Andrew A. Toole

US Patent and Trademark Office

Deputy Chief Economist

Alexandria

VA 22313-1451

United States

SCHOLARLY PAPERS

21

DOWNLOADS
Rank 14,125

SSRN RANKINGS

Top 14,125

in Total Papers Downloads

3,314

CITATIONS
Rank 13,486

SSRN RANKINGS

Top 13,486

in Total Papers Citations

28

Scholarly Papers (21)

1.

Patent Litigation Data from US District Court Electronic Records (1963-2015)

USPTO Economic Working Paper No. 2017-06
Number of pages: 40 Posted: 29 Mar 2017
Alan C. Marco, Asrat Tesfayesus and Andrew A. Toole
Georgia Institute of Technology - School of Public Policy, United States Patent and Trademark Office and US Patent and Trademark Office
Downloads 1,549 (10,753)

Abstract:

Loading...

Patents, Litigation, Intellectual Property

2.

Exploring the Relationship Between Scientist Human Capital and Firm Performance: The Case of Biomedical Academic Entrepreneurs in the SBIR Program

ZEW - Centre for European Economic Research Discussion Paper No. 07-011
Number of pages: 33 Posted: 28 Feb 2007 Last Revised: 14 Jun 2014
Andrew A. Toole and Dirk Czarnitzki
US Patent and Trademark Office and Centre for European Economic Research (ZEW)
Downloads 259 (115,252)
Citation 7

Abstract:

Loading...

Academic Entrepreneurship, SBIR Program, Human Capital, Biotechnology

The Dynamic Relationship between Investments in Brand Equity and Firm Profitability: Evidence Using Trademark Registrations

USPTO Economic Working Paper 2016-1
Number of pages: 34 Posted: 06 Oct 2016
Dirk Crass, Dirk Czarnitzki and Andrew A. Toole
ZEW – Leibniz Centre for European Economic Research, KU Leuven - Department of Managerial Economics, Strategy, and Innovation and US Patent and Trademark Office
Downloads 97 (266,602)

Abstract:

Loading...

Brand Equity, Firm Profitability, Intellectual Property Rights, Trademarks

The Dynamic Relationship between Investments in Brand Equity and Firm Profitability: Evidence Using Trademark Registrations

ZEW - Centre for European Economic Research Discussion Paper No. 16-04
Number of pages: 35 Posted: 05 Apr 2016
Dirk Crass, Dirk Czarnitzki and Andrew A. Toole
ZEW – Leibniz Centre for European Economic Research, KU Leuven - Department of Managerial Economics, Strategy, and Innovation and US Patent and Trademark Office
Downloads 65 (339,315)

Abstract:

Loading...

Brand Equity, Firm Profitability, Intellectual Property Rights, Trademarks

The Dynamic Relationship between Investments in Brand Equity and Firm Profitability: Evidence Using Trademark Registrations

Number of pages: 35 Posted: 01 Feb 2016
Dirk Crass, Dirk Czarnitzki and Andrew A. Toole
ZEW – Leibniz Centre for European Economic Research, KU Leuven - Department of Managerial Economics, Strategy, and Innovation and US Patent and Trademark Office
Downloads 56 (366,275)

Abstract:

Loading...

Brand Equity, Firm Profitability, Intellectual Property Rights, Trademarks

4.

Patent Protection, Market Uncertainty, and R&D Investment

ZEW - Centre for European Economic Research Discussion Paper No. 06-056
Number of pages: 11 Posted: 22 Aug 2006 Last Revised: 26 Aug 2008
Dirk Czarnitzki and Andrew A. Toole
Centre for European Economic Research (ZEW) and US Patent and Trademark Office
Downloads 190 (155,783)
Citation 5

Abstract:

Loading...

Real Options Theory, Uncertainty, R&D, Intellectual Property Protection, Censored Regression

Individual versus Institutional Ownership of University-Discovered Inventions

USPTO Economic Working Paper No. 2017-07
Number of pages: 45 Posted: 01 Jul 2017
KU Leuven - Department of Managerial Economics, Strategy, and Innovation, ZEW – Leibniz Centre for European Economic Research, Universite du Luxembourg, ZEW – Leibniz Centre for European Economic Research and US Patent and Trademark Office
Downloads 60 (353,721)

Abstract:

Loading...

Intellectual property, patents, technology transfer, policy evaluation

Individual versus Institutional Ownership of University-Discovered Inventions

ZEW - Centre for European Economic Research Discussion Paper No. 15-007
Number of pages: 67 Posted: 26 Feb 2015
KU Leuven - Department of Managerial Economics, Strategy, and Innovation, ZEW – Leibniz Centre for European Economic Research, Universite du Luxembourg, ZEW – Leibniz Centre for European Economic Research and US Patent and Trademark Office
Downloads 55 (369,486)

Abstract:

Loading...

Intellectual property, patents, technology transfer, policy evaluation

Individual Versus Institutional Ownership of University-Discovered Inventions

Number of pages: 41 Posted: 29 Jan 2015
KU Leuven - Department of Managerial Economics, Strategy, and Innovation, ZEW – Leibniz Centre for European Economic Research, Universite du Luxembourg, ZEW – Leibniz Centre for European Economic Research and US Patent and Trademark Office
Downloads 50 (386,194)

Abstract:

Loading...

Intellectual property, patents, technology transfer, policy evaluation

6.

USPTO Patent Prosecution and Examiner Performance Appraisal

USPTO Economic Working Paper No. 2017-08
Number of pages: 19 Posted: 01 Jul 2017
Georgia Institute of Technology - School of Public Policy, US Patent and Trademark Office, United States Patent and Trademark Office and United States Patent and Trademark Office
Downloads 137 (205,806)

Abstract:

Loading...

USPTO, patent examination, examiner incentives

7.

The R&D Investment-Uncertainty Relationship: Do Competition and Firm Size Matter?

ZEW - Centre for European Economic Research Discussion Paper No. 08-013
Number of pages: 23 Posted: 10 Mar 2008 Last Revised: 14 Aug 2008
Dirk Czarnitzki and Andrew A. Toole
Centre for European Economic Research (ZEW) and US Patent and Trademark Office
Downloads 121 (226,605)

Abstract:

Loading...

Real Options Theory, Uncertainty, R&D, Competition, Firm Size

8.

The Impact of Public Basic Research on Industrial Innovation: Evidence from the Pharmaceutical Industry

ZEW - Centre for European Economic Research Discussion Paper No. 11-063
Number of pages: 43 Posted: 12 Jan 2012
Andrew A. Toole
US Patent and Trademark Office
Downloads 102 (256,080)
Citation 8

Abstract:

Loading...

R&D, NIH, social return, biomedical, research lags, public science, new molecular entities

9.

How Does Initial Public Financing Influence Private Incentives for Follow-On Investment in Early-Stage Technologies?

Journal of Technology Transfer, Forthcoming
Number of pages: 29 Posted: 08 Dec 2007
Andrew A. Toole and Calum G. Turvey
US Patent and Trademark Office and Cornell University - School of Applied Economics and Management
Downloads 97 (264,726)
Citation 2

Abstract:

Loading...

R&D, real options, uncertainty, public subsidies, innovation

University Spinoffs and the 'Performance Premium'

ZEW - Centre for European Economic Research Discussion Paper No. 13-004
Number of pages: 34 Posted: 31 Jan 2013
Dirk Czarnitzki, Christian Rammer and Andrew A. Toole
Centre for European Economic Research (ZEW), ZEW – Leibniz Centre for European Economic Research - Industrial Economics and International Management Research and US Patent and Trademark Office
Downloads 59 (356,709)

Abstract:

Loading...

Academic Entrepreneurship, Startups, Firm Performance, Technology Transfer, Open Science, University Spinoff Policy, Human Capital, Social Capital

University Spinoffs and the 'Performance Premium'

Number of pages: 32 Posted: 26 Mar 2013
Dirk Czarnitzki, Christian Rammer and Andrew A. Toole
Centre for European Economic Research (ZEW), ZEW – Leibniz Centre for European Economic Research - Industrial Economics and International Management Research and US Patent and Trademark Office
Downloads 30 (468,657)

Abstract:

Loading...

Academic Entrepreneurship, Startups, Firm performance, Technology Transfer, Open Science, University Spinoff Policy, Human Capital, Social Capital

11.

Business R&D and the Interplay of R&D Subsidies and Market Uncertainty

Review of Industrial Organization, Vol. 31, No. 3, 2007, ZEW - Centre for European Economic Research Discussion Paper No. 06-055
Number of pages: 22 Posted: 22 Aug 2006 Last Revised: 26 Aug 2008
Dirk Czarnitzki and Andrew A. Toole
Centre for European Economic Research (ZEW) and US Patent and Trademark Office
Downloads 79 (300,713)
Citation 5

Abstract:

Loading...

Real Options Theory, Uncertainty, R&D, Censored Regression

Knowledge Creates Markets: The Influence of Entrepreneurial Support and Patent Rights on Academic Entrepreneurship

USPTO Economic Working Paper 2016-2
Number of pages: 47 Posted: 06 Oct 2016
KU Leuven - Department of Managerial Economics, Strategy, and Innovation, ZEW – Leibniz Centre for European Economic Research, Universite du Luxembourg, ZEW – Leibniz Centre for European Economic Research and US Patent and Trademark Office
Downloads 58 (359,867)

Abstract:

Loading...

Intellectual Property, Patents, Technology Transfer, Policy Evaluation

Knowledge Creates Markets: The Influence of Entrepreneurial Support and Patent Rights on Academic Entrepreneurship

European Economic Review, Forthcoming, KU Leuven, Faculty of Economics and Business, MSI_1604
Number of pages: 48 Posted: 21 May 2016
KU Leuven - Department of Managerial Economics, Strategy, and Innovation, ZEW – Leibniz Centre for European Economic Research, Universite du Luxembourg, ZEW – Leibniz Centre for European Economic Research and US Patent and Trademark Office
Downloads 15 (558,873)

Abstract:

Loading...

Intellectual property, patents, technology transfer, policy evaluation

Delay and Secrecy: Does Industry Sponsorship Jeopardize Disclosure of Academic Research?

ZEW - Centre for European Economic Research Discussion Paper No. 11-009
Number of pages: 31 Posted: 12 Feb 2011
Dirk Czarnitzki, Christoph Grimpe and Andrew A. Toole
Centre for European Economic Research (ZEW), Copenhagen Business School - Department of Innovation and Organizational EconomicsZEW Centre for European Economic Research and US Patent and Trademark Office
Downloads 44 (407,883)
Citation 1

Abstract:

Loading...

Open Science, Research Funding, Industry Sponsorship, Disclosure, Secrecy

Delay and Secrecy: Does Industry Sponsorship Jeopardize Disclosure of Academic Research?

Number of pages: 29 Posted: 20 Mar 2011
Dirk Czarnitzki, Christoph Grimpe and Andrew A. Toole
Centre for European Economic Research (ZEW), Copenhagen Business School - Department of Innovation and Organizational EconomicsZEW Centre for European Economic Research and US Patent and Trademark Office
Downloads 18 (539,752)
Citation 1

Abstract:

Loading...

open science, research funding, industry sponsorship, disclosure, secrecy

University Research Alliances, Absorptive Capacity, and the Contribution of Startups to Employment Growth

Number of pages: 29 Posted: 25 Nov 2014
Andrew A. Toole, Dirk Czarnitzki and Christian Rammer
US Patent and Trademark Office, KU Leuven - Department of Managerial Economics, Strategy, and Innovation and ZEW – Leibniz Centre for European Economic Research - Industrial Economics and International Management Research
Downloads 28 (479,194)

Abstract:

Loading...

Academic Entrepreneurship, Startups, Firm performance, Technology Transfer, University Spinoff Policy, Human Capital

University Research Alliances, Absorptive Capacity, and the Contribution of Startups to Employment Growth

ZEW - Centre for European Economic Research Discussion Paper No. 14-094
Number of pages: 29 Posted: 04 Dec 2014
Andrew A. Toole, Dirk Czarnitzki and Christian Rammer
US Patent and Trademark Office, KU Leuven - Department of Managerial Economics, Strategy, and Innovation and ZEW – Leibniz Centre for European Economic Research - Industrial Economics and International Management Research
Downloads 27 (484,728)

Abstract:

Loading...

Academic Entrepreneurship, Startups, Firm performance, Technology Transfer, University Spinoff Policy, Human Capital

15.

Industry-Science Connections in Agriculture: Do Public Science Collaborations and Knowledge Flows Contribute to Firm-Level Agricultural Research Productivity?

ZEW - Centre for European Economic Research Discussion Paper No. 11-064
Number of pages: 37 Posted: 12 Jan 2012
Andrew A. Toole and John L. King
US Patent and Trademark Office and University of California, Davis
Downloads 38 (422,834)

Abstract:

Loading...

public science, research productivity, patents, citations, collaboration, R&D, bibliometrics

16.

Improving Health Through Nutrition Research: An Overview of the U.S. Nutrition Research System

USDA-ERS Economic Research Report Number 182
Number of pages: 33 Posted: 30 Dec 2015
Andrew A. Toole and Fred Kuchler
US Patent and Trademark Office and U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA) - Economic Research Service (ERS)
Downloads 35 (434,955)

Abstract:

Loading...

Federal research, research and development, public investment, nutrition information system, Human Nutrition Research Information Management (HNRIM), formula funding, competitive funding

17.

Knowledge Creates Markets: The Influence of Entrepreneurial Support and Patent Rights on Academic Entrepreneurship

ZEW - Centre for European Economic Research Discussion Paper No. 16-036
Number of pages: 48 Posted: 28 Apr 2016
Centre for European Economic Research (ZEW), ZEW – Leibniz Centre for European Economic Research, ZEW – Leibniz Centre for European Economic Research and US Patent and Trademark Office
Downloads 30 (456,706)

Abstract:

Loading...

Intellectual property, patents, technology transfer, policy evaluation

18.

Using Intellectual Property Data to Measure Cross-border Knowledge Flows

USPTO Economic Working Paper No. 2019-02
Number of pages: 40 Posted: 14 May 2019
University of Denver, United States Patent and Trademark Office, United States Patent and Trademark Office and US Patent and Trademark Office
Downloads 10 (567,556)

Abstract:

Loading...

intellectual property, measurement, technology transfer, international knowledge flows

19.

The Miner Act of 2006: Innovating for Safety and Health in U.S. Mining

USPTO Economic Working Paper No. 2019-01
Number of pages: 19 Posted: 13 May 2019
Andrew A. Toole, James Forman and Asrat Tesfayesus
US Patent and Trademark Office, United States Patent and Trademark Office and United States Patent and Trademark Office
Downloads 5 (604,232)

Abstract:

Loading...

20.

Biomedical Academic Entrepreneurship Through the Sbir Program

Journal of Economic Behavior and Organization, 2006
Posted: 07 Jul 2006
Andrew A. Toole and Dirk Czarnitzki
US Patent and Trademark Office and Centre for European Economic Research (ZEW)

Abstract:

Loading...

SBIR Program, entrepreneurship, real options, technology transfer, NIH

21.

Does Public Scientific Research Complement Private Research and Development Investment in the Pharmaceutical Industry?

Journal of Law and Economics, Vol. 50, No. 1, February 2007, ZEW - Centre for European Economic Research Discussion
Posted: 12 Apr 2006 Last Revised: 08 Feb 2014
Andrew A. Toole
US Patent and Trademark Office

Abstract:

Loading...

R&D, pharmaceuticals, Uncertainty, NIH, Distributed lag models