Karen J. Alter

Northwestern University - Department of Political Science

Professor

601 University Place

Evanston, IL 60208

United States

University of Copenhagen, Faculty of Law - iCourts Center of Excellence

Permanant Visiting Faculty

Karen Blixens Plads 16

Copenhagen, DK-2300

Denmark

SCHOLARLY PAPERS

50

DOWNLOADS
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Top 2,346

in Total Papers Downloads

15,602

SSRN CITATIONS
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SSRN RANKINGS

Top 4,927

in Total Papers Citations

75

CROSSREF CITATIONS

167

Ideas:
“  My paper on Gender and Status in American Political Science is about to appear in Perspectives on Politics. I have a special issue on backlash politics under review (drafts of the framing and final chapter are posted on SSRN). I have three in progress papers that investigate different aspects of global economic governance, including the divergent legalization in trade and money, and different modes for creating global economic rules.  ”

Scholarly Papers (50)

1.

The European Court's Political Power Across Time and Space

Number of pages: 24 Posted: 29 Jan 2009 Last Revised: 14 May 2016
Karen J. Alter
Downloads 1,329 (15,570)
Citation 13

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International Courts, International Tribunals, European Court of Justice European Union, European Community, Regional Trade, Regional Integration, International Relations, Administrative State, Judicial Politics, Preliminary References

2.

The Future of International Law

In Diana Ayton-Shenker (ed.), The New Global Agenda, Lahnham: Rowman & Littlefield (2018). Chapter 2 (25-42).
Number of pages: 19 Posted: 10 Aug 2017 Last Revised: 07 Mar 2019
Karen J. Alter
Downloads 1,184 (18,537)
Citation 1

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International Law, Mass Atrocities, Cybersecurity, Paris Climate Accord, Human Rights, US Foreign Policy, Law of the Seas, International Liberal Order, Drones

3.
Downloads 779 ( 33,950)
Citation 4

The Rise of International Regime Complexity

Annual Review of Law and Social Sciences, 2018
Number of pages: 24 Posted: 10 Dec 2017 Last Revised: 17 Apr 2018
Karen J. Alter and Kal Raustiala
Northwestern University - Department of Political Science and University of California, Los Angeles (UCLA) - School of Law
Downloads 779 (33,487)
Citation 4

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International cooperation, global governance, regime complex, international law, multilateralism, world order

The Rise of International Regime Complexity

Annual Review of Law and Social Science, Vol. 14, pp. 329-349, 2018
Posted: 29 Oct 2018
Karen J. Alter and Kal Raustiala
Northwestern University - Department of Political Science and University of California, Los Angeles (UCLA) - School of Law

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International Law, International Courts, Compliance

5.

How Context Shapes the Authority of International Courts

79:1 Law & Contemporary Problems 1-36 (2016).
Number of pages: 42 Posted: 07 Mar 2015 Last Revised: 16 Nov 2018
Karen J. Alter, Laurence R. Helfer and Mikael Madsen
Northwestern University - Department of Political Science, Duke University School of Law and University of Copenhagen - iCourts - Centre of Excellence for International Courts
Downloads 601 (48,089)
Citation 2

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6.

The Politics of International Regime Complexity Symposium

Perspectives on Politics 7 (1), 2009: 13-24
Number of pages: 142 Posted: 28 Jun 2007 Last Revised: 02 Sep 2015
Karen J. Alter and Sophie Meunier-Aitsahalia
Northwestern University - Department of Political Science and Princeton University - Woodrow Wilson School of Public and International Affairs
Downloads 591 (49,136)
Citation 6

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Complexity, International Organization, International Cooperation, International law, Nested Regimes

7.

The New Terrain of International Law: Courts, Politics, Rights

K. Alter, The New Terrain of International Law: Courts, Politics, Rights, Princeton University Press, 2013
Number of pages: 36 Posted: 15 Mar 2013
Karen J. Alter
Downloads 560 (52,587)

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International law, International Courts, International Law Effectiveness, human rights, war crimes

8.

Agents or Trustees? International Courts in Their Political Context

European Journal of International Relations 14 (1) 2008: 33-63
Number of pages: 22 Posted: 22 Nov 2004 Last Revised: 02 Sep 2015
Karen J. Alter
Downloads 546 (54,286)
Citation 15

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International Courts, Judicial Independence, Principal-Agent Theory

9.

Backlash Against International Courts in West, East and Southern Africa: Causes and Consequences

27 European Journal of International Law, 293-328 (2016)
Number of pages: 35 Posted: 10 Apr 2015 Last Revised: 08 Sep 2019
Northwestern University - Department of Political Science, Loyola University Chicago School of Law and Duke University School of Law
Downloads 504 (60,091)
Citation 9

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10.
Downloads 437 ( 71,634)

The Evolving International Judiciary

Annual Review of Law & Social Science, Forthcoming
Number of pages: 43 Posted: 08 Jun 2011 Last Revised: 01 Sep 2015
Karen J. Alter
Downloads 437 (70,964)
Citation 1

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International Courts & Tribunals, International Regime Complexity, Cold War, Historical Institutionalism

The Evolving International Judiciary

Annual Review of Law and Social Science, Vol. 7, pp. 387-415, 2011
Posted: 10 Jan 2012
Karen J. Alter

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11.

The Multiple Roles of International Courts and Tribunals: Enforcement, Dispute Settlement, Constitutional and Administrative Review

International Law and International Relations: Synthesizing Insights from Interdisciplinary Scholarship, Jeffrey L. Dunoff and Mark A. Pollack, eds., 2013
Number of pages: 27 Posted: 21 Jul 2012
Karen J. Alter
Downloads 434 (72,242)
Citation 1

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International Law, International Courts

12.

Theorizing the Judicialization of International Relations

iCourts Working Paper Series
Number of pages: 19 Posted: 20 Nov 2018 Last Revised: 05 Sep 2019
Northwestern University - Department of Political Science, UCSD School of Global Policy and Strategy and Duke University School of Law
Downloads 427 (73,639)
Citation 2

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international courts, international relations, adjudication, delegation, judicialization, international arbitration, litigants, judges, backlash

13.

Nature or Nurture? Judicial Lawmaking in the European Court of Justice and the Andean Tribunal of Justice

International Organization, Vol. 64, No. 4, Fall 2010
Number of pages: 30 Posted: 23 Jun 2009 Last Revised: 02 Sep 2015
Karen J. Alter and Laurence R. Helfer
Downloads 421 (74,910)
Citation 4

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Andean Community, Andean Tribunal, International Courts, International Tribunals, European Court of Justice, European Community, Regional Trade, Regional Integration, International Relations, Administrative State, Administrative Agencies, Judicial Politics, Preliminary References

14.

The Theory and Reality of the European Coal and Steel Community

EUROPEAN INTEGRATION AND INSTITUTIONAL CHANGE IN HISTORICAL PERSPECTIVE, S. Meunier and K. McNamara, eds., Oxford University Press, 2007
Number of pages: 28 Posted: 27 Jul 2006
Karen J. Alter
Downloads 397 (80,228)

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15.

The Empire of International Law?

American Journal of International Law, 113 (1) 2019: 183-199.
Number of pages: 25 Posted: 20 Aug 2018 Last Revised: 14 Oct 2019
Karen J. Alter
Downloads 359 (90,155)

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international, Law, colonial, multilateral, legal, order, trajectory, early, twentieth, century

16.

Nested and Overlapping Regimes in the Transatlantic Banana Trade Dispute

Northwestern Law & Econ Research Paper No. 05-22
Number of pages: 21 Posted: 11 Aug 2005
Karen J. Alter and Sophie Meunier-Aitsahalia
Northwestern University - Department of Political Science and Princeton University - Woodrow Wilson School of Public and International Affairs
Downloads 354 (91,649)
Citation 1

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17.

A New International Human Rights Court for West Africa: The ECOWAS Community Court of Justice

107 American Journal of International Law 737-779 (2013)
Number of pages: 42 Posted: 15 Jul 2012 Last Revised: 01 Sep 2015
Northwestern University - Department of Political Science, Duke University School of Law and Kenyon College
Downloads 311 (105,768)
Citation 7

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international law, human rights, international courts, Africa, West Africa, ECOWAS, regional integration, civil society mobilization

18.

Transplanting the European Court of Justice: The Experience of the Andean Tribunal of Justice

American Journal of Comparative Law, Vol. 60(3), p.629 (2012)
Number of pages: 36 Posted: 24 Oct 2011 Last Revised: 01 Sep 2015
Karen J. Alter, Laurence R. Helfer and Osvaldo Saldías
Northwestern University - Department of Political Science, Duke University School of Law and Alexander von Humboldt Institute for Internet & Society
Downloads 305 (108,050)
Citation 8

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European community, Andean community, international courts and tribunals, European Court of Justice, Andean tribunal of justice, regional integration, legal transplants, neofunctionalist theory, ideational diffusion

19.

Delegation to International Courts and the Limits of Recontracting Political Power

DELEGATION AND AGENCY IN INTERNATIONAL ORGANIZATIONS, Hawkins, Darren, Daniel Neilson, Michael J. Tierney, David A. Lake, eds., Cambridge University Press, 2006
Number of pages: 35 Posted: 03 Aug 2005
Karen J. Alter
Downloads 304 (108,447)

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International Courts, Principal-Agent Theory, Judicial Independence

20.

Mapping International Adjudicative Bodies, the Issues and Players

Romano C./Alter K./Shany Y., “Mapping International Courts and Tribunals, the Issues and Players”, in Romano C./Alter K./Shany Y. (eds.), The Oxford University Press Handbook of International Adjudication, Oxford University Press, 2013, pp. 3-26
Number of pages: 25 Posted: 18 Dec 2013
Cesare P.R. Romano, Karen J. Alter and Yuval Shany
Loyola Law School Los Angeles, Northwestern University - Department of Political Science and Hebrew University of Jerusalem - Faculty of Law and Institute of Criminology
Downloads 303 (108,850)
Citation 1

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21.

Tipping the Balance: International Courts and the Construction of International and Domestic Politics

Cambridge Yearbook of International Studies, Forthcoming
Number of pages: 23 Posted: 30 Oct 2010 Last Revised: 01 Sep 2015
Karen J. Alter
Downloads 302 (109,259)

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International Courts, International Law, Judicial Behavior, European Union, Andean Integration, Latin American Integration

22.

Islands of Effective International Adjudication: Constructing an Intellectual Property Rule of Law in the Andean Community

American Journal of International Law, Vol. 109, 2009
Number of pages: 55 Posted: 26 Nov 2008
Duke University School of Law, Northwestern University - Department of Political Science and Independent
Downloads 300 (110,033)
Citation 1

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Andean Community, Andean Tribunal, International Courts, International Tribunals, European Court of Justice, Intellectual Property, Trademarks, Patents, Pharmaceuticals, Regional Trade, Regional Integration, International Relations, Institutional Design, Administrative State, Administrative Agency

23.

Gender and Status in American Political Science: Who Determines Whether a Scholar is Noteworthy?

Northwestern Public Law Research Paper No. 18-21
Number of pages: 81 Posted: 20 Aug 2018 Last Revised: 24 Oct 2019
Northwestern University - Department of Political Science, Northwestern University - Department of Political Science, George Washington University and Independent
Downloads 297 (111,263)
Citation 4

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Gender and Politics, Gender and Status, International Relations, American Political Science

24.

Legitimacy and Lawmaking: A Tale of Three International Courts

14 Theoretical Inquiries in Law 479 (2013)
Number of pages: 26 Posted: 30 Sep 2012 Last Revised: 31 Aug 2015
Laurence R. Helfer and Karen J. Alter
Downloads 281 (118,031)

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25.

Delegating to International Courts: Self-Binding vs. Other-Binding Delegation

Law and Contemporary Problems, Vol. 71, No. 1, pp. 37-76, 2008
Number of pages: 41 Posted: 20 Jul 2007 Last Revised: 02 Sep 2015
Karen J. Alter
Downloads 274 (121,160)
Citation 3

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International Courts, Enforcement, Delegation, Dispute Resolution, International Law, International Administrative Law

26.

The Evolution of International Law and Courts

Oxford Handbook of Historical Institutionalism, Orfeo Fioretos, Tulia G. Falleti, and Adam Sheingate, eds., Oxford University Press (Chapter 36, Forthcoming)
Number of pages: 26 Posted: 18 Oct 2013 Last Revised: 07 Nov 2019
Karen J. Alter
Downloads 262 (126,995)

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27.

The Global Spread of European Style International Courts

Karen J. Alter (2012) The Global Spread of European Style International Courts, West European Politics, 35:1, 135-154
Number of pages: 26 Posted: 19 Jun 2011 Last Revised: 27 Jul 2016
Karen J. Alter
Downloads 251 (132,669)
Citation 1

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International Courts and Tribunals, European Court of Justice, International Economic Disputes. Regional Integration

28.

Jurist Advocacy Movements in Europe and the Andes

iCourts Working Paper Series No. 65
Number of pages: 30 Posted: 19 Sep 2008 Last Revised: 07 Nov 2019
Karen J. Alter
Downloads 243 (137,018)
Citation 3

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29.

The Andean Tribunal of Justice and its Interlocutors: Understanding Preliminary Reference Patterns in the Andean Community

N.Y.U Journal of International Law and Politics, Vol. 41, p. 871, 2009
Number of pages: 61 Posted: 01 Feb 2009 Last Revised: 02 Sep 2015
Laurence R. Helfer and Karen J. Alter
Downloads 236 (140,998)
Citation 7

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Andean Community, Andean Tribunal, International Courts, International Tribunals, European Court of Justice, European Union, European Community, Intellectual Property, Regional Trade, Regional Integration, International Relations, Administrative State, Administrative Agencies, Judicial Politics

30.

The Contested Authority and Legitimacy of International Law: The State Strikes Back

iCourts Working Paper Series, No. 134, 2018
Number of pages: 30 Posted: 11 Jul 2018
Karen J. Alter
Downloads 227 (146,473)

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de, facto, authority, international, law, interpretation, application, politics, national, transnational, legal, practices, IL, regime, complexes

31.

International Court Authority (Introduction)

International Court Authority, Oxford University Press, ISBN: 9780198795582, Forthcoming
Number of pages: 32 Posted: 09 Jan 2018 Last Revised: 01 Mar 2018
Karen J. Alter, Laurence R. Helfer and Mikael Madsen
Northwestern University - Department of Political Science, Duke University School of Law and University of Copenhagen - iCourts - Centre of Excellence for International Courts
Downloads 215 (154,174)

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International Law, Legal Authority, Interdisciplinary Research, Comparative Law, International Courts

32.

Critical Junctures and The Future International Courts in a Post-Liberal World Order

Avidan Kent, Nikos Skoutaris & Jamie Trinidad (eds.), The Future of International Courts and Tribunals: Regional, Institutional and Procedural Challenges (Routledge, 2019, Forthcoming)
Number of pages: 31 Posted: 04 Sep 2018 Last Revised: 26 Sep 2018
Karen J. Alter
Downloads 198 (166,559)
Citation 2

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Future of International Courts, IC, ICs, legitimacy, authority, legitimation, legality, international order, core legal issues, multilateralism, human rights, democracy, free trade, rule of law, critical juncture

33.

Private Litigants and the New International Courts

Comparative Political Studies, Vol. 39, No. 1, pp. 22-49, 2006
Number of pages: 21 Posted: 05 Oct 2005
Karen J. Alter
Downloads 173 (187,982)

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34.

International Enforcement Courts

APSA 2011 Annual Meeting Paper
Number of pages: 43 Posted: 01 Aug 2011 Last Revised: 01 Sep 2015
Karen J. Alter
Downloads 161 (199,888)

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International Law, Human Rights, International Courts, Slavery, War Crimes, Intellectual Property

35.

Regional Dispute Settlement

Forthcoming in Karen J. Alter and Liesbet Hooghe “Regional Dispute Settlement Systems” in Tanja A. Börzel/Thomas Risse (eds.), Oxford Handbook of Comparative Regionalism (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2016: 538-558).
Number of pages: 25 Posted: 13 May 2016
Karen J. Alter and Liesbet Hooghe
Northwestern University - Department of Political Science and University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Political Science Department
Downloads 160 (200,950)
Citation 1

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regional integration, regionalism, international courts, international dispute settlement

36.

The Influence of the Andean Intellectual Property Regime on Access to Medicines in Latin America

BALANCING WEALTH AND HEALTH: GLOBAL ADMINISTRATIVE LAW AND THE BATTLE OVER INTELLECTUAL PROPERTY AND ACCESS TO MEDICINES IN LATIN AMERICA , Rochelle Dreyfuss & César Rodríguez-Garavito, eds. (2013)
Number of pages: 13 Posted: 26 Aug 2011 Last Revised: 01 Sep 2015
Laurence R. Helfer and Karen J. Alter
Downloads 149 (213,321)

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access to medicines, patents, pharmaceuticals, patented medicines, Andean Community, Andean Tribunal of Justice

37.

National Perspectives on International Constitutional Review: Diverging Optics

Erin Delaney and Rosalind Dixon eds., Comparative Judicial Review, Edward Elgar Publishing, 2018. Chapter 13 (244-271).
Number of pages: 39 Posted: 13 Apr 2017 Last Revised: 04 Apr 2019
Karen J. Alter
Downloads 148 (214,480)
Citation 2

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International constitutional review, international courts, legal authority, international law, national courts, constitutional law, comparative law

38.

Legal Integration in the Andes: Law-Making by the Andean Tribunal of Justice

European Law Journal, Vol. 17, No. 5, p.701, 2011
Number of pages: 15 Posted: 10 Feb 2011 Last Revised: 01 Sep 2015
Karen J. Alter and Laurence R. Helfer
Downloads 138 (226,874)

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Andean Community, European Community, International Courts and Tribunals, Judicial Lawmaking, regional integration

39.

The New International Courts

iCourts Working Paper Series No. 2
Number of pages: 54 Posted: 09 Oct 2015 Last Revised: 02 Apr 2019
Karen J. Alter
Downloads 128 (240,606)

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40.

World History and the Evolving International Judiciary

APSA 2012 Annual Meeting Paper
Number of pages: 57 Posted: 16 Jul 2012 Last Revised: 01 Sep 2015
Karen J. Alter
Downloads 116 (258,930)

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International Law, International Courts, Human Rights, Trade, War Crimes

41.

Theorizing Backlash Politics

Forthcoming, British Journal of Politics and International Relations as part of a special issue on Backlash Politics in Comparison
Number of pages: 21 Posted: 13 Dec 2019 Last Revised: 20 Jan 2020
Karen J. Alter and Michael Zürn
Northwestern University - Department of Political Science and WZB Berlin Social Science Center
Downloads 115 (260,476)

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backlash politics, populism, reactionary movements, international politics

42.

Transplanting International Courts: The Law and Politics of the Andean Tribunal of Justice

Book published by Oxford University Press, this working paper includes the table of contents and introductory chapter of the book.
Number of pages: 36 Posted: 30 Aug 2016 Last Revised: 09 Sep 2019
Karen J. Alter and Laurence R. Helfer
Downloads 95 (296,753)
Citation 5

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International Courts, Preliminary References, Andean Community, Andean, Tribunal of Justice, Regional Integration, European Court of Justice, Intellectual Property, Patented Medicines, Legal Transplants, Jurist Advocacy Networks

43.

Conceptualizing Backlash Politics

Forthcoming in the British Journal of Politics and International Relations, as part of a special issue on Backlash Politics in Comparison
Number of pages: 33 Posted: 14 Nov 2019 Last Revised: 13 Jul 2020
Karen J. Alter and Michael Zürn
Northwestern University - Department of Political Science and WZB Berlin Social Science Center
Downloads 84 (320,532)

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44.

Illustrations: A Reader's Guide

Romano C./Alter K./Sebregondi, F., “Illustrations: A Reader’s Guide”, The Oxford University Press Handbook of International Adjudication, Oxford University Press, 2013, pp. 27-39.
Number of pages: 16 Posted: 18 Dec 2013
Loyola Law School Los Angeles, Northwestern University - Department of Political Science and Independent
Downloads 70 (356,012)

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45.
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global governance, global constitutionalism, international law, fragmentation

46.

Global Governance and the Problem of the Second Best: The Example of Reforming the World Trade Organization

Number of pages: 30 Posted: 27 Feb 2020
Karen J. Alter and Cristina Lafont
Northwestern University - Department of Political Science and Northwestern University - Judd A. and Marjorie Weinberg College of Arts and Sciences
Downloads 46 (434,236)

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47.

Editors’ Preface and Table of Contents

Romano C./Alter K./Shany Y., “Editors’ Preface and Table of Contents” in Romano C./Alter K./Shany Y. (eds.), The Oxford University Press Handbook of International Adjudication, Oxford University Press, 2013, pp. vii-xvii.
Number of pages: 12 Posted: 18 Dec 2013
Cesare P.R. Romano, Karen J. Alter and Yuval Shany
Loyola Law School Los Angeles, Northwestern University - Department of Political Science and Hebrew University of Jerusalem - Faculty of Law and Institute of Criminology
Downloads 39 (462,694)

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48.
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International Court of Justice, International Courts, International Politics, International Law, Dispute Settlement

49.

Legal Integration in the Andes: Law‐Making by the Andean Tribunal of Justice

European Law Journal, Vol. 17, Issue 5, pp. 701-715, 2011
Number of pages: 15 Posted: 03 Aug 2011
Karen J. Alter and Laurence R. Helfer
Downloads 2 (690,260)
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50.

Resolving or Exacerbating Disputes: The Wto's New Dispute System

International Affairs, Vol. 79, No. 4, July 2003
Posted: 11 Dec 2004
Karen J. Alter

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International Law, International Courts, International Dispute Resolution, WTO