William M. Carter, Jr.

University of Pittsburgh - School of Law

Professor of Law

3900 Forbes Ave.

Pittsburgh, PA 15260

United States

SCHOLARLY PAPERS

22

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in Total Papers Downloads

3,032

CITATIONS

4

Scholarly Papers (22)

1.

A. Leon Higginbotham, An Open Letter to Justice Clarence Thomas from a Federal Judicial Colleague

MILESTONE DOCUMENTS IN AFRICAN AMERICAN HISTORY, p. 1686, Schlager Group, 2010, Temple University Legal Studies Research Paper No. 2011-35
Number of pages: 19 Posted: 24 Sep 2011 Last Revised: 19 Apr 2019
William M. Carter, Jr.
University of Pittsburgh - School of Law
Downloads 539 (49,682)

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Justice Thomas, Judge Higginbotham, integration, segregation, affirmative action, racial discrimination, equal protection, Equal Protection Clause, stigma, equality

2.

Race, Rights, and the Thirteenth Amendment: Defining the Badges and Incidents of Slavery

UC Davis Law Review, Vol. 40, p. 1311, 2007, Case Research Paper Series in Legal Studies Working Paper 06-04
Number of pages: 69 Posted: 07 Mar 2006 Last Revised: 19 Apr 2019
William M. Carter, Jr.
University of Pittsburgh - School of Law
Downloads 364 (80,147)
Citation 1

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Thirteenth Amendment, badges and incidents of slavery, Enforcement Clause, Judicial Authority, Constitutional Interpretation, Original Intent, Discrimination, Separation of Powers, Critical Race Theory, Jones v. Alfred H. Mayer Co., Boerne v. Flores

3.

A Thirteenth Amendment Framework for Combating Racial Profiling

Harvard Civil Rights- Civil Liberties Law Review (CR-CL), Vol. 17, p. 39, 2004, Temple University Legal Studies Research Paper
Number of pages: 77 Posted: 23 Sep 2011
William M. Carter, Jr.
University of Pittsburgh - School of Law
Downloads 246 (122,647)
Citation 1

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Thirteenth Amendment, badges and incidents of slavery, race, civil rights, racial profiling, Jones v. Alfred H. Mayer Co., Fourth Amendment, Fourteenth Amendment, equal protection, Equal Protection Clause, sole motive, United States v. Avery, slavery, abolition, stigma, Whren v. United States

4.

Treaties as Law and the Rule of Law: The Judicial Power to Compel Domestic Treaty Implementation

Maryland Law Review, Vol. 69, p. 344, 2010, Temple University Legal Studies Research Paper No. 2009-29
Number of pages: 46 Posted: 09 May 2009 Last Revised: 19 Apr 2019
William M. Carter, Jr.
University of Pittsburgh - School of Law
Downloads 213 (141,310)

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constitutional law, international law, international human rights law separation of powers, criminal law, mandamus, treaties, human rights, judicial review, supremacy clause, treaty clause, self-execution, self-executing, non-self- execution, non-self-executing, Medellin v. Texas, implementing legis

5.

Affirmative Action as Government Speech

UCLA Law Review, Vol. 59, No. 2, 2011, Temple University Legal Studies Research Paper No. 2011-10, U. of Pittsburgh Legal Studies Research Paper
Number of pages: 57 Posted: 14 Feb 2011 Last Revised: 10 Aug 2016
William M. Carter, Jr.
University of Pittsburgh - School of Law
Downloads 165 (178,169)
Citation 1

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6.

Clarence Thomas’s Concurrence/Dissent in Grutter v. Bollinger

MILESTONE DOCUMENTS IN AFRICAN AMERICAN HISTORY, p. 1740, Schlager Group, 2010, Temple University Legal Studies Research Paper No. 2011-36
Number of pages: 22 Posted: 23 Sep 2011 Last Revised: 19 Apr 2019
William M. Carter, Jr.
University of Pittsburgh - School of Law
Downloads 163 (180,003)

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Justice Thomas, Grutter, Gratz, affirmative action, integration, segregation, racial discrimination, equal protection, Equal Protection Clause, stigma, equality, Adarand

7.

Rethinking Subsidiarity in International Human Rights Adjudication

Hamline Journal of Public Law and Policy, 2009, Temple University Legal Studies Research Paper No. 2009-30
Number of pages: 17 Posted: 14 May 2009 Last Revised: 19 Apr 2019
William M. Carter, Jr.
University of Pittsburgh - School of Law
Downloads 161 (181,848)

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international law, international human rights law, treaties, margain of appreciation, deference, subsidiarity, European Court of Human Rights, Universal Declaration of Human Rights, International Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Racial Discrimination, International Covenant on Civil

8.

The Abolition of Slavery in the United States: Historical Context and Its Contemporary Application

In The Legal Understanding of Slavery: From the Historical to the Contemporary (Jean Allain, ed., Oxford Univ. Press, 2012), U. of Pittsburgh Legal Studies Research Paper No. 2015-42
Number of pages: 21 Posted: 23 Dec 2015
William M. Carter, Jr.
University of Pittsburgh - School of Law
Downloads 146 (197,373)

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Thirteenth Amendment, slavery, abolition, civil war, badges and incidents of slavery, race, civil rights, racial discrimination, Jones v. Alfred H. Mayer Co., Fourteenth Amendment, equal protection, Equal Protection Clause, Constitutional interpretation, original intent, critical race theory

9.

Toward a Thirteenth Amendment Exclusionary Rule as a Remedy for Racial Profiling

THE PROMISES OF LIBERTY: THIRTEENTH AMENDMENT ABOLITIONISM AND ITS CONTEMPORARY VITALITY, p. 266, Alexander Tsesis, ed., Columbia University Press, Forthcoming , Temple University Legal Studies Research Paper No. 2008-57, U. of Pittsburgh Legal Studies Research Paper No. 2012-27
Number of pages: 14 Posted: 20 Mar 2008 Last Revised: 04 Oct 2012
William M. Carter, Jr.
University of Pittsburgh - School of Law
Downloads 142 (201,847)

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thirteenth amendment, badges and incidents of slavery, exclusionary rule, Hudson v. Michigan, racial profiling, slavery

10.

The Paradox of Political Power: Post-Racialism, Equal Protection, and Democracy

Emory Law Journal, Vol. 61, p. 1123, 2012, Temple University Legal Studies Research Paper No. 2011-24, U. of Pittsburgh Legal Studies Research Paper No. 2012-25
Number of pages: 31 Posted: 09 Aug 2011 Last Revised: 22 Sep 2012
William M. Carter, Jr.
University of Pittsburgh - School of Law
Downloads 129 (217,939)
Citation 1

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affirmative action, race, civil rights, political process, racial minorities, Citizens United v. FEC

11.

Brief of Amici Curiae Thirteenth Amendment Scholars in Support of Plaintiff-Appellee and Affirmance

U.S. Court of Appeals for the Tenth Circuit, No. 12-2040, U. of Pittsburgh Legal Studies Research Paper No. 2012-31
Number of pages: 36 Posted: 16 Nov 2012 Last Revised: 21 Nov 2013
University of Pittsburgh - School of Law, University of Maryland Francis King Carey School of Law, Loyola University Chicago School of Law and University of Toledo College of Law
Downloads 115 (237,523)

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Thirteenth Amendment, hate crimes, racial discrimination, disability, sexual orientation, Congress, enforcement clause power, Civil Rights, rationality standard, congruence and proportionality, private action, Jones v. Alfred H. Mayer Co., City of Boerne

12.

The Thirteenth Amendment and Interest Convergence

Maryland Law Review, Fall 2011, Temple University Legal Studies Research Paper No. 2012-02, U. of Pittsburgh Legal Studies Research Paper Series
Number of pages: 20 Posted: 23 Sep 2011 Last Revised: 11 Oct 2012
William M. Carter, Jr.
University of Pittsburgh - School of Law
Downloads 115 (237,523)

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Thirteenth Amendment, badges and incidents of slavery, race, civil rights, racial profiling, Jones v. Alfred H. Mayer Co., Fourteenth Amendment, equal protection, Equal Protection Clause, slavery, abolition, civil war, reconstruction, Congress, black codes, slave codes, Brown v. Board of Education

13.

The Promises of Freedom: The Contemporary Relevance of the Thirteenth Amendment

Temple Law Review, Vol. 85, p. 867, 2013, U. of Pittsburgh Legal Studies Research Paper No. 2013-41
Number of pages: 13 Posted: 24 Nov 2013
William M. Carter, Jr.
University of Pittsburgh - School of Law
Downloads 93 (274,495)

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Thirteenth Amendment, badges and incidents of slavery, Constitutional interpretation, original intent, discrimination, Critical Race Theory, civil rights, racial equality, slavery, abolition, judicial interpretation, legislative history, United States, jurisprudence, Jones v. Alfred H. Myer Co.

14.

The Thirteenth Amendment and Pro-Equality Speech

Columbia Law Review, Vol. 112, p. 1855, 2012, U. of Pittsburgh Legal Studies Research Paper No. 2012-30
Number of pages: 29 Posted: 30 Oct 2012
William M. Carter, Jr.
University of Pittsburgh - School of Law
Downloads 87 (286,266)

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Thirteenth Amendment, antiretaliation, slavery, freedom of speech, retaliation, abolition, civil rights, racial equality, discrimination, racial justice, abolitionists, enslavement, Reconstruction, post-racial, social norms

15.

Whren's Flawed Assumptions Regarding Race, History, and Unconscious Bias

Case Western Reserve Law Review, Vol. 66, p. 947, 2016, U. of Pittsburgh Legal Studies Research Paper No. 2016-17
Number of pages: 11 Posted: 09 Jul 2016
William M. Carter, Jr.
University of Pittsburgh - School of Law
Downloads 69 (327,670)

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racial profiling, race-based pretextual stops, racial discrimination, equal protection doctrine, Whren, civil rights, Fourth Amendment, Fourteenth Amendment, Thirteenth Amendment, constitutional remedy, badges and incidents of slavery, unconscious bias

16.

The Thirteenth Amendment and Constitutional Change

New York University Review of Law & Social Change, Vol. 38, p. 583 (2014), U. of Pittsburgh Legal Studies Research Paper No. 2015-36
Number of pages: 12 Posted: 16 Nov 2015
William M. Carter, Jr.
University of Pittsburgh - School of Law
Downloads 67 (332,915)

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Thirteenth Amendment, badges and incidents of slavery, race, civil rights, racial discrimination, Jones v. Alfred H. Mayer Co., Fourteenth Amendment, equal protection, Equal Protection Clause, slavery, abolition, civil war, original intent, critical race theory, stigma, constitutional scrutiny

17.

The Mote in Thy Brother’s Eye: A Review of Human Rights as Politics and Idolatry

Berkeley Journal of International Law (BJIL), Vol. 20, p. 496, 2002, Temple University Legal Studies Research Paper
Number of pages: 17 Posted: 24 Sep 2011
William M. Carter, Jr.
University of Pittsburgh - School of Law
Downloads 61 (349,265)

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Human rights, international law, Michael Ignatieff, cultural relativism, universalism, domestic enforcement, Filartiga v. Pena-Irala, Alien Tort Claims Act, cultural imperialism, Supremacy Clause, The Paquete Habana, U.S. v. Alvarez-Machain, Alexander v. Sandoval

18.

Judicial Review of Thirteenth Amendment Legislation: 'Congruence and Proportionality' or 'Necessary and Proper'?

University of Toledo Law Review, Vol. 38, p. 973, 2007, Temple University Legal Studies Research Paper
Number of pages: 18 Posted: 23 Sep 2011
William M. Carter, Jr.
University of Pittsburgh - School of Law
Downloads 52 (376,768)

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Thirteenth Amendment, badges and incidents of slavery, race, civil rights, racial profiling, Jones v. Alfred H. Mayer Co., Fourteenth Amendment, equal protection, Equal Protection Clause, slavery, abolition, congruence and proportionality, necessary and proper, Marbury, McCulloch, civil war

19.

Trust Me, I’m a Judge: Why Binding Judicial Notice of Jurisdictional Facts Violates the Right to Jury Trial

Missouri Law Review, Vol. 68, p. 649, 2003, Temple University Legal Studies Research Paper
Number of pages: 55 Posted: 23 Sep 2011 Last Revised: 16 Nov 2012
William M. Carter, Jr.
University of Pittsburgh - School of Law
Downloads 40 (418,970)

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Sixth Amendment, Due Process Clause, fair trial, judge, jury, Apprendi v. New Jersey, judicial notice, Ring v. Arizona, special territorial jurisdiction, jurisdictional element, Rule 201, separation of powers, 18 USC 7, legislative facts, adjudicative facts, harmless error, structural error

20.

Rethinking the Constitution - Treaty Relationship: A Reply to Remy Z. Levin & Paul Chen

10 Int’l Journal of Constitutional Law 261 (2012), Temple University Legal Studies Research Paper No. 2012-17, U. of Pittsburgh Legal Studies Research Paper No. 2012-29
Number of pages: 8 Posted: 25 May 2012 Last Revised: 23 Oct 2012
William M. Carter, Jr.
University of Pittsburgh - School of Law
Downloads 26 (481,373)

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Remy Z. Levin, Paul Chen, constitutional interpretation, constitutional adjustment, separation of powers, judicial review, Boerne v. Flores, treaties, Medellin v. Texas, individual rights, Fourteenth Amendment, Head Money Cases, Treaty Clause

21.

Class as Caste: The Thirteenth Amendment’s Applicability to Class-Based Subordination

Seattle University Law Review, Vol. 39, p. 813, 2016, U. of Pittsburgh Legal Studies Research Paper No. 2016-18
Number of pages: 16 Posted: 25 May 2016
William M. Carter, Jr.
University of Pittsburgh - School of Law
Downloads 23 (497,826)

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Thirteenth Amendment, class-based subordination, social class, racial caste system, class-based discrimination, poverty, badges and incidents of slavery, Slave Power, income inequity, mass incarceration, civil rights, slave system, Framers' intent, legal interpretation, race equity, US Constitution

22.

Landmark Case at 40

National Law Journal, Vol. 30, No. 41, June 2008, Temple University Legal Studies Research Paper , U. of Pittsburgh Legal Studies Research Paper Series
Number of pages: 2 Posted: 24 Sep 2011
William M. Carter, Jr.
University of Pittsburgh - School of Law
Downloads 16 (538,037)

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Thirteenth Amendment, badges and incidents of slavery, race, civil rights, racial profiling, Jones v. Alfred H. Mayer Co., Fourteenth Amendment, equal protection, Equal Protection Clause, slavery, abolition, stigma, strict scrutiny, housing discrimination, civil war, reconstruction, Congress