James A. Gardner

University at Buffalo Law School

Room 514, O'Brian Hall

Buffalo, NY 14260-1100

United States

http://www.law.buffalo.edu

SCHOLARLY PAPERS

53

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26

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9

Scholarly Papers (53)

1.

Legal Argument: The Structure and Language of Effective Advocacy

Carolina Academic Press, 3d edition, 2020
Number of pages: 24 Posted: 28 Nov 2007 Last Revised: 05 Oct 2020
James A. Gardner and Christine Bartholomew
University at Buffalo Law School and University at Buffalo School of Law
Downloads 2,689 (9,677)

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legal writing, argument, advocacy, syllogisms, briefs

2.

Partitioning and Rights: The U.S. Supreme Court’s Accidental Jurisprudence of Democratic Process

SUNY Buffalo Legal Studies Research Paper No. 2014-013
Number of pages: 44 Posted: 12 Dec 2013
James A. Gardner
University at Buffalo Law School
Downloads 953 (46,572)
Citation 1

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election law, democracy, representation

3.

The Myth of State Autonomy: Federalism, Political Parties, and the National Colonization of State Politics

Journal of Law and Politics, Vol. 29, No. 1, 2013, SUNY Buffalo Legal Studies Research Paper No. 2013-21
Number of pages: 69 Posted: 18 Dec 2012 Last Revised: 11 Oct 2013
James A. Gardner
University at Buffalo Law School
Downloads 763 (63,099)
Citation 1

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federalism, autonomy, party, politics

4.

The New Frontier of State Constitutional Law

William & Mary Law Review, Vol. 46, pp. 1231-1243, 2006, FSU College of Law, Public Law Research Paper No. 131
Number of pages: 14 Posted: 03 Nov 2004
James A. Gardner and Jim Rossi
University at Buffalo Law School and Vanderbilt University - Law School
Downloads 486 (111,235)

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5.
Downloads 397 (140,929)
Citation 1

Dual Enforcement of Constitutional Norms

NEW FRONTIERS OF STATE CONSTITUTIONAL LAW, Oxford University Press, 2010, FSU College of Law, Public Law Research Paper No. 407
Number of pages: 21 Posted: 15 Oct 2009 Last Revised: 16 Dec 2009
James A. Gardner and Jim Rossi
University at Buffalo Law School and Vanderbilt University - Law School
Downloads 207 (273,812)

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federalism, state constitutions, state constitutional law, state courts, dialogic

New Frontiers of State Constitutional Law: Dual Enforcement of Norms

NEW FRONTIERS OF STATE CONSTITUTIONAL LAW, Oxford University Press, 2011, FSU College of Law, Public Law Research Paper No. 478, FSU College of Law, Law, Business & Economics Paper No. 11-1, Buffalo Legal Studies Research Paper No. 2011-011
Number of pages: 14 Posted: 16 Jan 2011 Last Revised: 09 Oct 2017
James A. Gardner and Jim Rossi
University at Buffalo Law School and Vanderbilt University - Law School
Downloads 190 (296,088)

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State Constitutional Law, Constitutional Interpretation, Federalism, Constitutional Rights, Judicial Review, Same-Sex Marriage, Separation of Power, State Action

6.

In Search of Subnational Constitutionalism

Buffalo Legal Studies Research Paper No. 2007-016
Number of pages: 35 Posted: 26 Sep 2007
James A. Gardner
University at Buffalo Law School
Downloads 278 (206,365)
Citation 2

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federalism, constitutionalism, subnational, comparative, international

7.

The Illiberalization of American Election Law: A Study in Democratic Deconsolidation

Fordham Law Review, Vol. 90, No. 423, 2021, University at Buffalo School of Law Legal Studies Research Paper No. 2020-003
Number of pages: 44 Posted: 28 Jan 2021 Last Revised: 04 Nov 2021
James A. Gardner
University at Buffalo Law School
Downloads 271 (211,818)

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Democracy, Elections, Election Law, Illiberalism, Deconsolidation, Democratic backsliding

8.

Anti-Regulatory Absolutism in the Campaign Arena: Citizens United and the Implied Slippery Slope

Cornell Journal of Law and Public Policy, Vol. 20, 2010
Number of pages: 46 Posted: 25 Aug 2010 Last Revised: 09 Oct 2011
James A. Gardner
University at Buffalo Law School
Downloads 258 (222,382)
Citation 2

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campaign spending, democracy, citizens united, slippery slope, incumbent protection

9.

Representation Without Party: Lessons from State Constitutional Attempts to Control Gerrymandering

Rutgers Law Journal, Vol. 37, 2006, Buffalo Legal Studies Research Paper No. 2006-007
Number of pages: 85 Posted: 11 Apr 2006
James A. Gardner
University at Buffalo Law School
Downloads 244 (234,961)
Citation 1

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representation, redistricting, apportionment, gerrymandering, state constitutions

10.

Democracy Without a Net? Separation of Powers and the Idea of Self-Sustaining Constitutional Constraints on Undemocratic Behavior

St. John's Law Review, Vol. 79, pp. 293-317, March 2005
Number of pages: 25 Posted: 06 Oct 2004
James A. Gardner
University at Buffalo Law School
Downloads 240 (238,861)

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Democracy, separation of powers

11.

Election Law as Applied Democratic Theory

St. Louis University Law Journal, Forthcoming, Buffalo Legal Studies Research Paper No. 2012-031
Number of pages: 17 Posted: 05 Oct 2011
James A. Gardner
University at Buffalo Law School
Downloads 234 (244,744)

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democracy, democratic theory, elections, election law

12.

Illiberalism and Authoritarianism in the American States

University at Buffalo School of Law Legal Studies Research Paper No. 2020-001, 70 Am. U. L. Rev. 639 (2021)
Number of pages: 85 Posted: 21 Jul 2020 Last Revised: 05 Feb 2021
James A. Gardner
University at Buffalo Law School
Downloads 214 (266,306)
Citation 1

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liberalism, illiberalism, authoritarianism, federalism, democratic backsliding

Whose Constitution is it? Why Federalism and Constitutional Positivism Don't Mix

Number of pages: 31 Posted: 29 Jun 2004
James A. Gardner
University at Buffalo Law School
Downloads 213 (266,562)
Citation 1

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Federalism, positivism, state constitutions

Whose Constitution Is It? Why Federalism and Constitutional Positivism Don't Mix

William & Mary Law Review, Vol. 46, 2005
Posted: 22 Apr 2005
James A. Gardner
University at Buffalo Law School

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Federalism, positivism, state constitutions

14.

What are Campaigns for? The Role of Persuasion in Electoral Law and Politics

James A. Gardner, WHAT ARE CAMPAIGNS FOR? THE ROLE OF PERSUASION IN ELECTORAL LAW AND POLITICS, Oxford University Press, 2009, Buffalo Legal Studies Research Paper No. 2009-17
Number of pages: 13 Posted: 05 Jun 2009 Last Revised: 13 Jul 2009
James A. Gardner
University at Buffalo Law School
Downloads 204 (278,312)

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democracy, elections, campaigns, persuasion, democratic theory

15.

Canadian Federalism in Design and Practice: The Mechanics of a Permanently Provisional Constitution

University at Buffalo School of Law Legal Studies Research Paper No. 2017-002
Number of pages: 31 Posted: 30 Aug 2017 Last Revised: 07 Dec 2017
James A. Gardner
University at Buffalo Law School
Downloads 196 (288,486)
Citation 2

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federalism, Canada, constitutional law, constitutional design

16.

Anonymity and Democratic Citizenship

William & Mary Bill of Rights, Vol. 19, Buffalo Legal Studies Research Paper No. 2011-008
Number of pages: 48 Posted: 21 Jan 2011 Last Revised: 06 Apr 2011
James A. Gardner
University at Buffalo Law School
Downloads 189 (298,119)

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democracy, anonymity, democratic theory, citizenship

17.

Deliberation or Tabulation? The Self-Undermining Constitutional Architecture of Election Campaigns

Buffalo Legal Studies Research Paper No. 2006-013
Number of pages: 82 Posted: 21 Apr 2006
James A. Gardner
University at Buffalo Law School
Downloads 180 (311,303)
Citation 1

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elections, ballot access, campaign finance, parties, deliberation, democracy

18.

The Theory and Practice of Contestatory Federalism

60 William & Mary Law Review 507 (2018), University at Buffalo School of Law Legal Studies Research Paper No. 2017-010
Number of pages: 83 Posted: 12 Nov 2017 Last Revised: 07 Feb 2019
James A. Gardner
University at Buffalo Law School
Downloads 158 (348,458)
Citation 6

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Federalism, Constitutional Design, Contestation, Madison

19.

New York's Inbred Judiciary: Pathologies of Nomination and Appointment of Court of Appeals Judges

Buffalo Law Review: The Docket, Vol. 58, pp. 15-28, 2010
Number of pages: 15 Posted: 28 Jul 2010
James A. Gardner
University at Buffalo Law School
Downloads 146 (371,826)

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judicial elections, judicial appointment, judicial selection

20.

Comparative Election Law

Comparative Election Law (James A. Gardner, ed., Edward Elgar forthcoming 2022), DOI: 10.4337/9781788119023
Number of pages: 3 Posted: 22 Aug 2022
James A. Gardner
University at Buffalo Law School
Downloads 141 (382,136)

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elections, election law, democracy, comparative election law, voting

21.

Sustainable Decentralization: Power, Extraconstitutional Influence and Subnational Symmetry in the United States and Spain

Buffalo Legal Studies Research Paper No. 2009-12
Number of pages: 52 Posted: 28 May 2009
James A. Gardner and Antoni Abat Ninet
University at Buffalo Law School and Universitat Autonoma de Barcelona
Downloads 139 (386,432)

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Decentralization, federalism, subnational units, madisonian, comparative constitutional law, Spain, extraconstitutional

22.

What is 'Fair' Partisan Representation, and How Can it Be Constitutionalized? The Case for a Return to Fixed Election Districts

Buffalo Legal Studies Research Paper No. 2007-001, Marquette Law Review, Vol. 90
Number of pages: 49 Posted: 17 Jan 2007
James A. Gardner
University at Buffalo Law School
Downloads 132 (402,426)

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democracy, redistricting, apportionment, gerrymander, elections

23.

Democratic Legitimacy under Conditions of Severely Depressed Voter Turnout

University at Buffalo School of Law Legal Studies Research Paper No. 2-016
Number of pages: 18 Posted: 03 Jun 2020
James A. Gardner
University at Buffalo Law School
Downloads 129 (409,660)

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Democracy, Elections, Legitimacy, Pandemic, Covid-19

24.

New York's Judicial Selection Process is Fine - It's the Party System that Needs Fixing

Buffalo Legal Studies Research Paper No. 2007-006, New York State Bar Journal, Vol. 79, September 2007
Number of pages: 18 Posted: 05 Apr 2007
James A. Gardner
University at Buffalo Law School
Downloads 125 (419,406)

Abstract:

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Democracy, elections, judiciary, gerrymander, parties

25.

Justice Brennan and the Foundations of Human Rights Federalism

Ohio State Law Journal, Vol. 77, p. 355, 2016, SUNY Buffalo Legal Studies Research Paper No. 2016-004
Number of pages: 32 Posted: 31 Oct 2015 Last Revised: 29 Jun 2016
James A. Gardner
University at Buffalo Law School
Downloads 113 (452,329)

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Brennan, state constitution, human rights, federalism

26.

Election Law in the American Political System (2d Ed.) [Table of Contents and Preface Only]

James A. Gardner & Guy-Uriel E. Charles, ELECTION LAW IN THE AMERICAN POLITICAL SYSTEM (2d edition), Aspen Publishers, 2018, University at Buffalo School of Law Legal Studies Research Paper No. 2017-008
Number of pages: 30 Posted: 02 Nov 2017
James A. Gardner and Guy-Uriel E. Charles
University at Buffalo Law School and Harvard University - Harvard Law School
Downloads 111 (458,442)

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Elections, democracy, voting, casebook

27.

The Dignity of Voters - A Dissent

University of Miami Law Review, Forthcoming
Number of pages: 40 Posted: 20 Aug 2009
James A. Gardner
University at Buffalo Law School
Downloads 105 (477,260)

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democracy, elections, voters, rights, election fraud

28.

Distinctive Identity Claims in Federal Systems: Judicial Policing of Subnational Variance

International Journal of Constitutional Law, Vol. 14, Issue 2 (April 2016), pp. 378-410, SUNY Buffalo Legal Studies Research Paper No. 2014-018, University of Copenhagen Faculty of Law Research Paper No. 2019-83
Number of pages: 36 Posted: 30 Mar 2014 Last Revised: 26 Sep 2019
Antoni Abat i Ninet and James A. Gardner
University of Copenhagen - Center for Comparative and European Constitutional Studies and University at Buffalo Law School
Downloads 101 (490,331)

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federalism, autonomy, intergovernmental relations, constitutional court, comparative constitutional law

29.

Giving the Gift of Public Office

Buffalo Legal Studies Research Paper Series No. 2005-04, Buffalo Law Review, Vol. 53, No. 3, 2005
Number of pages: 30 Posted: 22 Sep 2005
James A. Gardner
University at Buffalo Law School
Downloads 100 (493,572)

Abstract:

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Democracy, elections, citizenship

30.

Election Law and Democratic Theory

In Oxford Handbook of American Election Law, Eugene Mazo, ed. (forthcoming 2023), University at Buffalo School of Law Legal Studies Research Paper No. 2022-001
Number of pages: 26 Posted: 27 Jul 2022 Last Revised: 02 Sep 2022
James A. Gardner
University at Buffalo Law School
Downloads 95 (510,452)

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election law, democracy, liberalism, illiberalism, populism, militant democracy

31.

The Puzzling Success of 'Federal Democracy'

CITC Conference Volume, November 2017, University at Buffalo School of Law Legal Studies Research Paper No. 2017-011
Number of pages: 31 Posted: 29 Nov 2017
James A. Gardner
University at Buffalo Law School
Downloads 95 (510,452)

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federalism, constitutional design, democracy

32.

New Challenges to Judicial Federalism

Kentucky Law Journal, Forthcoming, University at Buffalo School of Law Legal Studies Research Paper No. 2023-008
Number of pages: 25 Posted: 21 Nov 2023
James A. Gardner
University at Buffalo Law School
Downloads 86 (543,360)

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state constitutional law, federalism, judicial federalism, judicial elections, judicial politics

33.

Autonomy and Isomorphism: The Unfulfilled Promise of Structural Autonomy in American State Constitutions

60 Wayne Law Review 31, SUNY Buffalo Legal Studies Research Paper No. 2014-016
Number of pages: 38 Posted: 07 Feb 2014 Last Revised: 24 Oct 2014
James A. Gardner
University at Buffalo Law School
Downloads 80 (567,538)
Citation 1

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State constitutions, federalism, representation, isomorphism, legislature

34.

Subnational Constitutionalism in the United States

James A. Gardner, Subnational Constitutionalism in the United States, in Subnational Constitutions, Popelier, Delledonne & Aroney, eds. (2020), Forthcoming , University at Buffalo School of Law Legal Studies Research Paper, No. 2019-010
Number of pages: 40 Posted: 06 Jan 2020 Last Revised: 08 Jan 2020
James A. Gardner
University at Buffalo Law School
Downloads 65 (635,785)

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constitution, subnational constitution, federalism, state constitution

35.

Active Judicial Governance

51 New Eng. L. Rev. 545 (2018), University at Buffalo School of Law Legal Studies Research Paper No. 2018-007
Number of pages: 11 Posted: 04 Dec 2018
James A. Gardner
University at Buffalo Law School
Downloads 61 (656,602)

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state constitutional law, federalism, constitutional change

36.

Dividing the Body Politic

University of Chicago Law Forum (2023), University at Buffalo School of Law Legal Studies Research Paper No. 2022-013
Number of pages: 35 Posted: 27 Feb 2023 Last Revised: 30 Jan 2024
James A. Gardner
University at Buffalo Law School
Downloads 59 (667,405)

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Redistricting, liberalism, illiberalism, populism, apportionment, body politic

37.

Presidential Selection: Historical, Institutional, and Democratic Perspectives

In A Better Candidate, Eugene Mazo and Michael Dimino, eds. (2020), University at Buffalo School of Law Legal Studies Research Paper No. 2018-002
Number of pages: 27 Posted: 25 Aug 2018 Last Revised: 21 Jan 2022
James A. Gardner
University at Buffalo Law School
Downloads 59 (667,405)

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democracy, president, election, primary election, democratic theory

38.

Practice-Driven Changes to Constitutional Structures of Governance

69 Ark. L. Rev. 335 (2016), SUNY Buffalo Legal Studies Research Paper, No. 2016-010
Number of pages: 36 Posted: 25 Feb 2016 Last Revised: 27 Aug 2016
James A. Gardner
University at Buffalo Law School
Downloads 57 (678,327)

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state constitutions, constitutional change, constitutional amendment, New York Constitution

39.

Conceptions of Politics in Comparative Perspective

In Comparative Election Law (James A. Gardner, ed., Edward Elgar 2021 Forthcoming) , University at Buffalo School of Law Legal Studies Research Paper No. 2019-017
Number of pages: 36 Posted: 13 Jun 2020
James A. Gardner
University at Buffalo Law School
Downloads 55 (689,740)

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democracy, electoral system, winner-take-all, first-past-the-post, proportional representation, comparative election law

40.

The Concept of "Equilibrium" in Federal Constitutions

In The Law and Politics of Federalism (Erin F. Delaney, ed.) (Edward Elgar, forthcoming 2022)., University at Buffalo School of Law Legal Studies Research Paper No. 2021-002
Number of pages: 18 Posted: 19 Aug 2021
James A. Gardner
University at Buffalo Law School
Downloads 46 (745,870)

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federalism, constitutional equilibrium, dynamic federalism, federal theory, constitutionalism, judicial review

41.

Federalism and the Limits of Subnational Political Heterogeneity

Wisconsin Law Review, Forthcoming, University at Buffalo School of Law Legal Studies Research Paper No. 2020-017
Number of pages: 40 Posted: 01 Jun 2021
James A. Gardner
University at Buffalo Law School
Downloads 46 (745,870)

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federalism, democracy, authoritarianism, autocracy, subnational, empire, liberalism

42.

Transmission of Mastery

University at Buffalo School of Law Legal Studies Research Paper No. 2019-013
Number of pages: 32 Posted: 20 Mar 2020 Last Revised: 15 Jan 2021
James A. Gardner
University at Buffalo Law School
Downloads 45 (752,680)

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Teaching, mastery, education, assessment, rubric

43.

Strongmen and Neurotics: Visible Struggle and the Construction of Judicial Ethos

Justice Anthony M. Kennedy: The Rhetoric of Liberty (David M. Frank and Francis J. Mootz, III, eds.) (PSU Press, 2021 Forthcoming), University at Buffalo School of Law Legal Studies Research Paper No. 2020-002
Number of pages: 25 Posted: 23 Sep 2020
James A. Gardner
University at Buffalo Law School
Downloads 44 (759,591)

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rhetoric, ethos, Kennedy, judicial, Supreme Court

44.

Introduction: Election Law – Universal or Particular?

In Comparative Election Law (James A. Gardner, ed.) (Edward Elgar, forthcoming 2022)., University at Buffalo School of Law Legal Studies Research Paper No. 2021-001
Number of pages: 17 Posted: 16 Aug 2021
James A. Gardner
University at Buffalo Law School
Downloads 31 (859,770)

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elections, election law, democracy, universalism, liberalism, democratic institutions

45.

Why Law Isn't Jazz: A Response

71 Buffalo Law Review The Docket D1, University at Buffalo School of Law Legal Studies Research Paper No. 2023-004
Number of pages: 18 Posted: 25 Sep 2023
James A. Gardner
University at Buffalo Law School
Downloads 22 (942,869)

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jazz, improvisation, legal practice, legal interpretation

46.

Equilibrium and Sustainability in Federal Systems

In Colino, Handbook of Federations and Federal Studies (Edward Elgar, forthcoming 2022), University at Buffalo School of Law Legal Studies Research Paper No. 2020-004
Number of pages: 16 Posted: 08 Nov 2021
James A. Gardner
University at Buffalo Law School
Downloads 21 (952,886)

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Federalism, equilibrium, sustainability, federal constitution, dynamic model of federalism

47.

Formal and Informal Power in a Democracy

University at Buffalo School of Law Legal Studies Research Paper No. 2023-022
Number of pages: 12 Posted: 12 Jun 2024
James A. Gardner
University at Buffalo Law School
Downloads 12 (1,056,828)

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48.

The Incompatible Treatment of Majorities in Election Law and Deliberative Democracy

SUNY Buffalo Legal Studies Research Paper No. 2013-036
Posted: 18 Apr 2013
James A. Gardner
University at Buffalo Law School

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democracy, majorities, deliberative democracy, campaigns

49.

How to Do Things with Boundaries: Redistricting and the Construction of Politics

Buffalo Legal Studies Research Paper No. 2012-039
Posted: 11 Feb 2012 Last Revised: 05 Sep 2012
James A. Gardner
University at Buffalo Law School

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democracy, redistricting, apportionment, politics, gerrymander

50.

Interpreting State Constitutions: A Jurisprudence of Function in a Federal System

University of Chicago Press, Spring 2005
Posted: 08 Jun 2005
James A. Gardner
University at Buffalo Law School

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State constitutions, federalism, constitutional interpretation

51.

State Constitutional Rights as Resistance to National Power: Toward a Functional Theory of State Constitutions

Georgetown Law Journal, Vol. 91, pp. 1003-1064, June 2003
Posted: 27 Feb 2004
James A. Gardner
University at Buffalo Law School

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federalism, state constitutions

52.

Madison's Hope: Virtue, Self-Interest and the Design of Electoral Systems

Iowa Law Review, Vol. 86, No. 1, October 2000
Posted: 09 Nov 2003
James A. Gardner
University at Buffalo Law School

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winner-take-all, election, electoral system, common good, representation, vote, majority, politics

53.

State Courts as Agents of Federalism: Power and Interpretation in State Constitutional Law

William and Mary Law Review, Vol. 44, No. 4, March 2003
Posted: 09 Aug 2003
James A. Gardner
University at Buffalo Law School

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State constitutions, federalism, state courts