Lee A. Bygrave

Norwegian Research Center for Computers and Law - Law Faculty, University of Oslo

Professor of Law and Director

PO Box 6706 St Olavsplass

Oslo, 0130

Norway

SCHOLARLY PAPERS

21

DOWNLOADS
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13,557

SSRN CITATIONS
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SSRN RANKINGS

Top 37,849

in Total Papers Citations

14

CROSSREF CITATIONS

6

Ideas:
“  My recent work considers the concepts of "security by design" and "cyber resilience" as legal norms. Over the coming months, I will be undertaking a more overarching analysis of the growth and utility of "by design" norms in legal-regulatory frameworks.  ”

Scholarly Papers (21)

1.

The EU General Data Protection Regulation: A Commentary/Update of Selected Articles

Number of pages: 332 Posted: 10 May 2021
Vrije Universiteit Brussel (VUB) - Law, Science, Technology & Society Research Group, Norwegian Research Center for Computers and Law - Law Faculty, University of Oslo, European Centre on Privacy and Cybersecurity, Faculty of Law, Maastricht UniversityHon. Director-General, EDPS, KU Leuven - Centre for IT & IP Law (CiTiP) and University of Oslo (UiO) - Norwegian Research Center for Computers and Law
Downloads 5,776 (1,998)

Abstract:

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GDPR, data protection

2.

The Right Not to Be Subject to Automated Decisions Based on Profiling

Tatiani Synodinou, Philippe Jougleux, Christiana Markou, Thalia Prastitou (eds.), EU Internet Law: Regulation and Enforcement (Springer, 2017, Forthcoming), University of Oslo Faculty of Law Research Paper No. 2017-20
Number of pages: 23 Posted: 08 May 2017 Last Revised: 09 Mar 2018
Isak Mendoza and Lee A. Bygrave
University of Oslo - Department of Private Law and Norwegian Research Center for Computers and Law - Law Faculty, University of Oslo
Downloads 2,130 (10,726)
Citation 4

Abstract:

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3.

Data Protection by Design and by Default: Deciphering the EU's Legislative Requirements

Oslo Law Review, Volume 4, No. 2, 2017
Number of pages: 16 Posted: 13 Sep 2017
Lee A. Bygrave
Norwegian Research Center for Computers and Law - Law Faculty, University of Oslo
Downloads 1,239 (24,678)
Citation 4

Abstract:

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Privacy by design, data protection by design, privacy-enhancing technology, General Data Protection Regulation

4.

Minding the Machine v2.0: The EU General Data Protection Regulation and Automated Decision Making

Karen Yeung and Martin Lodge (eds.), Algorithmic Regulation (Oxford University Press 2019, Forthcoming, University of Oslo Faculty of Law Research Paper No. 2019-01
Number of pages: 19 Posted: 07 Feb 2019
Lee A. Bygrave
Norwegian Research Center for Computers and Law - Law Faculty, University of Oslo
Downloads 760 (49,017)
Citation 2

Abstract:

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5.

Data Protection vs. Copyright

Dan Jerker B. Svantesson & Stanley Greenstein (eds.), Internationalisation of Law in the Digital Information Society: Nordic Yearbook of Law and Informatics 2010-2012 (Copenhagen: Ex Tuto Publishing, 2013), pp. 55-75
Number of pages: 23 Posted: 06 Nov 2013
Lee A. Bygrave
Norwegian Research Center for Computers and Law - Law Faculty, University of Oslo
Downloads 745 (50,360)

Abstract:

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copyright, data protection, digital rights management, piracy surveillance

6.

Hardwiring Privacy

Chapter accepted for publication in Roger Brownsword, Eloise Scotford and Karen Yeung (eds.), The Oxford Handbook of the Law and Regulation of Technology (Oxford University Press), Forthcoming, University of Oslo Faculty of Law Research Paper No. 2017-02
Number of pages: 27 Posted: 18 Jan 2017 Last Revised: 17 Mar 2017
Lee A. Bygrave
Norwegian Research Center for Computers and Law - Law Faculty, University of Oslo
Downloads 634 (62,209)

Abstract:

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7.

Machine Learning, Cognitive Sovereignty and Data Protection Rights with Respect to Automated Decisions

Version 2.0; final version to be published in Ienca et al. (Eds.), Cambridge Handbook of Life Sciences, Information Technology and Human Rights (Forthcoming) , University of Oslo Faculty of Law Research Paper No. 2020-35
Number of pages: 33 Posted: 29 Oct 2020 Last Revised: 23 Apr 2021
Lee A. Bygrave
Norwegian Research Center for Computers and Law - Law Faculty, University of Oslo
Downloads 467 (90,842)

Abstract:

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Decision-making; Data Protection; Cognitive Sovereignty; Machine Learning; Big Data Analytics; Artificial Intelligence

8.

Contract Versus Statute in Internet Governance

Edward Elgar, RESEARCH HANDBOOK ON GOVERNANCE OF THE INTERNET, Ian Brown, ed., Cheltenham, 2012, University of Oslo Faculty of Law Research Paper No. 2011-34
Number of pages: 25 Posted: 24 Oct 2011
Lee A. Bygrave
Norwegian Research Center for Computers and Law - Law Faculty, University of Oslo
Downloads 362 (121,684)

Abstract:

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Internet governance

9.

Data Protection by Design and by Default

Accepted for publication in S. Garben, L. Gromley (eds.), Oxford Encyclopedia of European Union Law (Oxford University Press 2022), Forthcoming, University of Oslo Faculty of Law Research Paper No. 2021-19
Number of pages: 11 Posted: 18 Oct 2021 Last Revised: 30 Sep 2022
Lee A. Bygrave
Norwegian Research Center for Computers and Law - Law Faculty, University of Oslo
Downloads 263 (170,045)

Abstract:

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10.

The Data Difficulty in Database Protection

University of Oslo Faculty of Law Research Paper No. 2012-18
Number of pages: 17 Posted: 21 Jun 2012
Lee A. Bygrave
Norwegian Research Center for Computers and Law - Law Faculty, University of Oslo
Downloads 238 (187,526)
Citation 2

Abstract:

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11.

Legal Scholarship on Data Protection: Future Challenges and Directions

Cécile de Terwangne, Elise Degrave, Séverine Dusollier & Robert Queck (eds.), Liber amicorum Yves Poullet/Essays in honour of Yves Poullet (Bruylant, Forthcoming), University of Oslo Faculty of Law Research Paper No. 2017-35
Number of pages: 10 Posted: 27 Nov 2017 Last Revised: 08 Mar 2018
Lee A. Bygrave
Norwegian Research Center for Computers and Law - Law Faculty, University of Oslo
Downloads 225 (197,781)

Abstract:

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12.

The ‘Strasbourg Effect’ on Data Protection in Light of the ‘Brussels Effect’: Logic, Mechanics and Prospects

Forthcoming in Computer Law & Security Review [2020] vol. 38, University of Oslo Faculty of Law Research Paper No. 2020-14
Number of pages: 24 Posted: 03 Jun 2020 Last Revised: 05 Oct 2020
Lee A. Bygrave
Norwegian Research Center for Computers and Law - Law Faculty, University of Oslo
Downloads 169 (255,124)

Abstract:

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13.

Not Entirely Adequate but Far Away: Lessons from how Europe Sees New Zealand Data Protection

Privacy Laws & Business International Report, Issue 111, 8‐9, July 2011, UNSW Law Research Paper No. 2011-44
Number of pages: 3 Posted: 25 Nov 2011 Last Revised: 01 Feb 2014
Graham Greenleaf and Lee A. Bygrave
University of New South Wales, Faculty of Law and Norwegian Research Center for Computers and Law - Law Faculty, University of Oslo
Downloads 150 (281,508)

Abstract:

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14.

Implementing Privacy Principles: After 20 Years, it's Time to Enforce the Privacy Act

UNSW Law Research Paper No. 2007-31
Number of pages: 105 Posted: 23 May 2007
Graham Greenleaf, Nigel Waters and Lee A. Bygrave
University of New South Wales, Faculty of Law, University of New South Wales (UNSW) - Faculty of Law & Justice and Norwegian Research Center for Computers and Law - Law Faculty, University of Oslo
Downloads 123 (327,941)
Citation 2

Abstract:

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privacy, privacy principles, law reform

15.

Security by Design: Aspirations and Realities in a Regulatory Context

Accepted for publication in Oslo Law Review, vol. 8(3), 2021, University of Oslo Faculty of Law Research Paper No. 2022-44
Number of pages: 55 Posted: 24 May 2022
Lee A. Bygrave
Norwegian Research Center for Computers and Law - Law Faculty, University of Oslo
Downloads 77 (443,079)

Abstract:

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Security by design; cybersecurity; design-based regulation; software programming; risk management; Internet of Things

16.

Strengthening Uniform Privacy Principles: An Analysis of the ALRC's Proposed Principles

UNSW Law Research Paper No. 2008-17
Number of pages: 92 Posted: 26 Apr 2009
Graham Greenleaf, Nigel Waters and Lee A. Bygrave
University of New South Wales, Faculty of Law, University of New South Wales (UNSW) - Faculty of Law & Justice and Norwegian Research Center for Computers and Law - Law Faculty, University of Oslo
Downloads 68 (473,892)

Abstract:

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Consumer Protection Law, Law and Technology

17.

Closing the Privacy-Free Zones: An Analysis of ALRC Proposals Concerning Privacy Act Exemptions

UNSW Law Research Paper No. 2008-31
Number of pages: 20 Posted: 24 Apr 2009
Nigel Waters, Graham Greenleaf and Lee A. Bygrave
University of New South Wales (UNSW) - Faculty of Law & Justice, University of New South Wales, Faculty of Law and Norwegian Research Center for Computers and Law - Law Faculty, University of Oslo
Downloads 47 (561,891)

Abstract:

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Consumer Protection Law, Law and Technology

18.

The Definitions in Article 3 of the EU Law Enforcement Directive: Commentary

Eleni Kosta & Franziska Boehm (eds.), The Law Enforcement Directive: A Commentary (Oxford University Press)(forthcoming)
Number of pages: 82
Luca Tosoni and Lee A. Bygrave
University of Oslo (UiO) - Norwegian Research Center for Computers and Law and Norwegian Research Center for Computers and Law - Law Faculty, University of Oslo
Downloads 40

Abstract:

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data protection, law enforcement, criminal justice

19.

Promoting and Enforcing Privacy Principles: An Analysis of the Alrc Proposals for the Role of the Privacy Commissioner

UNSW Law Research Paper No. 2008-23
Number of pages: 23 Posted: 24 Apr 2009
Graham Greenleaf, Nigel Waters and Lee A. Bygrave
University of New South Wales, Faculty of Law, University of New South Wales (UNSW) - Faculty of Law & Justice and Norwegian Research Center for Computers and Law - Law Faculty, University of Oslo
Downloads 36 (620,956)

Abstract:

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Consumer Protection Law, Law and Technology

20.

Cyber Resilience versus Cybersecurity as Legal Aspiration

Published in T. Jančárková, G. Visky and I. Winther (eds.), 14th International Conference on Cyber Conflict: Keep Moving (CCDCOE / IEEE, 2022) 27–44, University of Oslo Faculty of Law Research Paper No. 2022-49
Number of pages: 14 Posted: 12 Oct 2022
Lee A. Bygrave
Norwegian Research Center for Computers and Law - Law Faculty, University of Oslo
Downloads 8 (850,402)

Abstract:

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resilience, cyber resilience, cybersecurity, security by design, law, human rights

21.

Data Protection Pursuant to the Right to Privacy in Human Rights Treaties

International Journal of Law and Information Technology, Vol. 6, Issue 3, pp. 247-284, 1998
Posted: 29 Feb 2008
Lee A. Bygrave
Norwegian Research Center for Computers and Law - Law Faculty, University of Oslo

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