William M. Carter

University of Pittsburgh - School of Law

Dean

3900 Forbes Ave.

Pittsburgh, PA 15260

United States

SCHOLARLY PAPERS

22

DOWNLOADS
Rank 15,232

SSRN RANKINGS

Top 15,232

in Total Papers Downloads

2,417

CITATIONS
Rank 40,116

SSRN RANKINGS

Top 40,116

in Total Papers Citations

4

Scholarly Papers (22)

1.

A. Leon Higginbotham, An Open Letter to Justice Clarence Thomas from a Federal Judicial Colleague

MILESTONE DOCUMENTS IN AFRICAN AMERICAN HISTORY, p. 1686, Schlager Group, 2010, Temple University Legal Studies Research Paper No. 2011-35
Number of pages: 19 Posted: 24 Sep 2011 Last Revised: 04 Nov 2011
William M. Carter Jr.
University of Pittsburgh - School of Law
Downloads 346 (51,064)

Abstract:

Justice Thomas, Judge Higginbotham, integration, segregation, affirmative action, racial discrimination, equal protection, Equal Protection Clause, stigma, equality

2.

Race, Rights, and the Thirteenth Amendment: Defining the Badges and Incidents of Slavery

UC Davis Law Review, Vol. 40, p. 1311, 2007, Case Research Paper Series in Legal Studies Working Paper 06-04
Number of pages: 69 Posted: 07 Mar 2006 Last Revised: 21 Dec 2015
William M. Carter Jr.
University of Pittsburgh - School of Law
Downloads 230 (84,642)

Abstract:

Thirteenth Amendment, badges and incidents of slavery, Enforcement Clause, Judicial Authority, Constitutional Interpretation, Original Intent, Discrimination, Separation of Powers, Critical Race Theory, Jones v. Alfred H. Mayer Co., Boerne v. Flores

3.

Treaties as Law and the Rule of Law: The Judicial Power to Compel Domestic Treaty Implementation

Maryland Law Review, Vol. 69, p. 344, 2010, Temple University Legal Studies Research Paper No. 2009-29
Number of pages: 46 Posted: 09 May 2009 Last Revised: 13 Oct 2012
William M. Carter Jr.
University of Pittsburgh - School of Law
Downloads 190 (120,043)

Abstract:

constitutional law, international law, international human rights law separation of powers, criminal law, mandamus, treaties, human rights, judicial review, supremacy clause, treaty clause, self-execution, self-executing, non-self- execution, non-self-executing, Medellin v. Texas, implementing legis

4.

Affirmative Action as Government Speech

UCLA Law Review, Vol. 59, No. 2, 2011, Temple University Legal Studies Research Paper No. 2011-10, U. of Pittsburgh Legal Studies Research Paper
Number of pages: 57 Posted: 14 Feb 2011 Last Revised: 10 Aug 2016
William M. Carter Jr.
University of Pittsburgh - School of Law
Downloads 158 (148,541)

Abstract:

5.

Rethinking Subsidiarity in International Human Rights Adjudication

Hamline Journal of Public Law and Policy, 2009, Temple University Legal Studies Research Paper No. 2009-30
Number of pages: 17 Posted: 14 May 2009 Last Revised: 01 Jul 2013
William M. Carter Jr.
University of Pittsburgh - School of Law
Downloads 128 (162,724)

Abstract:

international law, international human rights law, treaties, margain of appreciation, deference, subsidiarity, European Court of Human Rights, Universal Declaration of Human Rights, International Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Racial Discrimination, International Covenant on Civil

6.

Toward a Thirteenth Amendment Exclusionary Rule as a Remedy for Racial Profiling

THE PROMISES OF LIBERTY: THIRTEENTH AMENDMENT ABOLITIONISM AND ITS CONTEMPORARY VITALITY, p. 266, Alexander Tsesis, ed., Columbia University Press, Forthcoming , Temple University Legal Studies Research Paper No. 2008-57, U. of Pittsburgh Legal Studies Research Paper No. 2012-27
Number of pages: 14 Posted: 20 Mar 2008 Last Revised: 04 Oct 2012
William M. Carter Jr.
University of Pittsburgh - School of Law
Downloads 128 (167,464)

Abstract:

thirteenth amendment, badges and incidents of slavery, exclusionary rule, Hudson v. Michigan, racial profiling, slavery

7.

A Thirteenth Amendment Framework for Combating Racial Profiling

Harvard Civil Rights- Civil Liberties Law Review (CR-CL), Vol. 17, p. 39, 2004, Temple University Legal Studies Research Paper
Number of pages: 77 Posted: 23 Sep 2011
William M. Carter Jr.
University of Pittsburgh - School of Law
Downloads 115 (191,760)
Citation 4

Abstract:

Thirteenth Amendment, badges and incidents of slavery, race, civil rights, racial profiling, Jones v. Alfred H. Mayer Co., Fourth Amendment, Fourteenth Amendment, equal protection, Equal Protection Clause, sole motive, United States v. Avery, slavery, abolition, stigma, Whren v. United States

8.

The Paradox of Political Power: Post-Racialism, Equal Protection, and Democracy

Emory Law Journal, Vol. 61, p. 1123, 2012, Temple University Legal Studies Research Paper No. 2011-24, U. of Pittsburgh Legal Studies Research Paper No. 2012-25
Number of pages: 31 Posted: 09 Aug 2011 Last Revised: 22 Sep 2012
William M. Carter Jr.
University of Pittsburgh - School of Law
Downloads 113 (182,183)

Abstract:

affirmative action, race, civil rights, political process, racial minorities, Citizens United v. FEC

9.

The Thirteenth Amendment and Interest Convergence

Maryland Law Review, Fall 2011, Temple University Legal Studies Research Paper No. 2012-02, U. of Pittsburgh Legal Studies Research Paper Series
Number of pages: 20 Posted: 23 Sep 2011 Last Revised: 11 Oct 2012
William M. Carter Jr.
University of Pittsburgh - School of Law
Downloads 94 (206,214)

Abstract:

Thirteenth Amendment, badges and incidents of slavery, race, civil rights, racial profiling, Jones v. Alfred H. Mayer Co., Fourteenth Amendment, equal protection, Equal Protection Clause, slavery, abolition, civil war, reconstruction, Congress, black codes, slave codes, Brown v. Board of Education

10.

Clarence Thomas’s Concurrence/Dissent in Grutter v. Bollinger

MILESTONE DOCUMENTS IN AFRICAN AMERICAN HISTORY, p. 1740, Schlager Group, 2010, Temple University Legal Studies Research Paper No. 2011-36
Number of pages: 22 Posted: 23 Sep 2011 Last Revised: 04 Nov 2011
William M. Carter Jr.
University of Pittsburgh - School of Law
Downloads 90 (207,635)

Abstract:

Justice Thomas, Grutter, Gratz, affirmative action, integration, segregation, racial discrimination, equal protection, Equal Protection Clause, stigma, equality, Adarand

11.

Brief of Amici Curiae Thirteenth Amendment Scholars in Support of Plaintiff-Appellee and Affirmance

U.S. Court of Appeals for the Tenth Circuit, No. 12-2040, U. of Pittsburgh Legal Studies Research Paper No. 2012-31
Number of pages: 36 Posted: 16 Nov 2012 Last Revised: 21 Nov 2013
University of Pittsburgh - School of Law, Georgetown University Law Center, Loyola University Chicago School of Law and University of Toledo College of Law
Downloads 81 (217,864)

Abstract:

Thirteenth Amendment, hate crimes, racial discrimination, disability, sexual orientation, Congress, enforcement clause power, Civil Rights, rationality standard, congruence and proportionality, private action, Jones v. Alfred H. Mayer Co., City of Boerne

12.

The Thirteenth Amendment and Pro-Equality Speech

Columbia Law Review, Vol. 112, p. 1855, 2012, U. of Pittsburgh Legal Studies Research Paper No. 2012-30
Number of pages: 29 Posted: 30 Oct 2012
William M. Carter Jr.
University of Pittsburgh - School of Law
Downloads 63 (250,090)

Abstract:

Thirteenth Amendment, antiretaliation, slavery, freedom of speech, retaliation, abolition, civil rights, racial equality, discrimination, racial justice, abolitionists, enslavement, Reconstruction, post-racial, social norms

13.

The Promises of Freedom: The Contemporary Relevance of the Thirteenth Amendment

Temple Law Review, Vol. 85, p. 867, 2013, U. of Pittsburgh Legal Studies Research Paper No. 2013-41
Number of pages: 13 Posted: 24 Nov 2013
William M. Carter Jr.
University of Pittsburgh - School of Law
Downloads 59 (246,363)

Abstract:

Thirteenth Amendment, badges and incidents of slavery, Constitutional interpretation, original intent, discrimination, Critical Race Theory, civil rights, racial equality, slavery, abolition, judicial interpretation, legislative history, United States, jurisprudence, Jones v. Alfred H. Myer Co.

14.

The Mote in Thy Brother’s Eye: A Review of Human Rights as Politics and Idolatry

Berkeley Journal of International Law (BJIL), Vol. 20, p. 496, 2002, Temple University Legal Studies Research Paper
Number of pages: 17 Posted: 24 Sep 2011
William M. Carter Jr.
University of Pittsburgh - School of Law
Downloads 37 (315,189)

Abstract:

Human rights, international law, Michael Ignatieff, cultural relativism, universalism, domestic enforcement, Filartiga v. Pena-Irala, Alien Tort Claims Act, cultural imperialism, Supremacy Clause, The Paquete Habana, U.S. v. Alvarez-Machain, Alexander v. Sandoval

15.

Judicial Review of Thirteenth Amendment Legislation: 'Congruence and Proportionality' or 'Necessary and Proper'?

University of Toledo Law Review, Vol. 38, p. 973, 2007, Temple University Legal Studies Research Paper
Number of pages: 18 Posted: 23 Sep 2011
William M. Carter Jr.
University of Pittsburgh - School of Law
Downloads 32 (321,018)

Abstract:

Thirteenth Amendment, badges and incidents of slavery, race, civil rights, racial profiling, Jones v. Alfred H. Mayer Co., Fourteenth Amendment, equal protection, Equal Protection Clause, slavery, abolition, congruence and proportionality, necessary and proper, Marbury, McCulloch, civil war

16.

Trust Me, I’m a Judge: Why Binding Judicial Notice of Jurisdictional Facts Violates the Right to Jury Trial

Missouri Law Review, Vol. 68, p. 649, 2003, Temple University Legal Studies Research Paper
Number of pages: 55 Posted: 23 Sep 2011 Last Revised: 16 Nov 2012
William M. Carter Jr.
University of Pittsburgh - School of Law
Downloads 24 (352,339)

Abstract:

Sixth Amendment, Due Process Clause, fair trial, judge, jury, Apprendi v. New Jersey, judicial notice, Ring v. Arizona, special territorial jurisdiction, jurisdictional element, Rule 201, separation of powers, 18 USC 7, legislative facts, adjudicative facts, harmless error, structural error

17.

Rethinking the Constitution - Treaty Relationship: A Reply to Remy Z. Levin & Paul Chen

10 Int’l Journal of Constitutional Law 261 (2012), Temple University Legal Studies Research Paper No. 2012-17, U. of Pittsburgh Legal Studies Research Paper No. 2012-29,
Number of pages: 8 Posted: 25 May 2012 Last Revised: 23 Oct 2012
William M. Carter Jr.
University of Pittsburgh - School of Law
Downloads 19 (405,130)

Abstract:

Remy Z. Levin, Paul Chen, constitutional interpretation, constitutional adjustment, separation of powers, judicial review, Boerne v. Flores, treaties, Medellin v. Texas, individual rights, Fourteenth Amendment, Head Money Cases, Treaty Clause

18.

Landmark Case at 40

National Law Journal, Vol. 30, No. 41, June 2008, Temple University Legal Studies Research Paper , U. of Pittsburgh Legal Studies Research Paper Series
Number of pages: 2 Posted: 24 Sep 2011
William M. Carter Jr.
University of Pittsburgh - School of Law
Downloads 10 (455,743)

Abstract:

Thirteenth Amendment, badges and incidents of slavery, race, civil rights, racial profiling, Jones v. Alfred H. Mayer Co., Fourteenth Amendment, equal protection, Equal Protection Clause, slavery, abolition, stigma, strict scrutiny, housing discrimination, civil war, reconstruction, Congress

19.

Whren's Flawed Assumptions Regarding Race, History, and Unconscious Bias

Case Western Reserve Law Review, Vol. 66, p. 947, 2016, U. of Pittsburgh Legal Studies Research Paper No. 2016-17
Number of pages: 11 Posted: 09 Jul 2016
William M. Carter Jr.
University of Pittsburgh - School of Law
Downloads 0 (281,863)

Abstract:

racial profiling, race-based pretextual stops, racial discrimination, equal protection doctrine, Whren, civil rights, Fourth Amendment, Fourteenth Amendment, Thirteenth Amendment, constitutional remedy, badges and incidents of slavery, unconscious bias

20.

Class as Caste: The Thirteenth Amendment’s Applicability to Class-Based Subordination

Seattle University Law Review, Vol. 39, p. 813, 2016, U. of Pittsburgh Legal Studies Research Paper No. 2016-18
Number of pages: 16 Posted: 25 May 2016
William M. Carter Jr.
University of Pittsburgh - School of Law
Downloads 0 (450,567)

Abstract:

Thirteenth Amendment, class-based subordination, social class, racial caste system, class-based discrimination, poverty, badges and incidents of slavery, Slave Power, income inequity, mass incarceration, civil rights, slave system, Framers' intent, legal interpretation, race equity, US Constitution

21.

The Abolition of Slavery in the United States: Historical Context and Its Contemporary Application

In The Legal Understanding of Slavery: From the Historical to the Contemporary (Jean Allain, ed., Oxford Univ. Press, 2012), U. of Pittsburgh Legal Studies Research Paper No. 2015-42
Number of pages: 21 Posted: 23 Dec 2015
William M. Carter Jr.
University of Pittsburgh - School of Law
Downloads 0 (270,503)

Abstract:

Thirteenth Amendment, slavery, abolition, civil war, badges and incidents of slavery, race, civil rights, racial discrimination, Jones v. Alfred H. Mayer Co., Fourteenth Amendment, equal protection, Equal Protection Clause, Constitutional interpretation, original intent, critical race theory

22.

The Thirteenth Amendment and Constitutional Change

New York University Review of Law & Social Change, Vol. 38, p. 583 (2014), U. of Pittsburgh Legal Studies Research Paper No. 2015-36
Number of pages: 12 Posted: 16 Nov 2015
William M. Carter Jr.
University of Pittsburgh - School of Law
Downloads 0 (304,173)

Abstract:

Thirteenth Amendment, badges and incidents of slavery, race, civil rights, racial discrimination, Jones v. Alfred H. Mayer Co., Fourteenth Amendment, equal protection, Equal Protection Clause, slavery, abolition, civil war, original intent, critical race theory, stigma, constitutional scrutiny