Curtis A. Bradley

Duke University School of Law

210 Science Drive

Box 90362

Durham, NC 27708

United States

SCHOLARLY PAPERS

58

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15,976

SSRN CITATIONS
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Top 13,153

in Total Papers Citations

21

CROSSREF CITATIONS

64

Scholarly Papers (58)

1.

Presidential Signing Statements and Executive Power

U of Chicago, Public Law Working Paper No. 133, Duke Law School Legal Studies Paper No. 121
Number of pages: 51 Posted: 07 Aug 2006
Curtis A. Bradley and Eric A. Posner
Duke University School of Law and University of Chicago - Law School
Downloads 1,265 (17,897)
Citation 12

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2.

Withdrawing from International Custom

Yale Law Journal, Vol. 120, p. 202, 2010
Number of pages: 74 Posted: 18 Dec 2009 Last Revised: 22 Dec 2014
Curtis A. Bradley and G. Mitu Gulati
Duke University School of Law and Duke University School of Law
Downloads 984 (26,000)

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customary international law, treaty withdrawal, persistent objector, opt out rights

3.

The Constitutional Validity of Military Commissions

The Green Bag, Vol. 5, Spring 2002
Number of pages: 18 Posted: 28 Jan 2002
Curtis A. Bradley and Jack Landman Goldsmith
Duke University School of Law and Harvard Law School
Downloads 704 (41,419)
Citation 2

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military commissions, military tribunals, commander in chief, declaration of war, terrorism, laws of war, armed conflict

4.

Historical Gloss and the Separation of Powers

Harvard Law Review, Vol. 126
Number of pages: 75 Posted: 06 Feb 2012 Last Revised: 21 Dec 2014
Curtis A. Bradley and Trevor W. Morrison
Duke University School of Law and New York University School of Law
Downloads 656 (45,606)
Citation 7

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separation of powers, constitutional interpretation, historical practice, presidential power, war powers

5.

Treaties, Human Rights, and Conditional Consent

Number of pages: 62 Posted: 30 May 2000
Curtis A. Bradley and Jack Landman Goldsmith
Duke University School of Law and Harvard Law School
Downloads 621 (48,975)
Citation 2

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6.

The Juvenile Death Penalty and International Law

Number of pages: 87 Posted: 23 Nov 2002
Curtis A. Bradley
Duke University School of Law
Downloads 525 (60,620)

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death penalty, treaty reservations, self-execution, customary international law, juveniles, cruel and unusual

7.

Historical Gloss, Constitutional Conventions, and the Judicial Separation of Powers

Georgetown Law Journal, Forthcoming, Duke Law School Public Law & Legal Theory Series No. 2016-11
Number of pages: 68 Posted: 25 Jan 2016 Last Revised: 11 Jan 2021
Curtis A. Bradley and Neil Siegel
Duke University School of Law and Duke University School of Law
Downloads 508 (63,173)
Citation 1

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historical gloss, constitutional conventions, Court packing, jurisdiction stripping, separation of powers, Exceptions Clause

8.

What Is Foreign Relations Law?

The Oxford Handbook of Comparative Foreign Relations Law (Curtis A. Bradley ed., 2018, Forthcoming), Duke Law School Public Law & Legal Theory Series No. 2017-38
Number of pages: 18 Posted: 02 May 2017 Last Revised: 21 Aug 2018
Curtis A. Bradley
Duke University School of Law
Downloads 484 (67,036)

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foreign relations law, comparative constitutional law, foreign relations law exceptionalism, restatements of the law

9.

Sosa, Customary International Law, and the Continuing Relevance of Erie

Harvard Law Review, Vol. 120, 2007, Duke Law School Legal Studies Paper No. 114
Number of pages: 62 Posted: 18 Aug 2006
Curtis A. Bradley, Jack Landman Goldsmith and David H. Moore
Duke University School of Law, Harvard Law School and Brigham Young University - J. Reuben Clark Law School
Downloads 478 (68,083)

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customary international law, federal common law, alien tort statute

10.

The Military Commissions Act, Habeas Corpus, and the Geneva Conventions

American Journal of International Law, Vol. 101, 2007, Duke Law School Legal Studies Paper No. 172
Number of pages: 24 Posted: 14 Jun 2007 Last Revised: 07 Oct 2007
Curtis A. Bradley
Duke University School of Law
Downloads 475 (68,637)

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military commissions, habeas corpus, geneva conventions, self-execution

11.

The Story of Ex Parte Milligan: Military Trials, Enemy Combatants, and Congressional Authorization

Number of pages: 33 Posted: 24 Sep 2007 Last Revised: 22 Dec 2014
Curtis A. Bradley
Duke University School of Law
Downloads 458 (71,812)
Citation 3

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military commissions, habeas corpus, war on terrorism

12.

Foreign Sovereign Immunity, Individual Officials, and Human Rights Litigation

Green Bag 2D, Vol. 13, p. 9, 2009, Harvard Public Law Working Paper No. 10-05
Number of pages: 16 Posted: 10 Oct 2009 Last Revised: 22 Dec 2014
Curtis A. Bradley and Jack Landman Goldsmith
Duke University School of Law and Harvard Law School
Downloads 446 (74,176)

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sovereign immunity, human rights litigation, alien tort statute

13.

Executive Power Essentialism and Foreign Affairs

Number of pages: 123 Posted: 24 Feb 2004
Curtis A. Bradley and Martin S. Flaherty
Duke University School of Law and Fordham Law School
Downloads 438 (75,772)

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Executive power, foreign affairs, vesting clause

14.

Presidential Control Over International Law

Harvard Law Review, Vol. 131, Duke Law School Public Law & Legal Theory Series No. 2018-4
Number of pages: 97 Posted: 29 Nov 2017 Last Revised: 12 Feb 2018
Curtis A. Bradley and Jack Landman Goldsmith
Duke University School of Law and Harvard Law School
Downloads 437 (75,988)
Citation 1

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executive agreements, treaties, customary international law, presidential power

15.

Obama's AUMF Legacy

Number of pages: 18 Posted: 21 Aug 2016 Last Revised: 08 Mar 2017
Curtis A. Bradley and Jack Landman Goldsmith
Duke University School of Law and Harvard Law School
Downloads 421 (79,447)

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aumf, obama administration, war on terror, international law, military detention, targeting

16.

The Concept of International Delegation

Law and Contemporary Problems, Forthcoming, Duke Law School Legal Studies Paper No. 141
Number of pages: 34 Posted: 09 Nov 2006
Curtis A. Bradley and Judith G. Kelley
Duke University School of Law and Duke University - Trinity College of Arts & Sciences
Downloads 361 (94,841)
Citation 1

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delegation, international organizations, sovereignty

17.

Customary International Law and Withdrawal Rights in an Age of Treaties

Duke Journal of Comparative & International Law, Vol. 21, No. 1, 2010
Number of pages: 30 Posted: 10 Jan 2011
Curtis A. Bradley and G. Mitu Gulati
Duke University School of Law and Duke University School of Law
Downloads 349 (98,628)

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customary international law, withdrawal, treaties, social contract, mandatory rules, default rules

18.

The Failed Transparency Regime for Executive Agreements: An Empirical and Normative Analysis

Harvard Law Review, Vol. 134, No. 2, pp. 629-725, Yale Law School, Public Law Research Paper Forthcoming, Duke Law School Public Law & Legal Theory Series No. 2020-35, Harvard Public Law Working Paper No. 20-15
Number of pages: 97 Posted: 28 May 2020 Last Revised: 10 Dec 2020
Oona A. Hathaway, Curtis A. Bradley and Jack Landman Goldsmith
Yale University - Law School, Duke University School of Law and Harvard Law School
Downloads 347 (99,259)

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19.

The United States, Israel, and Unlawful Combatants

Duke Law School Public Law & Legal Theory Paper No. 249
Number of pages: 16 Posted: 21 May 2009 Last Revised: 10 Aug 2009
Curtis A. Bradley
Duke University School of Law
Downloads 341 (101,187)

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terrorism, unlawful combatants, geneva conventions, detention, targeting

20.

Unratified Treaties, Domestic Politics, and the U.S. Constitution

Harvard International Law Journal, Vol. 48, 2007, Duke Law School Legal Studies Paper No. 161
Number of pages: 31 Posted: 07 Nov 2006
Curtis A. Bradley
Duke University School of Law
Downloads 322 (107,900)

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treaties, executive agreements, unsigning, object and purpose

Historical Gloss, Madisonian Liquidation, and the Originalism Debate

Virginia Law Review, Forthcoming, Duke Law School Public Law & Legal Theory Series No. 2019-15
Number of pages: 53 Posted: 19 Feb 2019 Last Revised: 25 Aug 2019
Curtis A. Bradley and Neil Siegel
Duke University School of Law and Duke University School of Law
Downloads 279 (125,047)
Citation 1

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historical gloss, liquidation, originalism, non-originalism, separation of powers

Historical Gloss, Madisonian Liquidation, and the Originalism Debate

Virginia Law Review, Vol. 106, No. 1, 2020
Number of pages: 72 Posted: 29 Jul 2020 Last Revised: 04 Aug 2020
Curtis A. Bradley and Neil Siegel
Duke University School of Law and Duke University School of Law
Downloads 33 (527,017)

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Constitutional framework, liquidation, historical gloss,

22.

Exiting Congressional-Executive Agreements

Duke Law Journal, Forthcoming, Duke Law School Public Law & Legal Theory Series No. 2018-1
Number of pages: 26 Posted: 09 Oct 2017 Last Revised: 10 Mar 2018
Curtis A. Bradley
Duke University School of Law
Downloads 302 (115,643)

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Treaty Withdrawal, Congressional-Executive Agreements, NAFTA, Trade Agreements

23.

Constructed Constraint and the Constitutional Text

Duke Law Journal, Vol. 64
Number of pages: 82 Posted: 08 Feb 2014 Last Revised: 04 Aug 2019
Curtis A. Bradley and Neil Siegel
Duke University School of Law and Duke University School of Law
Downloads 291 (120,232)
Citation 4

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constitutional interpretation, textualism, constitutional construction, unwritten constitution

24.

Chevron Deference and Foreign Affairs

Number of pages: 85 Posted: 01 Dec 1999
Curtis A. Bradley
Duke University School of Law
Downloads 291 (120,232)
Citation 2

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25.

Self-Execution and Treaty Duality

Supreme Court Review, Forthcoming, Duke Law School Public Law & Legal Theory Paper No. 239
Number of pages: 42 Posted: 11 Feb 2009
Curtis A. Bradley
Duke University School of Law
Downloads 290 (120,668)

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treaties, self-execution, supremacy clause

26.

International Law and the U.S. Common Law of Foreign Official Immunity

Supreme Court Review, p. 213, 2011
Number of pages: 61 Posted: 05 Dec 2010 Last Revised: 21 Dec 2014
Curtis A. Bradley and Laurence R. Helfer
Duke University School of Law and Duke University School of Law
Downloads 283 (123,849)

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International law, customary international law, CIL, foreign sovereign immunities act, FSIA, foreign official immunity, Executive Branch, jus cogens, international crimes, universal jurisdiction, federal common law, U.S. Supreme Court, Samantar, Alien Tort Statute, ATS, Torture Victim Protection Act

27.

International Delegations, the Structural Constitution, and Non-Self-Execution

Number of pages: 37 Posted: 26 Feb 2003
Curtis A. Bradley
Duke University School of Law
Downloads 270 (130,174)
Citation 8

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international institutions, delegation of authority, separation of powers, nondelegation doctrine, non-self-execution

28.

Presidential Power, Historical Practice, and Legal Constraint

Columbia Law Review, Forthcoming, Columbia Public Law Research Paper No. 13-327
Number of pages: 47 Posted: 20 Dec 2012 Last Revised: 21 Dec 2014
Curtis A. Bradley and Trevor W. Morrison
Duke University School of Law and New York University School of Law
Downloads 269 (130,695)
Citation 3

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presidential power, historical gloss, legal constraints, constitutional conventions

29.

The Alien Tort Statute and Article Iii

Number of pages: 64 Posted: 24 Nov 2001
Curtis A. Bradley
Duke University School of Law
Downloads 257 (136,981)
Citation 2

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30.

The Federal Judicial Power and the International Legal Order

Supreme Court Review, 2007
Number of pages: 43 Posted: 30 Jan 2007
Curtis A. Bradley
Duke University School of Law
Downloads 244 (144,133)

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international court of justice, treaties, Article III, federalism

31.

Foreign Sovereign Immunity and Domestic Officer Suits

Harvard Public Law Working Paper No. 10-06
Number of pages: 15 Posted: 25 Nov 2009 Last Revised: 22 Dec 2014
Curtis A. Bradley and Jack Landman Goldsmith
Duke University School of Law and Harvard Law School
Downloads 236 (148,834)

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sovereign immunity, Ex parte Young, human rights litigation, Alien Tort Statute

32.

Attorney General Bradford's Opinion and the Alien Tort Statute

Number of pages: 22 Posted: 22 May 2012 Last Revised: 21 Dec 2014
Curtis A. Bradley
Duke University School of Law
Downloads 231 (151,911)

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Alien Tort Statute, extraterritoriality, aiding and abetting, neutrality, law of nations

33.

After Recess: Historical Practice, Textual Ambiguity, and Constitutional Adverse Possession

2014 Supreme Court Review 1, Duke Law School Public Law & Legal Theory Series No. 20015-6
Number of pages: 70 Posted: 11 Jan 2015 Last Revised: 31 Oct 2018
Curtis A. Bradley and Neil Siegel
Duke University School of Law and Duke University School of Law
Downloads 227 (154,495)

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historical gloss, constitutional interpretation, recess appointments, constitutional liquidation, textualism

34.

Customary International Law Adjudication as Common Law Adjudication

Book chapter for CUSTOM’S FUTURE: INTERNATIONAL LAW IN A CHANGING WORLD (Curtis A. Bradley ed., Cambridge University Press, Forthcoming
Number of pages: 24 Posted: 05 Feb 2015 Last Revised: 11 Feb 2015
Curtis A. Bradley
Duke University School of Law
Downloads 212 (164,791)

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customary international law, common law, international adjudication, opinio juris

35.

Introduction to 'The International Legal Order and the Global Pandemic'

Number of pages: 6 Posted: 12 Aug 2020
Curtis A. Bradley and Laurence R. Helfer
Duke University School of Law and Duke University School of Law
Downloads 208 (168,630)
Citation 1

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pandemic, COVID-19, international law, world health organization, human rights

36.

Presidential War Powers as an Interactive Dynamic: International Law, Domestic Law, and Practice-Based Legal Change

New York University Law Review, Vol. 92, P. 689, 2016, Duke Law School Public Law & Legal Theory Series No. 2015-53, U of Penn Law School, Public Law Research Paper No. 15-31
Number of pages: 73 Posted: 16 Nov 2015 Last Revised: 25 May 2017
Curtis A. Bradley and Jean Galbraith
Duke University School of Law and University of Pennsylvania Law School
Downloads 161 (210,657)

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war powers, international law, historical practice, security council, use of force

37.

Mandatory Versus Default Rules: How Can Customary International Law Be Improved?

Number of pages: 28 Posted: 08 Mar 2011
Curtis A. Bradley and G. Mitu Gulati
Duke University School of Law and Duke University School of Law
Downloads 160 (211,777)

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38.

State Action and Corporate Human Rights Liability

Notre Dame Law Review, Vol. 85, No. 5, 2010
Number of pages: 16 Posted: 24 Jan 2010 Last Revised: 22 Dec 2014
Curtis A. Bradley
Duke University School of Law
Downloads 151 (222,289)
Citation 1

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alien tort statute, corporate liability, aiding and abetting, section 1983

39.

Treaty Termination and Historical Gloss

Texas Law Review, Forthcoming
Number of pages: 56 Posted: 11 Aug 2013 Last Revised: 21 Dec 2014
Curtis A. Bradley
Duke University School of Law
Downloads 137 (240,410)

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treaties, historical gloss, separation of powers, constitutional change, presidential power, constitutional construction

40.

The United States and Human Rights Treaties: Race Relations, the Cold War, and Constitutionalism

Number of pages: 22 Posted: 20 Apr 2010
Curtis A. Bradley
Duke University School of Law
Downloads 136 (241,823)

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Human Rights, Reservations, Cold War, Federalism

41.

A State Preferences Account of Customary International Law Adjudication

Number of pages: 31 Posted: 12 Oct 2014 Last Revised: 21 Dec 2014
Curtis A. Bradley
Duke University School of Law
Downloads 125 (257,979)
Citation 2

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customary international law, international adjudication, state preferences, opinio juris

42.

The Supreme Court as a Filter between International Law and American Constitutionalism

California Law Review, Vol. 104, Duke Law School Public Law & Legal Theory Series No. 2016-35
Number of pages: 19 Posted: 03 Jun 2016
Curtis A. Bradley
Duke University School of Law
Downloads 111 (281,058)

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foreign relations law, Supreme Court, international law, filtering role, treaty power, customary international law

43.

U.S. War Powers and the Potential Benefits of Comparativism

Oxford Handbook of Comparative Foreign Relations Law (Curtis A. Bradley ed., 2018 Forthcoming), Duke Law School Public Law & Legal Theory Series No. 2017-56
Number of pages: 17 Posted: 17 Aug 2017 Last Revised: 23 Aug 2018
Curtis A. Bradley
Duke University School of Law
Downloads 88 (327,708)

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use of force, war powers resolution, syria, comparative constitutional law, presidential power

44.

Article II Treaties and Signaling Theory

THE RESTATEMENT AND BEYOND: THE PAST, PRESENT, AND FUTURE OF U.S. FOREIGN RELATIONS LAW (Forthcoming 2020) , Duke Law School Public Law & Legal Theory Series No. 2019-49
Number of pages: 36 Posted: 05 Aug 2019 Last Revised: 24 Sep 2019
Curtis A. Bradley
Duke University School of Law
Downloads 86 (334,722)

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treaties, signaling, executive agreements, interchangeability

45.

Foreign Relations Law and the Purported Shift Away from 'Exceptionalism'

Harvard Law Review Forum, Vol. 128:294, Duke Law School Public Law & Legal Theory Series No. 2015-23
Number of pages: 11 Posted: 13 May 2015
Curtis A. Bradley
Duke University School of Law
Downloads 77 (354,804)

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foreign relations law, exceptionalism, deference to the executive, federalism, normalization

46.

The Irrepressible Functionalism in U.S. Foreign Relations Law

Forthcoming, Foreign Relations Law (Curtis A. Bradley ed., 2019) (Edward Elgar Publishing)
Number of pages: 17 Posted: 30 Aug 2018
Curtis A. Bradley
Duke University School of Law
Downloads 72 (368,440)

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foreign relations law, formalism, functionalism, exceptionalism

47.

Agora: Reflections on Zivotofsky v. Kerry: Historical Gloss, the Recognition Power, and Judicial Review

Duke Law School Public Law & Legal Theory Series No. 2015-31
Number of pages: 8 Posted: 22 Jul 2015
Curtis A. Bradley
Duke University School of Law
Downloads 48 (448,151)
Citation 1

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recognition, historical gloss, separation of powers, Zivotofsky, constitutional custom

48.

Treaty Exit in the United States: Insights from the United Kingdom or South Africa?

AJIL Unbound, Volume 111, pp. 428-433, 2018, Duke Law School Public Law & Legal Theory Series No. 2018-13
Number of pages: 6 Posted: 12 Jan 2018 Last Revised: 02 Mar 2018
Curtis A. Bradley and Laurence R. Helfer
Duke University School of Law and Duke University School of Law
Downloads 35 (504,457)

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international law, comparative law, treaties, treaty withdrawal, foreign relations law, exit

49.

Conflicting Approaches to the U.S. Common Law of Foreign Official Immunity

Duke Law School Public Law & Legal Theory Series No. 2020-79
Number of pages: 21 Posted: 02 Nov 2020
Curtis A. Bradley
Duke University School of Law
Downloads 30 (530,023)

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foreign official immunity, head of state immunity, common law, customary international law, civil rights litigation, Foreign Sovereign Immunities Act

50.

Unpacking Third-Party Standing

Number of pages: 58
Curtis A. Bradley and Ernest A. Young
Duke University School of Law and Duke University School of Law
Downloads 16

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standing, Article III, third-party standing, abortion restrictions, statutory standing, zone of interests, prudential limitations, valid rule, organizational standing

51.

Treaty Signature

THE OXFORD GUIDE TO TREATIES, Duncan Hollis, ed., Oxford University Press, Forthcoming
Posted: 18 Oct 2011 Last Revised: 21 Dec 2014
Curtis A. Bradley
Duke University School of Law

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52.

Congressional Authorization and the War on Terrorism

Posted: 22 Apr 2005
Curtis A. Bradley and Jack Landman Goldsmith
Duke University School of Law and Harvard Law School

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War, congressional authorization, terrorism, presidential authority

53.

The Costs of International Human Rights Litigation

Chicago Journal of International Law, Vol. 2, No. 2, Fall 2001
Posted: 26 Feb 2002
Curtis A. Bradley
Duke University School of Law

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human rights, international litigation, customary international law, Alien Tort Statute

54.

Pinochet and International Human Rights Litigation

Posted: 17 Jun 1999
Curtis A. Bradley and Jack Landman Goldsmith
Duke University School of Law and Harvard Law School

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56.

Federal Courts and the Incorporation of International Law

Harvard Law Review, June 1998
Posted: 29 May 1998
Curtis A. Bradley and Jack Landman Goldsmith
Duke University School of Law and Harvard Law School

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57.

The Treaty Power and American Federalism

Michigan Law Review, Vol. 97, November 1998
Posted: 28 May 1998
Curtis A. Bradley
Duke University School of Law

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58.

Customary International Law as Federal Common Law: A Critique of the Modern Position

in the Harvard Law Review, Vol. 110, No. 4 (1997).
Posted: 11 Jun 1997
Curtis A. Bradley and Jack Landman Goldsmith
Duke University School of Law and Harvard Law School

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