 Posted: 12 May 2015
Ralph de Haas, Milena Djourelova and Elena Nikolova
European Bank for Reconstruction and Development, European Bank for Reconstruction and Development (EBRD) and Central European Labour Studies Institute (CELSI)
Downloads 49 (342,172)

Abstract:

crisis, attitudes, Ukraine

The Great Recession and Social Preferences: Evidence from Ukraine

CentER Discussion Paper Series No. 2015-046, Forthcoming in the Journal of Comparative Economics
Number of pages: 46 Posted: 30 Sep 2015 Last Revised: 25 Oct 2015
Ralph de Haas, Milena Djourelova and Elena Nikolova
European Bank for Reconstruction and Development, European Bank for Reconstruction and Development (EBRD) and Central European Labour Studies Institute (CELSI)
Downloads 6 (547,272)

Abstract:

financial crisis, social preferences, Ukraine

26.

Regional Inflation, Financial Integration and Dollarization

Forthcoming, Review of Finance
Number of pages: 63 Posted: 10 Dec 2013 Last Revised: 01 Apr 2017
Martin Brown, Ralph de Haas and Vladimir Sokolov
University of St. Gallen - Swiss Institute of Banking and Finance, European Bank for Reconstruction and Development and National Research University Higher School of Economics
Downloads 54 (234,264)

Abstract:

Financial dollarization, financial integration, regional inflation

The Limits of Lending: Banks and Technology Adoption Across Russia

CentER Discussion Paper Series No. 2015-011, European Banking Center Discussion Paper Series No. 2015-001
Number of pages: 65 Posted: 27 Feb 2015
Cagatay Bircan and Ralph de Haas
European Bank for Reconstruction and Development and European Bank for Reconstruction and Development
Downloads 35 (391,946)

Abstract:

Credit constraints; firm innovation; technological change

The Limits of Lending: Banks and Technology Adoption Across Russia

CESifo Working Paper Series No. 5461
Number of pages: 73 Posted: 04 Aug 2015
Cagatay Bircan and Ralph de Haas
European Bank for Reconstruction and Development and European Bank for Reconstruction and Development
Downloads 18 (479,326)

Abstract:

credit constraints, firm innovation, technological change

28.

The Crisis as a Wake-Up Call- Do Banks Tighten Screening and Monitoring During a Financial Crisis?

De Nederlandsche Bank Working Paper No. 255
Number of pages: 39 Posted: 25 Oct 2011
Ralph de Haas and Neeltje van Horen
European Bank for Reconstruction and Development and De Nederlandsche Bank
Downloads 46 (273,325)
Citation 2

Abstract:

bank lending, financial crisis, loan retention, screening and monitoring, syndication

29.

Foreign Banks and the Vienna Initiative: Turning Sinners into Saints?

IMF Working Paper No. 12/117
Number of pages: 42 Posted: 09 Aug 2012
European Bank for Reconstruction and Development, European Bank for Reconstruction and Development (EBRD), International Monetary Fund (IMF) and Harvard University
Downloads 43 (345,550)
Citation 5

Abstract:

Foreign Banks, Vienna Initiative, State Support, Bank Supervision, Credit Expansion, Eastern Europe, Global Financial Crisis 2008-2009

30.

How Much is too Much?

Economisch Statistische Berichten Jaargang, Vol. 87, No. 4396, p. 114, 2003
Number of pages: 1 Posted: 01 Mar 2004
Ralph de Haas
European Bank for Reconstruction and Development
Downloads 43 (345,550)

Abstract:

inflation, threshold effects

31.

Group Lending or Individual Lending? Evidence from a Randomized Field Experiment in Rural Mongolia

Forthcoming in the American Economic Journal: Applied Economics, CentER Discussion Paper Series No. 2013-074
Number of pages: 68 Posted: 10 Dec 2013 Last Revised: 15 Jul 2014
University College London - Department of Economics, Institute for Fiscal Studies (IFS), European Bank for Reconstruction and Development, Institute for Fiscal Studies (IFS) and European Bank for Reconstruction and Development (EBRD)
Downloads 30 (316,285)
Citation 3

Abstract:

Microcredit; poverty; randomized field experiment

32.

Taming the Herd? Foreign Banks, the Vienna Initiative and Crisis Transmission

Journal of Financial Intermediation, Forthcoming
Number of pages: 31 Posted: 22 Feb 2014 Last Revised: 15 Jul 2014
European Bank for Reconstruction and Development, European Bank for Reconstruction and Development (EBRD), Harvard University and European Bank for Reconstruction and Development (EBRD)
Downloads 17 (403,206)
Citation 1

Abstract:

Global banking, Vienna Initiative, Financial crisis

33.

The Dynamic Adjustment towards Target Capital Structures of Firms in Transition Economies

Economics of Transition, Vol. 14, No. 1, pp. 133-169, January 2006
Number of pages: 37 Posted: 08 May 2006
Ralph de Haas and Marga Peeters
European Bank for Reconstruction and Development and De Nederlandsche Bank
Downloads 17 (467,890)
Citation 10
  • Add to Cart

Abstract:

34.

The Impacts of Microcredit: Evidence from Bosnia and Herzegovina

NBER Working Paper No. w18538
Number of pages: 42 Posted: 20 Nov 2012
Institute for Fiscal Studies (IFS), European Bank for Reconstruction and Development, European Bank for Reconstruction and Development (EBRD) and Yale University
Downloads 5 (509,099)
Citation 1

Abstract:

35.

Foreign Banks and Foreign Currency Lending in Emerging Europe

Economic Policy, Vol. 27, Issue 69, pp. 57-98, 2012
Number of pages: 42 Posted: 18 Jan 2012
Martin Brown and Ralph de Haas
University of St. Gallen - Swiss Institute of Banking and Finance and European Bank for Reconstruction and Development
Downloads 1 (554,999)
Citation 2
  • Add to Cart

Abstract:

36.

The Impact of Information Sharing on the Use of Collateral versus Guarantees

World Bank Economic Review (Forthcoming)
Number of pages: 10 Posted: 04 Sep 2016 Last Revised: 14 Dec 2016
Ralph de Haas and Matteo Millone
European Bank for Reconstruction and Development and VU University Amsterdam - Department of Finance and Financial Sector Management
Downloads 0 (416,669)

Abstract:

Information sharing, collateral, guarantees

37.

Microcredit Contracts, Risk Diversification and Loan Take-Up

CentER Discussion Paper Series No. 2016-020, European Banking Center Discussion Paper No. 2016-003
Number of pages: 36 Posted: 24 May 2016
Orazio Attanasio, Britta Augsburg and Ralph de Haas
University College London - Department of Economics, Institute for Fiscal Studies (IFS) and European Bank for Reconstruction and Development
Downloads 0 (509,099)

Abstract:

Microcredit, joint liability, loan take-up, risk diversification

38.

Microcredit Contracts, Risk Diversification and Loan Take-Up

Number of pages: 35 Posted: 28 Apr 2016 Last Revised: 20 May 2016
Orazio Attanasio, Britta Augsburg and Ralph de Haas
University College London - Department of Economics, Institute for Fiscal Studies (IFS) and European Bank for Reconstruction and Development
Downloads 0 (390,983)

Abstract:

Microcredit, joint liability, loan take-up, risk diversification

39.

When Arm's Length is Too Far: Relationship Banking Over the Business Cycle

CEPR Discussion Paper No. DP10050
Number of pages: 54 Posted: 25 Sep 2014
City University London - Sir John Cass Business School, European Bank for Reconstruction and Development, KU Leuven, Department Accounting, Finance and Insurance and De Nederlandsche Bank
Downloads 0 (569,319)
Citation 1
  • Add to Cart

Abstract:

business cycle, credit constraints, relationship banking

40.

The Dark and the Bright Side of Global Banking: A (Somewhat) Cautionary Tale from Emerging Europe

Comparative Economic Studies, Vol. 56, Issue 2, pp. 271-282, 2014
Number of pages: 12 Posted: 02 Jun 2014
Ralph de Haas
European Bank for Reconstruction and Development
Downloads 0 (569,319)
  • Add to Cart

Abstract:

41.

Foreign Bank Penetration and Private Sector Credit in Central and Eastern Europe

Journal of Emerging Market Finance, Vol. 3, No. 2, pp. 125-152, 2004
Posted: 17 Dec 2007
Ralph de Haas and Iman van Lelyveld
European Bank for Reconstruction and Development and De Nederlandsche Bank

Abstract:

Foreign banks, cross-border credit, financial stability, transition countries

42.

How Important are Foreign Banks in the Financial Development of European Transition Countries?

Journal of Emerging Market Finance, Vol. 3, No. 2, pp. 99-124, 2004
Posted: 17 Dec 2007
University of Groningen, University of Groningen - Department of Finance & Accounting, University of Groningen - Faculty of Economics and Business, University of Groningen and European Bank for Reconstruction and Development

Abstract:

Financial development, Financial institutions, Foreign banks

43.

Foreign Banks and Credit Stability in Central and Eastern Europe: A Panel Data Analysis

Journal of Banking and Finance, Vol. 30, pp. 1927-1952, 2006
Posted: 28 Aug 2005 Last Revised: 23 May 2016
Ralph de Haas and Iman van Lelyveld
European Bank for Reconstruction and Development and De Nederlandsche Bank

Abstract:

foreign banks, transition economies, credit growth, financial stability

44.

Finance, Law, and Growth During Transition: A Survey

De Economist, Vol. 152, No. 3, pp. 375-402, September 2004
Posted: 08 Sep 2004
Ralph de Haas
European Bank for Reconstruction and Development

Abstract:

Financial development, economic growth, legal institutions, transition countries

Other Papers (1)

Total Downloads: 31    Citations: 10
1.

Foreign Banks in Transition Countries: To Whom Do They Lend and How are They Financed?

Financial Markets, Institutions & Instruments, Vol. 15, No. 4, pp. 159-199, October 2006
Number of pages: 41 Posted: 08 Oct 2006
Ralph de Haas and Ilko Naaborg
European Bank for Reconstruction and Development and University of Groningen
Downloads 31
Citation 10
  • Add to Cart

Abstract: