Michael S. Pardo

University of Alabama School of Law

Sims Professor of Law

P.O. Box 870382

Tuscaloosa, AL 35487

United States

SCHOLARLY PAPERS

48

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17,406

SSRN CITATIONS
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Top 14,494

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5

CROSSREF CITATIONS

54

Scholarly Papers (48)

1.

Philosophical Foundations of Law and Neuroscience

University of Illinois Law Review, 2010, U of Alabama Public Law Research Paper No. 1338763
Number of pages: 40 Posted: 06 Feb 2009 Last Revised: 26 Dec 2013
Michael S. Pardo and Dennis Patterson
University of Alabama School of Law and Rutgers University School of Law, Camden
Downloads 2,234 (6,033)
Citation 6

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Neuroscience, fMRI, Mind, Brain, Mereological Fallacy, Lie Detection, Deception, Voluntariness, Intent, Knowledge, Economic Decision-Making, Moral Decision-Making, Jurisprudence, Legal Decision-Making

2.

The Nature and Purpose of Evidence Theory

66 Vanderbilt Law Review 547 (2013), U of Alabama Public Law Research Paper No. 2060340
Number of pages: 67 Posted: 16 May 2012 Last Revised: 08 Apr 2013
Michael S. Pardo
University of Alabama School of Law
Downloads 1,066 (19,834)

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legal proof, relevance, probative value, standards of proof, preponderance of the evidence, clear and convincing, beyond a reasonable doubt, likelihood ratio, probability, Bayes’ Theorem, explanations, abduction, inference to the best explanation

3.

Minds, Brains, and Norms

Neuroethics, Forthcoming, University of Alabama Public Law Research Paper No. 1432476
Number of pages: 25 Posted: 13 Jul 2009
Michael S. Pardo and Dennis Patterson
University of Alabama School of Law and Rutgers University School of Law, Camden
Downloads 875 (26,430)

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rule following, interpretation, knowledge, ethics, morals, mens rea, insanity, lie detection, deception

4.

Neuroscience Evidence, Legal Culture, and Criminal Procedure

American Journal of Criminal Law, Vol. 33, p. 301, 2006, U of Alabama Public Law Research Paper No. 910958
Number of pages: 38 Posted: 25 Jun 2006
Michael S. Pardo
University of Alabama School of Law
Downloads 834 (28,288)

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neuroscience, fMRI, lie detection, deception, prior knowledge, fourth amendment, fifth amendment, self-incrimination

5.

Juridical Proof and the Best Explanation

Law and Philosophy, Forthcoming, U of Alabama Public Law Research Paper No. 1003421
Number of pages: 47 Posted: 29 Jul 2007 Last Revised: 09 Nov 2007
Michael S. Pardo and Ronald J. Allen
University of Alabama School of Law and Northwestern University Law School
Downloads 810 (29,441)

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evidence, proof, abduction, inference to the best explanation, probability, burdens of proof, probative value

6.

The Gettier Problem and Legal Proof

Legal Theory, Vol. 16, 2010, U of Alabama Public Law Research Paper No. 1596709
Number of pages: 41 Posted: 29 Apr 2010 Last Revised: 16 Mar 2018
Michael S. Pardo
University of Alabama School of Law
Downloads 621 (42,255)

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epistemology, legal proof, knowledge, truth, justification, belief, acceptance, verdicts, judgments, Gettier, material error, probatory error

7.

Minds, Brains, and Law: The Conceptual Foundations of Law and Neuroscience

Minds, Brains, and Law: The Conceptual Foundations of Law and Neuroscience (Oxford University Press, 2013), Forthcoming, U of Alabama Legal Studies Research Paper No. 2330892
Number of pages: 27 Posted: 27 Sep 2013
Michael S. Pardo and Dennis Patterson
University of Alabama School of Law and Rutgers University School of Law, Camden
Downloads 603 (43,917)

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mind, brain, neuroscience, fMRI, EEG, conceptual, empirical, normativity, knowledge, intent, memory, jurisprudence, moral decision making, economic decision making, emotion, rationality, lie detection, actus reus, mens rea, insanity, Fourth Amendment, Fifth Amendment, self-incrimination, free will

8.

Neuroscience, Normativity, and Retributivism

THE FUTURE OF PUNISHMENT, Thomas Nadelhoffer, ed., Oxford University Press, Forthcoming, U of Alabama Public Law Research Paper No. 1968552
Number of pages: 29 Posted: 06 Dec 2011
Michael S. Pardo and Dennis Patterson
University of Alabama School of Law and Rutgers University School of Law, Camden
Downloads 596 (44,634)

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neuroscience, criminal punishment, retributivism, consequentionalism, moral responsibility, free will, determinism, compatibilism, folk psychology

9.

Pleadings, Proof, and Judgment: A Unified Theory of Civil Litigation

Boston College Law Review, Vol. 51, 2010, University of Alabama Public Law Research Paper No. 1585331
Number of pages: 60 Posted: 06 Apr 2010 Last Revised: 06 Dec 2010
Michael S. Pardo
University of Alabama School of Law
Downloads 572 (47,079)

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Pleadings, Motion to Dismiss, Plausibility, Summary Judgment, Judgment as a Matter of Law, Reasonable Jury, Burdens of Proof, Decision Rules, Material Accuracy, Procedural Accuracy, Abduction, Inference to the Best Explanation, Defeasibility, Antitrust, Civil Rights, Employment Discrimination

10.

Group Agency and Legal Proof; or, Why the Jury Is an 'It'

56 William & Mary Law Review 1793 (2015), U of Alabama Legal Studies Research Paper No. 2437959
Number of pages: 66 Posted: 18 May 2014 Last Revised: 20 Jun 2015
Michael S. Pardo
University of Alabama School of Law
Downloads 559 (48,491)

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group agency, juries, verdicts, collective epistemology, voting rules, evidence, proof, probability, explanations, conjunction paradox, doctrinal paradox, discursive dilemma

11.

Testimony

Tulane Law Review, Vol. 82, 2007, U of Alabama Public Law Research Paper No. 986845
Number of pages: 72 Posted: 16 May 2007 Last Revised: 26 Nov 2007
Michael S. Pardo
University of Alabama School of Law
Downloads 468 (60,648)

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epistemology, evidence law, natural testimony, formal testimony, hearsay, sixth amendment, confrontation, fifth amendment, self-incrimination

12.

Relative Plausibility and its Critics

U of Alabama Legal Studies Research Paper No. 3179601, Northwestern Public Law Research Paper No. 18-16
Number of pages: 71 Posted: 17 May 2018 Last Revised: 24 Sep 2018
Ronald J. Allen and Michael S. Pardo
Northwestern University Law School and University of Alabama School of Law
Downloads 423 (68,510)
Citation 1

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evidence, juridical proof, probability, plausibility, explanations, standards of proof, inference to the best explanation, conjunction problem

13.

Second-Order Proof Rules

Florida Law Review, Vol. 61, 2009, U of Alabama Public Law Research Paper No. 1389865
Number of pages: 31 Posted: 18 Apr 2009 Last Revised: 28 Mar 2010
Michael S. Pardo
University of Alabama School of Law
Downloads 423 (68,510)

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preponderance of the evidence, clear and convincing evidence, beyond a reasonable doubt, rules, standards, error allocation, error distribution, probability, abduction, inference to the best explanation, sufficiency of the evidence, summary judgment, judgment as a matter of law, Jackson v. Virginia

14.

On Misshapen Stones and Criminal Law's Epistemology

Texas Law Review, Vol. 86, p. 347, 2007, U of Alabama Public Law Research Paper No. 1026722
Number of pages: 37 Posted: 05 Nov 2007 Last Revised: 26 Dec 2007
Michael S. Pardo
University of Alabama School of Law
Downloads 417 (69,707)

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Evidence, Legal Proof, Criminal Procedure, Epistemology, Burdens of Proof, Standards of Proof, Beyond a Reasonable Doubt, Presumption of Innocence, Double Jeopardy, Fourth Amendment, Self-Incrimination, Exclusionary Rules

15.

The Field of Evidence and the Field of Knowledge

Law and Philosophy, Vol. 24, July 2005
Number of pages: 69 Posted: 14 Apr 2005
Michael S. Pardo
University of Alabama School of Law
Downloads 407 (71,878)

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Evidence, Proof, Knowledge

16.

Neuroscientific Challenges to Retributivism

THE FUTURE OF PUNISHMENT, Thomas Nadelhoffer, ed., Oxford University Press, Forthcoming, U of Alabama Public Law Research Paper No. 1783823
Number of pages: 34 Posted: 14 Mar 2011 Last Revised: 26 Dec 2013
Michael S. Pardo and Dennis Patterson
University of Alabama School of Law and Rutgers University School of Law, Camden
Downloads 390 (75,503)
Citation 1

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criminal punishment, retributivism, neuroscience, deontology, free will, folk psychology

17.

Bayes Wars Redivivus - An Exchange

International Commentary on Evidence, Vol. 8, No. 1, November 2010, The Pennsylvania State University Legal Studies Research Paper No. 36-2010
Number of pages: 41 Posted: 19 Nov 2010 Last Revised: 14 Nov 2012
University of California Hastings College of the Law, Yeshiva University - Benjamin N. Cardozo School of Law, affiliation not provided to SSRN, Seton Hall University School of Law, Pennsylvania State University - Dickinson Law, Northwestern University Law School, University of Michigan Law School, Harvard Law School, University of Alabama School of Law and St. John's University School of Law
Downloads 377 (78,479)

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evidence, relevance, probative value, inference, Bayes' rule, likelihood ratio

18.

Evidence Theory and the NAS Report on Forensic Science

Utah Law Review, No. 2, 2010, University of Alabama Public Law Research Paper No. 1511719
Number of pages: 17 Posted: 23 Nov 2009 Last Revised: 06 Dec 2010
Michael S. Pardo
University of Alabama School of Law
Downloads 374 (79,250)

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forensic science, National Academy of Sciences, evidence, proof, admissibility, sufficiency of the evidence, Jackson v. Virginia, beyond a reasonable doubt, abduction, inference to the best explanation

19.

The Myth of the Law-Fact Distinction

Northwestern University Law Review, Vol. 97, 2003, U of Alabama Legal Studies Research Paper No. 2925903
Number of pages: 41 Posted: 02 Mar 2017
Ronald J. Allen and Michael S. Pardo
Northwestern University Law School and University of Alabama School of Law
Downloads 331 (91,161)

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questions of law, questions of fact, punitive damaages, constitutional facts, Seventh Amendment, First Amendment, contracts, torts, patents, appellate review, juries, judicial notice, criminal procedure

20.

Self-Incrimination and the Epistemology of Testimony

Cardozo Law Review, Vol. 30, U of Alabama Public Law Research Paper No. 1134033
Number of pages: 22 Posted: 19 May 2008
Michael S. Pardo
University of Alabama School of Law
Downloads 279 (109,748)

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Self-Incrimination, Fifth Amendment, Testimonial Evidence, Physical Evidence, Schmerber, Presumption of Innocence

21.

The Political Morality of Evidence Law

International Commentary on Evidence, Vol. 5, No. 2, 2007, U of Alabama Public Law Research Paper No. 1032710
Number of pages: 33 Posted: 27 Nov 2007
Michael S. Pardo
University of Alabama School of Law
Downloads 278 (110,192)

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Evidence, Procedure, Legal Proof, Political Morality, Epistemology, Statistical Evidence, Burdens of Proof, Standards of Proof, Beyond a Reasonable Doubt, Admissibility, Exclusionary Rules, Error Reduction, Risk of Error, Risk Allocation

22.

Symposium on Minds, Brains, and Law: A Reply

Jurisprudence, 2015, Forthcoming, U of Alabama Legal Studies Research Paper No. 2576360
Number of pages: 19 Posted: 11 Mar 2015
Michael S. Pardo and Dennis Patterson
University of Alabama School of Law and Rutgers University School of Law, Camden
Downloads 276 (111,071)

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neuroscience, fMRI, lie detection, expert evidence, legal proof, criminal law, actus reus, mens rea, knowledge

23.

The Law of Evidence and the Practice of Theory

University of Pennsylvania Law Review Online, 2015, U of Alabama Legal Studies Research Paper No. 2564650
Number of pages: 8 Posted: 14 Feb 2015 Last Revised: 16 Sep 2015
Michael S. Pardo
University of Alabama School of Law
Downloads 261 (117,679)

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evidence, proof, legal doctrine, probative value, methodology, Ronald Dworkin

24.

Lying, Deception, and fMRI: A Critical Update

Neurolaw and Responsibility for Action (Bebhinn Donnelly-Lazarov ed., Cambridge University Press, 2018 Forthcoming), U of Alabama Legal Studies Research Paper No. 3136053
Number of pages: 24 Posted: 08 Mar 2018 Last Revised: 16 Mar 2018
Michael S. Pardo
University of Alabama School of Law
Downloads 251 (122,547)

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lie detection, deception, neuroscience, brain, fMRI, United States v. Semrau, empirical, conceptual

25.

Upsides of the American Trial's 'Anticonfluential' Nature: Notes on Richard K. Sherwin, David Foster Wallace, and James O. Incandenza

IMAGINING LEGALITY: WHERE LAW MEETS POPULAR CULTURE, Austin Sarat, ed., 2011, U of Alabama Public Law Research Paper No. 1906740
Number of pages: 26 Posted: 08 Aug 2011
Michael S. Pardo
University of Alabama School of Law
Downloads 249 (123,567)

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Richard Sherwin, visual jurisprudence, sexual predators, fMRI, narrative, epistemology, morality, juries, story model, coherence, David Foster Wallace, Infinite Jest

26.

Introduction to Philosophical Foundations of Law & Neuroscience

Philosophical Foundations of Law and Neuroscience, Dennis Patterson & Michael S. Pardo, eds., Oxford University Press, Forthcoming, U of Alabama Legal Studies Research Paper No. 2801676
Number of pages: 13 Posted: 29 Jun 2016
Michael S. Pardo and Dennis Patterson
University of Alabama School of Law and Rutgers University School of Law, Camden
Downloads 246 (125,096)

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Mind, Brain, Neuroscience, Mental States, Action, Decision-Making, Neurolaw, Psychology, Philosophy

27.

Morse, Mind, and Mental Causation

Criminal Law and Philosophy, Forthcoming, U of Alabama Legal Studies Research Paper No. 2467094
Number of pages: 28 Posted: 17 Jul 2014
Michael S. Pardo and Dennis Patterson
University of Alabama School of Law and Rutgers University School of Law, Camden
Downloads 245 (125,633)

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folk psychology, mental states, reasons, human action, explanation, causation

28.

Disentangling the Fourth Amendment and the Self-Incrimination Clause

Iowa Law Review, Vol. 90, 2005
Number of pages: 45 Posted: 14 Apr 2005
Michael S. Pardo
University of Alabama School of Law
Downloads 242 (127,237)

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29.

Rationality

Alabama Law Review, Forthcoming, U of Alabama Public Law Research Paper No. 2128844
Number of pages: 14 Posted: 14 Aug 2012
Michael S. Pardo
University of Alabama School of Law
Downloads 232 (132,711)

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rational, reasonable, inference, sapience, means, ends, preferences, utility, probability, bounded, heuristic, bias, standards of proof, summary judgment, sufficiency of the evidence, competence, insanity, expectations, judging, self-interest, benevolence, complexity

30.

More on the Conceptual and the Empirical: Misunderstandings, Clarifications, and Replies

Neuroethics, Forthcoming, U of Alabama Public Law Research Paper No. 1619356
Number of pages: 17 Posted: 02 Jun 2010
Michael S. Pardo and Dennis Patterson
University of Alabama School of Law and Rutgers University School of Law, Camden
Downloads 224 (137,308)

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Neuroscience, Mind, Brain, Conceptual, Empirical, Rule-Following, Subpersonal Facts, Lie Detection, Deception

31.

Accuracy, Optimality, and the Preponderance Standard

Law, Probability & Risk, Forthcoming, U of Alabama Legal Studies Research Paper No. 2547348
Number of pages: 26 Posted: 10 Jan 2015 Last Revised: 12 Mar 2015
Edward K. Cheng and Michael S. Pardo
Vanderbilt Law School and University of Alabama School of Law
Downloads 216 (142,213)

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burden of proof, burden of persuasion, evidence, accuracy, welfare, minimax, error

32.

The Paradoxes of Legal Proof: A Critical Guide

Boston University Law Review, Vol. 99, 2019, U of Alabama Legal Studies Research Paper No. 3293023
Number of pages: 58 Posted: 11 Dec 2018 Last Revised: 18 Feb 2019
Michael S. Pardo
University of Alabama School of Law
Downloads 215 (142,800)

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evidence, probability, explanation, statistical evidence, blue bus, gatecrashers, standards of proof, preponderance of evidence, beyond a reasonable doubt, conjunction paradox, verdicts

33.

The Problematic Value of Mathematical Models of Evidence

Journal of Legal Studies, Vol. 36, January 2007, Northwestern Public Law Research Paper No. 900910, U of Alabama Public Law Research Paper No. 900910
Number of pages: 34 Posted: 16 May 2006 Last Revised: 26 Feb 2015
Ronald J. Allen and Michael S. Pardo
Northwestern University Law School and University of Alabama School of Law
Downloads 181 (167,476)

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Evidence, Statistical Evidence, Probative Value

34.

Safety vs. Sensitivity: Possible Worlds and the Law of Evidence

Legal Theory, Vol. 24, 2018, Forthcoming, U of Alabama Legal Studies Research Paper No. 3100246
Number of pages: 43 Posted: 11 Jan 2018 Last Revised: 16 Mar 2018
Michael S. Pardo
University of Alabama School of Law
Downloads 176 (171,723)

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epistemology, evidence, legal proof, safety, sensitivity, possible worlds, probative value, admissibility, standards of proof, statistical evidence, verdicts

35.

Review - 'Witness Testimony Evidence: Argumentation, Artificial Intelligence, and Law' by Douglas Walton

Notre Dame Philosophical Reviews 2008, U of Alabama Public Law Research Paper No. 1461434
Number of pages: 9 Posted: 27 Aug 2009
Michael S. Pardo
University of Alabama School of Law
Downloads 172 (175,243)

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witness, testimony, argumentation theory, formal dialectical models, artificial intelligence, abduction, plausibilistic reasoning

36.

Preface to the Paperback Edition of Minds, Brains, and Law: The Conceptual Foundations of Law and Neuroscience

Paperback Edition of Minds, Brains and Law: The Conceptual Foundations of Law and Neuroscience, Oxford University Press, 2015, U of Alabama Legal Studies Research Paper No. 2665265
Number of pages: 7 Posted: 26 Sep 2015
Michael S. Pardo and Dennis Patterson
University of Alabama School of Law and Rutgers University School of Law, Camden
Downloads 161 (185,394)

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neurolaw, mind, brain, conceptual, empirical, knowledge

37.

More on the Gettier Problem and Legal Proof: Unsafe Nonknowledge Does Not Mean that Knowledge Must Be Safe

Legal Theory, Vol. 17, 2011, U of Alabama Public Law Research Paper No. 1846765
Number of pages: 11 Posted: 24 May 2011
Michael S. Pardo
University of Alabama School of Law
Downloads 155 (191,561)
Citation 2

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Evidence, Epistemology, Safety, Knowledge, Gettier Problem, Proof

38.

Risk, Uncertainty, and 'Super-Risk'

Notre Dame Journal of Law, Ethics and Public Policy, Vol. 29, No. 2, 2015, U of Alabama Legal Studies Research Paper No. 2623715
Number of pages: 29 Posted: 28 Jun 2015
Jose Bermudez and Michael S. Pardo
Texas A&M University - Department of Philosophy and University of Alabama School of Law
Downloads 149 (197,858)

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risk, uncertainty, Frank Knight, epistemic risk, financial decision-making, adjudication, legal proof, explanation, projectability

39.

Empire

Alabama Law Review, Vol. 60, pp. 1201-1208, 2009, U of Alabama Public Law Research Paper No. 1460918
Number of pages: 9 Posted: 26 Aug 2009
Michael S. Pardo
University of Alabama School of Law
Downloads 143 (204,635)

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empire, colonialism, Austin, Hart, Raz, Dworkin, Kent, international investment law, innovation, competition, antitrust, patents, copyright, human organs, human tissues

40.

Epistemology, Psychology, and Standards of Proof: An Essay on Risinger’s ‘Surprise’ Theory

Seton Hall Law Review, Vol. 48, 2018, U of Alabama Legal Studies Research Paper No. 3119092
Number of pages: 21 Posted: 07 Feb 2018
Michael S. Pardo
University of Alabama School of Law
Downloads 112 (246,679)

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Evidence, Standards of Proof, Beyond a Reasonable Doubt, Probability, Surprise, Emotion, Psychology, Epistemology, Epistemic Safety, Abduction, Inference to the Best Explanation, Sufficiency of the Evidence, Jackson v. Virginia

41.

The Promise of Neuroscience for Law: 'Overclaiming' in Jurisprudence, Morality, and Economics

Patterson, Dennis, and Michael S. Pardo (eds.). Philosophical Foundations of Law and Neuroscience. Oxford University Press, 2016, 231-248
Number of pages: 18 Posted: 07 Jan 2017
Michael S. Pardo and Dennis Patterson
University of Alabama School of Law and Rutgers University School of Law, Camden
Downloads 106 (256,429)

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Law, Neuroscience, Jurisprudence, morality, economics

42.

Confrontation Clause Implications of Constitutional Sentencing Options

Federal Sentencing Reporter, Vol. 18, 2006, U of Alabama Public Law Research Paper No. 910957
Number of pages: 5 Posted: 25 Jun 2006
Michael S. Pardo
University of Alabama School of Law
Downloads 98 (270,457)

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confrontation, hearsay, Crawford, sentencing, Booker

43.

Confrontation After Scalia and Kennedy

Alabama Law Review, Vol. 70, 2019, U of Alabama Legal Studies Research Paper No. 3389384
Number of pages: 29 Posted: 17 May 2019 Last Revised: 27 Sep 2019
Michael S. Pardo
University of Alabama School of Law
Downloads 74 (321,565)

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confrontation clause, sixth amendment, Crawford, hearsay, testimony, experts

44.

Some Remarks on the Importance of Evidence Outside Trials

Review of Litigation, Vol. 36, 2018, U of Alabama Legal Studies Research Paper No. 3108021
Number of pages: 26 Posted: 24 Jan 2018
Michael S. Pardo
University of Alabama School of Law
Downloads 71 (329,024)

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evidence, rules of evidence, litigation, facts, standards of proof, summary judgment, pleadings, motions to dismiss, judicial notice

45.

Clarifying Relative Plausibility: A Rejoinder

U of Alabama Legal Studies Research Paper No. 3338080 (2019)
Number of pages: 18 Posted: 21 Feb 2019
Ronald J. Allen and Michael S. Pardo
Northwestern University Law School and University of Alabama School of Law
Downloads 70 (331,628)
Citation 1

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evidence, proof, epistemology, probability, plausibility, inference to the best explanation

46.

Probability, Explanation, and Inference: A Reply

11 International Journal of Evidence & Proof 307 (2007), U of Alabama Legal Studies Research Paper No. 2925866
Number of pages: 12 Posted: 02 Mar 2017
Ronald J. Allen and Michael S. Pardo
Northwestern University Law School and University of Alabama School of Law
Downloads 57 (368,264)

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probability, statistical evidence, inference, relevance, probative value, standards of proof, explanations, reference classes, beyond a reasonable doubt

47.

Explanations and the Preponderance Standard: Still Kicking Rocks with Dr. Johnson

48 Seton Hall Law Review, Forthcoming, U of Alabama Legal Studies Research Paper No. 3220019
Number of pages: 12 Posted: 02 Aug 2018
Michael S. Pardo and Ronald J. Allen
University of Alabama School of Law and Northwestern University Law School
Downloads 47 (401,305)

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evidence, juridical proof, probability, plausibility, explanations, standards of proof, preponderance of the evidence, summary judgment, judgment as a matter of law

48.

A Comment on Statistical Evidence and Standards of Proof

25 Supreme Court Economic Review 59 (2018), U of Alabama Legal Studies Research Paper No. 3364351
Number of pages: 7 Posted: 03 Apr 2019 Last Revised: 27 Sep 2019
Michael S. Pardo
University of Alabama School of Law
Downloads 40 (427,302)

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statistical evidence, statistical significance, likelihood ratio, burden of proof, preponderance of the evidence