Avishalom Tor

Notre Dame Law School

Professor of Law

P.O. Box 780

Notre Dame, IN 46556-0780

United States

SCHOLARLY PAPERS

38

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SSRN CITATIONS
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Top 7,943

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40

CROSSREF CITATIONS

123

Scholarly Papers (38)

1.

The Methodology of the Behavioral Analysis of Law

Haifa Law Review, Vol. 4, p. 237, 2008
Number of pages: 92 Posted: 12 Sep 2008 Last Revised: 11 Jan 2009
Avishalom Tor
Notre Dame Law School
Downloads 1,195 (24,942)
Citation 1

Abstract:

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behavioral, experimental, law and economics, rationality, choice, judgment, decision making, debiasing, paternalism

2.

Fairness and the Willingness to Accept Plea Bargain Offers

Journal of Empirical Legal Studies, Vol. 7, No. 1, pp. 97-116, March 2010, CELS 2009 4th Annual Conference on Empirical Legal Studies Paper
Number of pages: 22 Posted: 06 May 2009 Last Revised: 07 Feb 2012
Avishalom Tor, Oren Gazal-Ayal and Stephen M. Garcia
Notre Dame Law School, University of Haifa - Faculty of Law and University of Michigan
Downloads 958 (34,246)
Citation 1

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Fairness, Decision Making, Judgment, Experimental, Behavioral, self-serving bias, risk, prospect theory, law, criminal procedure, plea bargaining

3.
Downloads 832 ( 41,660)
Citation 13

The N-Effect: More Competitors, Less Competition

Psychological Science, Vol. 20, pp. 871-877, 2009
Number of pages: 23 Posted: 25 Nov 2008 Last Revised: 21 Jul 2009
Stephen M. Garcia and Avishalom Tor
University of Michigan and Notre Dame Law School
Downloads 763 (46,150)

Abstract:

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Social comparison, competition, motivation, behavioral economics

The N-Effect: More Competitors, Less Competition

Psychological Science, Forthcoming
Number of pages: 22 Posted: 06 May 2009
Stephen M. Garcia and Avishalom Tor
University of Michigan and Notre Dame Law School
Downloads 69 (457,229)
Citation 2

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Social Comparison, Competition, Motivation

4.

Behavioral Antitrust: A New Approach to the Rule of Reason after Leegin

University of Haifa Faculty of Law Legal Studies Research Paper Series
Number of pages: 69 Posted: 17 Dec 2009 Last Revised: 20 Feb 2010
Avishalom Tor and William J. Rinner
Notre Dame Law School and Yale University - Law School
Downloads 679 (54,627)
Citation 7

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Vertical Restraints, Resale Price Maintenance, RPM, Bounded Rationality, Behavioral Law and Economics, Heuristics and Biases, Judgment and Decision Making, Market Discipline

5.

The Psychology of Competition: A Social Comparison Perspective

Perspectives on Psychological Science, 8(6), 634-650 (2013), Notre Dame Legal Studies Paper No. 1459
Number of pages: 19 Posted: 27 Jun 2013 Last Revised: 08 Jan 2014
Stephen M. Garcia, Avishalom Tor and Tyrone Schiff
University of Michigan, Notre Dame Law School and University of Michigan at Ann Arbor
Downloads 618 (61,732)
Citation 7

Abstract:

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social comparison, competition, competitive behavior, cooperation

6.

A Behavioural Approach to Antitrust Law and Economics

Consumer Policy Review, Vol. 14, No. 1, 2004
Number of pages: 4 Posted: 06 Jun 2006 Last Revised: 11 Jan 2009
Avishalom Tor
Notre Dame Law School
Downloads 581 (66,617)
Citation 1

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antitrust law, competitive markets, economics, behavioural approach, law

7.

Overcoming Impediments to Information Sharing

Harvard Law and Economics Discussion Paper No. 427
Number of pages: 67 Posted: 19 Aug 2003 Last Revised: 27 Oct 2010
Amitai Aviram and Avishalom Tor
University of Illinois College of Law and Notre Dame Law School
Downloads 511 (78,212)
Citation 9

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8.

Understanding Behavioral Antitrust

Texas Law Review, Vol. 92, 2013, Notre Dame Legal Studies Paper No. 1446
Number of pages: 90 Posted: 15 Jul 2013 Last Revised: 23 Aug 2013
Avishalom Tor
Notre Dame Law School
Downloads 506 (79,137)
Citation 7

Abstract:

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competition, rationality, behavioral law and economics

9.

Information Sharing in Critical Infrastructure Industries: Understanding the Behavioral and Economic Impediments

George Mason Law & Economics Research Paper No. 03-30; FSU College of Law, Public Law Research Paper No. 103
Number of pages: 24 Posted: 22 Aug 2003
Amitai Aviram and Avishalom Tor
University of Illinois College of Law and Notre Dame Law School
Downloads 435 (94,709)
Citation 1

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Information sharing, information exchange, antitrust, cooperation, collective action, degradation, norms, rivalry, risk, loss aversion, omission bias

10.

Ranks and Rivals: A Theory of Competition

Ross School of Business Paper No. 1030, Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, Vol. 32, pp. 970-982, 2006
Number of pages: 42 Posted: 10 Feb 2006
Stephen M. Garcia, Avishalom Tor and Richard Gonzalez
University of Michigan, Notre Dame Law School and Stephen M. Ross School of Business at the University of Michigan
Downloads 433 (95,240)
Citation 2

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Competition, Social Comparison, Decision Making, Social Capital, Behavioral, Economics

11.

The Innocence Effect

Duke Law Journal, Vol. 62
Number of pages: 51 Posted: 06 Jul 2011 Last Revised: 25 Mar 2019
Oren Gazal-Ayal and Avishalom Tor
University of Haifa - Faculty of Law and Notre Dame Law School
Downloads 373 (112,939)
Citation 5

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Plea Bargaining, Wrongful Convictions, Innocence Effect

12.

The Next Generation of Behavioural Law and Economics

European Perspectives on Behavioural Law and Economics 17 (Klaus Mathis Ed. 2015), Notre Dame Legal Studies Paper No. 1510
Number of pages: 14 Posted: 10 Apr 2015 Last Revised: 01 May 2015
Avishalom Tor
Notre Dame Law School
Downloads 333 (128,034)
Citation 1

Abstract:

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Behavioral law and economics, rationality

13.

The Market, the Firm, and Behavioral Antitrust

Oxford Handbook on Behavioral Economics and the Law (2013), Forthcoming, Notre Dame Legal Studies Paper No. 1447
Number of pages: 31 Posted: 15 Jul 2013 Last Revised: 23 Aug 2013
Avishalom Tor
Notre Dame Law School
Downloads 331 (128,861)

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law and economics, behavioral antitrust, markets

14.

Focusing Failures in Competitive Environments: Explaining Decision Errors in the Monty Hall Game, the Acquiring a Company Problem, and Multi-Party Ultimatums

16 Journal of Behavioral Decision Making 353-374 (2003), Harvard PON Working Paper No. 02-15, Harvard NOM Working Paper No. 02-15; , Harvard Business School Working Paper No. 02-080
Number of pages: 47 Posted: 17 Aug 2003 Last Revised: 14 Mar 2015
Avishalom Tor and Max H. Bazerman
Notre Dame Law School and Harvard Business School - Negotiations, Organizations and Markets Unit
Downloads 323 (132,202)
Citation 1

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perspective taking, rules of the game, focusing, bounded rationality, Monty Hall, Acquiring a Company, ultimatums

15.

The Fable of Entry: Bounded Rationality, Market Discipline, and Legal Policy

Michigan Law Review, Vol. 101, p. 482, 2002
Number of pages: 87 Posted: 22 Dec 2006 Last Revised: 11 Jan 2009
Avishalom Tor
Notre Dame Law School
Downloads 298 (143,797)
Citation 1

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Entry, Competition, Bounded Rationality, Behavioral Law and Economics

16.

Profit Maximization Versus Disadvantageous Inequality: The Impact of Self-Categorization

Number of pages: 29 Posted: 16 Feb 2005
University of Michigan, Notre Dame Law School, Harvard Business School - Negotiations, Organizations and Markets Unit and Stanford Graduate School of Business
Downloads 292 (146,914)

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Preference Reversals, Decision Making, Social Categories

17.

Should Antitrust Survive Behavioral Economics?

Forthcoming in CPI Antitrust Chronicle, Notre Dame Legal Studies Paper No. 1919
Number of pages: 9 Posted: 11 Feb 2019
Avishalom Tor
Notre Dame Law School
Downloads 288 (149,049)

Abstract:

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Behavioral Antitrust, Behavioral Law and Economics, Efficiency, Welfare, Rationality, Judgment, Choice

18.

The Critical and Problematic Role of Bounded Rationality in Nudging

Nudging - Possibilities, Limitations and Applications in European Law and Economics 3 (K. Mathis & A. Tor eds., 2016)
Number of pages: 8 Posted: 27 Jun 2016
Avishalom Tor
Notre Dame Law School
Downloads 279 (153,805)

Abstract:

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19.

Uniltaeral, Anticompetitive Acquisitions of Dominance or Monopoly Power

Antitrust Law Journal, Forthcoming
Number of pages: 31 Posted: 05 Jan 2010 Last Revised: 19 Jan 2010
Avishalom Tor
Notre Dame Law School
Downloads 262 (163,970)
Citation 1

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Unilateral conduct, Competition, Antitrust, Monopolization, Single-firm conduct

20.

Justifying Competition Law in the Face of Consumers' Bounded Rationality

In Klaus Mathis and Avishalom Tor (Eds.), New Developments in Competition Law and Economics, Springer: United Kingdom., Notre Dame Legal Studies Paper No. 1918
Number of pages: 22 Posted: 19 Dec 2018 Last Revised: 15 Jan 2019
Avishalom Tor
Notre Dame Law School
Downloads 216 (197,357)

Abstract:

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Antitrust, Behavioral Antitrust, Behavioral Law and Economics, Rationality, Judgment, Choice, Decision Making

21.

Justifying Antitrust: Prediction, Efficiency, and Welfare

Number of pages: 77 Posted: 11 Feb 2016
Avishalom Tor
Notre Dame Law School
Downloads 194 (217,780)
Citation 1

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22.

On Contractual Defaults and Experimental Law and Economics

Journal of Institutional and Theoretical Economics, Vol. 163
Number of pages: 5 Posted: 22 Dec 2006 Last Revised: 11 Jan 2009
Avishalom Tor
Notre Dame Law School
Downloads 173 (240,367)

Abstract:

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experimental law and economics, behavioral law and economics, institutions

23.

Some Challenges Facing a Behaviorally-Informed Approach to the Directive on Unfair Commercial Practices

Unfair Commercial Practices: The Long Road to Harmonized Law Enforcement 9-18 (Tihamer Toth ed. 2013), Notre Dame Legal Studies Paper No. 1509
Number of pages: 16 Posted: 16 Mar 2015 Last Revised: 01 May 2015
Avishalom Tor
Notre Dame Law School
Downloads 165 (250,095)

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24.

Expansion and Contraction in Monopolization Law

Antitrust Law Journal , Vol. 76, No. 3, p. 653, 2010
Number of pages: 10 Posted: 27 Jun 2010
Michal Gal, Avishalom Tor and Spencer Weber Waller
University of Haifa - Faculty of Law, Notre Dame Law School and Loyola University Chicago School of Law
Downloads 163 (252,705)

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Antitrust, Competition Law, Dominant Firm, Monopoly, Monopolization, Attempted Monopolization, Abuse of Dominance, European Union, Multinational Firms, Multinational Corporations

25.

Incentives to Create Under a 'Lifetime-Plus-Years' Copyright Duration: Lessons from a Behavioral Economic Analysis for Eldred V. Ashcroft

Loyola of Los Angeles Law Review, Vol. 36, p. 437, 2002
Number of pages: 56 Posted: 11 Sep 2008 Last Revised: 27 Aug 2009
Avishalom Tor and Dotan Oliar
Notre Dame Law School and University of Virginia School of Law
Downloads 160 (256,732)

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copyright, constitutional law, duration, behavioral law and economics

26.

Rankings, Standards, and Competition: Task vs. Scale Comparisons

Organizational Behavior and Human Decision Processes, Vol. 102, pp. 95-108, 2007
Number of pages: 42 Posted: 11 Jan 2007 Last Revised: 11 Jan 2009
Stephen M. Garcia and Avishalom Tor
University of Michigan and Notre Dame Law School
Downloads 140 (285,643)
Citation 2

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Decision Making, Choice Behavior, Social Comparison

27.

Social Comparison Before, During, and After the Competition

In J. Suls, R. Collins & L. Wheeler (Eds), Social Comparison, Judgment and Behavior, Oxford University Press (Forthcoming).
Number of pages: 55 Posted: 19 Dec 2018
Stephen M. Garcia, Zachary A. Reese and Avishalom Tor
University of Michigan, University of Michigan and Notre Dame Law School
Downloads 137 (290,498)

Abstract:

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competition, rivalry, decision making, social comparison, entry decisions

28.

Illustrating a Behaviorally Informed Approach to Antitrust Law: The Case of Predatory Pricing

Antitrust, Vol. 18, p. 52, 2003
Number of pages: 8 Posted: 11 Jan 2011
Avishalom Tor
Notre Dame Law School
Downloads 137 (290,498)

Abstract:

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Behavioral Law and Economics, Rationality, Decision Making, Behavioral Antitrust

29.

The N-Effect: Beyond Winning Probabilities

Psychological Science, Forthcoming
Number of pages: 8 Posted: 10 Nov 2009 Last Revised: 05 Jan 2010
Avishalom Tor and Stephen M. Garcia
Notre Dame Law School and University of Michigan
Downloads 125 (311,307)

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Motivation, Competition, Judgement, Social Comparison

30.

Boundedly Rational Entrepreneurs and Antitrust

Antitrust Bulletin, Vol. 62, 2017, 520
Number of pages: 61 Posted: 25 Sep 2016 Last Revised: 06 May 2018
Avishalom Tor
Notre Dame Law School
Downloads 105 (351,608)
Citation 1

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31.

Behavioral Lessons for Antitrust Enforcement

Notre Dame Legal Studies Paper No. 200828
Number of pages: 32 Posted: 01 Sep 2020
Avishalom Tor
Notre Dame Law School
Downloads 98 (367,850)

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Department of Justice Antitrust Lecture Series, antitrust law, behavioral antitrust

32.

Nudges That Should Fail?

Number of pages: 28 Posted: 18 Dec 2018
Avishalom Tor
Notre Dame Law School
Downloads 94 (377,598)
Citation 1

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behavioral law and economics, behavioral public policy, rationality, welfare, judgment, decision making

33.
Downloads 77 (425,317)

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34.

The Price of Equality: Suboptimal Resource Allocations Across Social Categories

Harvard PON Working Paper No. 1442078
Number of pages: 26 Posted: 31 Jul 2009 Last Revised: 29 Sep 2011
University of Michigan, Harvard Business School - Negotiations, Organizations and Markets Unit, University of Michigan, Stephen M. Ross School of Business, Notre Dame Law School and Stanford Graduate School of Business
Downloads 66 (461,691)

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Profit Maximization, Choice, Decision Making, Social Categories, Transaction Utility, Ethical Dilemmas

35.

The Law and Economics of Behavioral Regulation

18 REVIEW OF LAW AND ECONOMICS (Forthcoming 2022)
Number of pages: 49 Posted: 19 Apr 2022
Avishalom Tor
Notre Dame Law School
Downloads 63 (472,604)

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Behaviral Law and Economics, Nudging, Rationality, Cost-Benefit Analysis, Cost-Effectiveness Analysis

36.

The Private Costs of Behavioral Interventions

Duke Law Journal, Forthcoming
Number of pages: 44 Posted: 19 Apr 2022
Avishalom Tor
Notre Dame Law School
Downloads 61 (480,206)

Abstract:

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Behaviral Law and Economics, Behavioral Regulation, Nudging, Rationality, Cost-Benefit Analysis, Cost-Effectiveness Analysis

37.

The Target Opportunity Costs of Successful Nudges

CONSUMER LAW AND ECONOMICS 3 (KLAUS MATHIS & AVISHALOM TOR EDS., 2021), Springer: Nature.
Number of pages: 18 Posted: 19 Apr 2022 Last Revised: 26 Apr 2022
Avishalom Tor
Notre Dame Law School
Downloads 23 (679,849)

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Behaviral Law and Economics, Behavioral Regulation, Regulation, Rationality, Cost-Benefit Analysis

38.

When Should Governments Invest More in Nudging? Revisiting Benartzi et al. (2017)

Review of Law and Economics (forthcoming)
Number of pages: 26
Avishalom Tor and Jonathan Klick
Notre Dame Law School and University of Pennsylvania Carey Law School
Downloads 0

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Behavioral regulation, cost-benefit analysis, cost-effectiveness analysis