Karen J. Alter

Northwestern University - Department of Political Science

Professor

601 University Place

Evanston, IL 60208

United States

University of Copenhagen, Faculty of Law - iCourts Center of Excellence

Permanant Visiting Faculty

Karen Blixens Plads 16

Copenhagen, DK-2300

Denmark

SCHOLARLY PAPERS

45

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13,747

CITATIONS
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120

Scholarly Papers (45)

1.

The European Court's Political Power Across Time and Space

Northwestern Law & Econ Research Paper No. 09-03
Number of pages: 24 Posted: 29 Jan 2009 Last Revised: 14 May 2016
Karen J. Alter
Downloads 1,313 (13,917)

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International Courts, International Tribunals, European Court of Justice European Union, European Community, Regional Trade, Regional Integration, International Relations, Administrative State, Judicial Politics, Preliminary References

2.

The Future of International Law

In Diana Ayton-Shenker (ed.), The New Global Agenda, Lahnham: Rowman & Littlefield (2018). Chapter 2 (25-42)., iCourts Working Paper Series, No. 101, 2017, Northwestern Public Law Research Paper No. 17-18
Number of pages: 19 Posted: 10 Aug 2017 Last Revised: 07 Mar 2019
Karen J. Alter
Downloads 921 (23,745)

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International Law, Mass Atrocities, Cybersecurity, Paris Climate Accord, Human Rights, US Foreign Policy, Law of the Seas, International Liberal Order, Drones

3.

Do International Courts Enhance Compliance with International Law?

Asian and Pacific Studies, Vol. 25, 2003
Number of pages: 28 Posted: 17 Aug 2006
Karen J. Alter
Downloads 623 (40,682)
Citation 4

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International Law, International Courts, Compliance

4.

How Context Shapes the Authority of International Courts

79:1 Law & Contemporary Problems 1-36 (2016)., iCourts Working Paper Series, No. 18, Duke Law School Public Law & Legal Theory Series No. 2015-13
Number of pages: 42 Posted: 07 Mar 2015 Last Revised: 16 Nov 2018
Karen J. Alter, Laurence Helfer and Mikael Madsen
Northwestern University - Department of Political Science, Duke University School of Law and University of Copenhagen - iCourts - Centre of Excellence for International Courts
Downloads 579 (44,832)

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5.

The Politics of International Regime Complexity Symposium

Perspectives on Politics 7 (1), 2009: 13-24, Northwestern Law & Econ Research Paper No. 996889, Roberta Buffett Center for International and Comparative Studies Working Paper 07-03
Number of pages: 142 Posted: 28 Jun 2007 Last Revised: 02 Sep 2015
Karen J. Alter and Sophie Meunier-Aitsahalia
Northwestern University - Department of Political Science and Princeton University - Woodrow Wilson School of Public and International Affairs
Downloads 571 (45,639)
Citation 21

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Complexity, International Organization, International Cooperation, International law, Nested Regimes

6.

Agents or Trustees? International Courts in Their Political Context

European Journal of International Relations 14 (1) 2008: 33-63
Number of pages: 22 Posted: 22 Nov 2004 Last Revised: 02 Sep 2015
Karen J. Alter
Downloads 527 (50,698)
Citation 12

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International Courts, Judicial Independence, Principal-Agent Theory

7.

The New Terrain of International Law: Courts, Politics, Rights

K. Alter, The New Terrain of International Law: Courts, Politics, Rights, Princeton University Press, 2013, Northwestern Law & Econ Research Paper No. 13-11, Northwestern University Roberta Buffett Center for International and Comparative Studies Working Paper No. 13-001
Number of pages: 36 Posted: 15 Mar 2013
Karen J. Alter
Downloads 489 (55,570)
Citation 1

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International law, International Courts, International Law Effectiveness, human rights, war crimes

8.

Backlash Against International Courts in West, East and Southern Africa: Causes and Consequences

27 European Journal of International Law, 293-328 (2016), iCourts Working Paper Series, No. 21, Duke Law School Public Law & Legal Theory Series No. 2015-19
Number of pages: 35 Posted: 10 Apr 2015 Last Revised: 07 Aug 2016
Karen J. Alter, James Thuo Gathii and Laurence Helfer
Northwestern University - Department of Political Science, Loyola University Chicago School of Law and Duke University School of Law
Downloads 470 (58,441)

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9.
Downloads 426 ( 65,857)

The Evolving International Judiciary

Annual Review of Law & Social Science, Forthcoming, Northwestern Law & Econ Research Paper No. 11-16, Northwestern Public Law Research Paper No. 11-50, Buffett Center for International and Comparative Studies Working Paper Series No. 11/002
Number of pages: 43 Posted: 08 Jun 2011 Last Revised: 01 Sep 2015
Karen J. Alter
Downloads 426 (65,215)

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International Courts & Tribunals, International Regime Complexity, Cold War, Historical Institutionalism

The Evolving International Judiciary

Annual Review of Law and Social Science, Vol. 7, pp. 387-415, 2011
Posted: 10 Jan 2012
Karen J. Alter

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The Rise of International Regime Complexity

Annual Review of Law and Social Sciences, 2018, UCLA School of Law, Public Law Research Paper No. 17-47, Northwestern Public Law Research Paper No. 17-30
Number of pages: 24 Posted: 10 Dec 2017 Last Revised: 17 Apr 2018
Karen J. Alter and Kal Raustiala
Northwestern University - Department of Political Science and University of California, Los Angeles (UCLA) - School of Law
Downloads 424 (65,579)
Citation 21

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International cooperation, global governance, regime complex, international law, multilateralism, world order

The Rise of International Regime Complexity

Annual Review of Law and Social Science, Vol. 14, pp. 329-349, 2018
Posted: 29 Oct 2018
Karen J. Alter and Kal Raustiala
Northwestern University - Department of Political Science and University of California, Los Angeles (UCLA) - School of Law

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11.

The Multiple Roles of International Courts and Tribunals: Enforcement, Dispute Settlement, Constitutional and Administrative Review

International Law and International Relations: Synthesizing Insights from Interdisciplinary Scholarship, Jeffrey L. Dunoff and Mark A. Pollack, eds., 2013, Northwestern Law & Econ Research Paper No. 12-10
Number of pages: 27 Posted: 21 Jul 2012
Karen J. Alter
Downloads 397 (71,649)
Citation 1

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International Law, International Courts

12.

Nature or Nurture? Judicial Lawmaking in the European Court of Justice and the Andean Tribunal of Justice

International Organization, Vol. 64, No. 4, Fall 2010, Duke Law School Public Law & Legal Theory Paper No. 258, Northwestern Public Law Research Paper Series No. 09-16
Number of pages: 30 Posted: 23 Jun 2009 Last Revised: 02 Sep 2015
Karen J. Alter and Laurence Helfer
Downloads 396 (71,857)
Citation 8

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Andean Community, Andean Tribunal, International Courts, International Tribunals, European Court of Justice, European Community, Regional Trade, Regional Integration, International Relations, Administrative State, Administrative Agencies, Judicial Politics, Preliminary References

13.

The Theory and Reality of the European Coal and Steel Community

EUROPEAN INTEGRATION AND INSTITUTIONAL CHANGE IN HISTORICAL PERSPECTIVE, S. Meunier and K. McNamara, eds., Oxford University Press, 2007, Northwestern Public Law Research Paper No. 920716
Number of pages: 28 Posted: 27 Jul 2006
Karen J. Alter
Downloads 382 (74,951)
Citation 1

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14.

Nested and Overlapping Regimes in the Transatlantic Banana Trade Dispute

Northwestern Law & Econ Research Paper No. 05-22, Journal of European Public Policy, Vol. 13, No. 3, pp. 362-382, 2006
Number of pages: 21 Posted: 11 Aug 2005
Karen J. Alter and Sophie Meunier-Aitsahalia
Northwestern University - Department of Political Science and Princeton University - Woodrow Wilson School of Public and International Affairs
Downloads 347 (83,815)
Citation 6

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15.

Theorizing the Judicialization of International Relations

iCourts Working Paper Series, Duke Law School Public Law & Legal Theory Series No. 2018-61
Number of pages: 40 Posted: 20 Nov 2018
Northwestern University - Department of Political Science, UCSD School of Global Policy and Strategy and Duke University School of Law
Downloads 306 (96,698)

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International courts, international relations, adjudication, delegation, judicialization, international arbitration, litigants, judges, backlash

16.

Delegation to International Courts and the Limits of Recontracting Political Power

DELEGATION AND AGENCY IN INTERNATIONAL ORGANIZATIONS, Hawkins, Darren, Daniel Neilson, Michael J. Tierney, David A. Lake, eds., Cambridge University Press, 2006, Northwestern Public Law Research Paper No. 05-14
Number of pages: 35 Posted: 03 Aug 2005
Karen J. Alter
Downloads 299 (98,783)
Citation 4

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International Courts, Principal-Agent Theory, Judicial Independence

17.

Tipping the Balance: International Courts and the Construction of International and Domestic Politics

Cambridge Yearbook of International Studies, Forthcoming, Constructed Interests: The Process of Political Representation in the Global Age, Forthcoming , Northwestern University Buffett Center for International and Comparative Studies Working Paper No. 10-003, Northwestern Public Law Research Paper No. 11-40
Number of pages: 23 Posted: 30 Oct 2010 Last Revised: 01 Sep 2015
Karen J. Alter
Downloads 298 (99,139)

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International Courts, International Law, Judicial Behavior, European Union, Andean Integration, Latin American Integration

18.

Transplanting the European Court of Justice: The Experience of the Andean Tribunal of Justice

American Journal of Comparative Law, Vol. 60(3), p.629 (2012), Oñati Socio-Legal Series, Vol. 1, No. 4, 2011
Number of pages: 36 Posted: 24 Oct 2011 Last Revised: 01 Sep 2015
Karen J. Alter, Laurence Helfer and Osvaldo Saldías
Northwestern University - Department of Political Science, Duke University School of Law and Alexander von Humboldt Institute for Internet & Society
Downloads 296 (99,871)
Citation 2

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European community, Andean community, international courts and tribunals, European Court of Justice, Andean tribunal of justice, regional integration, legal transplants, neofunctionalist theory, ideational diffusion

19.

Islands of Effective International Adjudication: Constructing an Intellectual Property Rule of Law in the Andean Community

American Journal of International Law, Vol. 109, 2009, Vanderbilt Law and Economics Research Paper No. 08-53, Vanderbilt Public Law Research Paper No. 08-53, Northwestern Law & Econ Research Paper No. 08-22, Northwestern Public Law Research Paper No. 08-41
Number of pages: 55 Posted: 26 Nov 2008
Duke University School of Law, Northwestern University - Department of Political Science and Independent
Downloads 296 (99,871)
Citation 14

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Andean Community, Andean Tribunal, International Courts, International Tribunals, European Court of Justice, Intellectual Property, Trademarks, Patents, Pharmaceuticals, Regional Trade, Regional Integration, International Relations, Institutional Design, Administrative State, Administrative Agency

20.

A New International Human Rights Court for West Africa: The ECOWAS Community Court of Justice

107 American Journal of International Law 737-779 (2013)
Number of pages: 42 Posted: 15 Jul 2012 Last Revised: 01 Sep 2015
Northwestern University - Department of Political Science, Duke University School of Law and Kenyon College
Downloads 293 (101,012)

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international law, human rights, international courts, Africa, West Africa, ECOWAS, regional integration, civil society mobilization

21.

The Empire of International Law?

American Journal of International Law, 113 (1) 2019: 183-199.
Number of pages: 25 Posted: 20 Aug 2018 Last Revised: 04 Apr 2019
Karen J. Alter
Downloads 290 (102,143)

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international, Law, colonial, multilateral, legal, order, trajectory, early, twentieth, century

22.

Mapping International Adjudicative Bodies, the Issues and Players

Romano C./Alter K./Shany Y., “Mapping International Courts and Tribunals, the Issues and Players”, in Romano C./Alter K./Shany Y. (eds.), The Oxford University Press Handbook of International Adjudication, Oxford University Press, 2013, pp. 3-26, Loyola-LA Legal Studies Paper No. 2013-43
Number of pages: 25 Posted: 18 Dec 2013
Cesare P.R. Romano, Karen J. Alter and Yuval Shany
Loyola Law School Los Angeles, Northwestern University - Department of Political Science and Hebrew University of Jerusalem - Faculty of Law and Institute of Criminology
Downloads 284 (104,446)

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23.

Legitimacy and Lawmaking: A Tale of Three International Courts

14 Theoretical Inquiries in Law 479 (2013)
Number of pages: 26 Posted: 30 Sep 2012 Last Revised: 31 Aug 2015
Laurence Helfer and Karen J. Alter
Downloads 271 (109,822)

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24.

Delegating to International Courts: Self-Binding vs. Other-Binding Delegation

Law and Contemporary Problems, Vol. 71, No. 1, pp. 37-76, 2008
Number of pages: 41 Posted: 20 Jul 2007 Last Revised: 02 Sep 2015
Karen J. Alter
Downloads 265 (112,415)
Citation 6

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International Courts, Enforcement, Delegation, Dispute Resolution, International Law, International Administrative Law

25.

The Evolution of International Law and Courts

Oxford Handbook of Historical Institutionalism, Orfeo Fioretos, Tulia G. Falleti, and Adam Sheingate, eds., Oxford University Press (Chapter 36, Forthcoming), To be reprinted in Orfeo Fioretos, ed., International Politics and Institutions in Time (Oxford University Press, 2016), iCourts Online Working Paper, No. 3, 2013
Number of pages: 26 Posted: 18 Oct 2013 Last Revised: 12 Jan 2016
Karen J. Alter
Downloads 253 (117,988)

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26.

Gender and Status in American Political Science: Who Determines Whether a Scholar is Noteworthy?

Northwestern Public Law Research Paper No. 18-21
Number of pages: 56 Posted: 20 Aug 2018 Last Revised: 10 May 2019
Northwestern University - Department of Political Science, Northwestern University - Department of Political Science, George Washington University and Independent
Downloads 240 (124,454)

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Gender and Politics, Gender and Status, International Relations, American Political Science

27.

The Global Spread of European Style International Courts

Karen J. Alter (2012) The Global Spread of European Style International Courts, West European Politics, 35:1, 135-154, Northwestern Public Law Research Paper No. 11-55, Northwestern University Roberta Buffett Center for International and Comparative Studies Working Paper No. 11-003
Number of pages: 26 Posted: 19 Jun 2011 Last Revised: 27 Jul 2016
Karen J. Alter
Downloads 237 (126,024)
Citation 2

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International Courts and Tribunals, European Court of Justice, International Economic Disputes. Regional Integration

28.

Jurist Advocacy Movements in Europe and the Andes

iCourts Working Paper Series No. 65
Number of pages: 30 Posted: 19 Sep 2008 Last Revised: 18 May 2016
Karen J. Alter
Downloads 234 (127,655)
Citation 2

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29.

The Andean Tribunal of Justice and its Interlocutors: Understanding Preliminary Reference Patterns in the Andean Community

N.Y.U Journal of International Law and Politics, Vol. 41, p. 871, 2009, Vanderbilt Law and Economics Research Paper No. 09-06, Vanderbilt Public Law Research Paper No. 09-01, Northwestern Public Law Research Paper No. 09-05, Northwestern Law & Econ Research Paper No. 09-04
Number of pages: 61 Posted: 01 Feb 2009 Last Revised: 02 Sep 2015
Laurence Helfer and Karen J. Alter
Downloads 232 (128,798)
Citation 3

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Andean Community, Andean Tribunal, International Courts, International Tribunals, European Court of Justice, European Union, European Community, Intellectual Property, Regional Trade, Regional Integration, International Relations, Administrative State, Administrative Agencies, Judicial Politics

30.

International Court Authority (Introduction)

International Court Authority, Oxford University Press, ISBN: 9780198795582, Forthcoming, iCourts Working Paper Series No. 112, Northwestern Public Law Research Paper No. 17-33, Duke Law School Public Law & Legal Theory Series No. 2018-10
Number of pages: 32 Posted: 09 Jan 2018 Last Revised: 01 Mar 2018
Karen J. Alter, Laurence Helfer and Mikael Madsen
Northwestern University - Department of Political Science, Duke University School of Law and University of Copenhagen - iCourts - Centre of Excellence for International Courts
Downloads 186 (158,648)

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International Law, Legal Authority, Interdisciplinary Research, Comparative Law, International Courts

31.

Private Litigants and the New International Courts

Comparative Political Studies, Vol. 39, No. 1, pp. 22-49, 2006 , Northwestern Public Law Research Paper No. 05-18
Number of pages: 21 Posted: 05 Oct 2005
Karen J. Alter
Downloads 171 (171,011)
Citation 4

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32.

Critical Junctures and The Future International Courts in a Post-Liberal World Order

Avidan Kent, Nikos Skoutaris & Jamie Trinidad (eds.), The Future of International Courts and Tribunals: Regional, Institutional and Procedural Challenges (Routledge, 2019, Forthcoming), iCourts Working Paper Series No. 140
Number of pages: 31 Posted: 04 Sep 2018 Last Revised: 26 Sep 2018
Karen J. Alter
Downloads 157 (183,975)

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Future of International Courts, IC, ICs, legitimacy, authority, legitimation, legality, international order, core legal issues, multilateralism, human rights, democracy, free trade, rule of law, critical juncture

33.

International Enforcement Courts

APSA 2011 Annual Meeting Paper
Number of pages: 43 Posted: 01 Aug 2011 Last Revised: 01 Sep 2015
Karen J. Alter
Downloads 156 (184,930)

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International Law, Human Rights, International Courts, Slavery, War Crimes, Intellectual Property

34.

The Contested Authority and Legitimacy of International Law: The State Strikes Back

Forthcoming in: Christopher Daase and Nicole Dietelhoff eds. Beyond Anarchy: Rule and Authority in the International System, 2018, iCourts Working Paper Series, No. 134, 2018
Number of pages: 30 Posted: 11 Jul 2018
Karen J. Alter
Downloads 147 (194,309)

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de, facto, authority, international, law, interpretation, application, politics, national, transnational, legal, practices, IL, regime, complexes

35.

The Influence of the Andean Intellectual Property Regime on Access to Medicines in Latin America

BALANCING WEALTH AND HEALTH: GLOBAL ADMINISTRATIVE LAW AND THE BATTLE OVER INTELLECTUAL PROPERTY AND ACCESS TO MEDICINES IN LATIN AMERICA , Rochelle Dreyfuss & César Rodríguez-Garavito, eds. (2013)
Number of pages: 13 Posted: 26 Aug 2011 Last Revised: 01 Sep 2015
Laurence Helfer and Karen J. Alter
Downloads 146 (195,396)

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access to medicines, patents, pharmaceuticals, patented medicines, Andean Community, Andean Tribunal of Justice

36.

Regional Dispute Settlement

Forthcoming in Karen J. Alter and Liesbet Hooghe “Regional Dispute Settlement Systems” in Tanja A. Börzel/Thomas Risse (eds.), Oxford Handbook of Comparative Regionalism (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2016: 538-558)., iCourts Working Paper Series, No 62
Number of pages: 25 Posted: 13 May 2016
Karen J. Alter and Liesbet Hooghe
Northwestern University - Department of Political Science and University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Political Science Department
Downloads 142 (199,852)

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regional integration, regionalism, international courts, international dispute settlement

37.

National Perspectives on International Constitutional Review: Diverging Optics

Erin Delaney and Rosalind Dixon eds., Comparative Judicial Review, Edward Elgar Publishing, 2018. Chapter 13 (244-271). , iCourts Working Paper Series No. 92, Northwestern Public Law Research Paper No. 17-11
Number of pages: 39 Posted: 13 Apr 2017 Last Revised: 04 Apr 2019
Karen J. Alter
Downloads 134 (209,399)

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International constitutional review, international courts, legal authority, international law, national courts, constitutional law, comparative law

38.

Legal Integration in the Andes: Law-Making by the Andean Tribunal of Justice

European Law Journal, Vol. 17, No. 5, p.701, 2011, Northwestern Law & Econ Research Paper No. 11-06, Northwestern Public Law Research Paper No. 11-38
Number of pages: 15 Posted: 10 Feb 2011 Last Revised: 01 Sep 2015
Karen J. Alter and Laurence Helfer
Downloads 131 (213,240)
Citation 1

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Andean Community, European Community, International Courts and Tribunals, Judicial Lawmaking, regional integration

39.

The New International Courts

iCourts Working Paper Series No. 2
Number of pages: 54 Posted: 09 Oct 2015 Last Revised: 02 Apr 2019
Karen J. Alter
Downloads 115 (235,202)
Citation 6

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40.

World History and the Evolving International Judiciary

APSA 2012 Annual Meeting Paper
Number of pages: 57 Posted: 16 Jul 2012 Last Revised: 01 Sep 2015
Karen J. Alter
Downloads 109 (244,438)

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International Law, International Courts, Human Rights, Trade, War Crimes

41.

Transplanting International Courts: The Law and Politics of the Andean Tribunal of Justice

Book published by Oxford University Press, this working paper includes the table of contents and introductory chapter of the book., iCourts Working Paper Series No. 73
Number of pages: 36 Posted: 30 Aug 2016 Last Revised: 22 Jun 2017
Karen J. Alter and Laurence Helfer
Downloads 89 (279,602)

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International courts, Preliminary references, Andean Community, Andean, Tribunal of Justice, Regional integration, European Court of Justice, Intellectual property, Patented medicines, Legal transplants, Jurist advocacy networks

42.

Illustrations: A Reader's Guide

Romano C./Alter K./Sebregondi, F., “Illustrations: A Reader’s Guide”, The Oxford University Press Handbook of International Adjudication, Oxford University Press, 2013, pp. 27-39., Loyola-LA Legal Studies Paper No. 2013-44
Number of pages: 16 Posted: 18 Dec 2013
Loyola Law School Los Angeles, Northwestern University - Department of Political Science and Independent
Downloads 66 (332,430)

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43.

Editors’ Preface and Table of Contents

Romano C./Alter K./Shany Y., “Editors’ Preface and Table of Contents” in Romano C./Alter K./Shany Y. (eds.), The Oxford University Press Handbook of International Adjudication, Oxford University Press, 2013, pp. vii-xvii., Loyola-LA Legal Studies Paper No. 2013-42
Number of pages: 12 Posted: 18 Dec 2013
Cesare P.R. Romano, Karen J. Alter and Yuval Shany
Loyola Law School Los Angeles, Northwestern University - Department of Political Science and Hebrew University of Jerusalem - Faculty of Law and Institute of Criminology
Downloads 37 (426,818)

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44.

Legal Integration in the Andes: Law‐Making by the Andean Tribunal of Justice

European Law Journal, Vol. 17, Issue 5, pp. 701-715, 2011
Number of pages: 15 Posted: 03 Aug 2011
Karen J. Alter and Laurence Helfer
Downloads 2 (621,440)
Citation 1
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45.

Resolving or Exacerbating Disputes: The Wto's New Dispute System

International Affairs, Vol. 79, No. 4, July 2003
Posted: 11 Dec 2004
Karen J. Alter

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International Law, International Courts, International Dispute Resolution, WTO