Charles Cao

Pennsylvania State University

Professor of Finance

Department of Finance

Smeal College of Business

University Park, PA 16802

United States

http://www.personal.psu.edu/qxc2/cao.html

SCHOLARLY PAPERS

33

DOWNLOADS
Rank 3,345

SSRN RANKINGS

Top 3,345

in Total Papers Downloads

13,998

SSRN CITATIONS
Rank 5,445

SSRN RANKINGS

Top 5,445

in Total Papers Citations

138

CROSSREF CITATIONS

110

Scholarly Papers (33)

1.

The Informational Content of an Open Limit Order Book

Number of pages: 38 Posted: 19 Jul 2004
Pennsylvania State University, Pennsylvania State University and Southern Illinois University
Downloads 2,172 (8,307)
Citation 18

Abstract:

Loading...

Limit order book, price discovery, order placement strategy, demand and supply

2.

Can Hedge Funds Time Market Liquidity?

Journal of Financial Economics (JFE), Forthcoming, AFA 2013 San Diego Meetings Paper
Number of pages: 55 Posted: 22 Jan 2010 Last Revised: 18 Feb 2015
Charles Cao, Yong Chen, Bing Liang and Andrew W. Lo
Pennsylvania State University, Texas A&M University - Department of Finance, University of Massachusetts Amherst - Department of Finance and Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) - Laboratory for Financial Engineering
Downloads 1,540 (14,455)
Citation 45

Abstract:

Loading...

Hedge funds, liquidity timing, investment value, liquidity reaction, performance persistence

3.

Why Does Hedge Fund Alpha Decrease Over Time? Evidence from Individual Hedge Funds

Number of pages: 53 Posted: 25 Mar 2008 Last Revised: 18 Jan 2021
Charles Cao and Zhaodong Zhong
Pennsylvania State University and Rutgers, The State University of New Jersey - Rutgers Business School at Newark & New Brunswick
Downloads 1,449 (15,924)
Citation 10

Abstract:

Loading...

hedge funds, performance, alpha, flows, capacity constraints, counter-factual analysis

4.

The Information Content of Option-Implied Volatility for Credit Default Swap Valuation

FDIC Center for Financial Research, Working Paper No. 2007-08
Number of pages: 38 Posted: 11 Mar 2006 Last Revised: 15 Nov 2012
Charles Cao, Zhaodong Zhong and Fan Yu
Pennsylvania State University, Rutgers, The State University of New Jersey - Rutgers Business School at Newark & New Brunswick and Claremont McKenna College - Robert Day School of Economics and Finance
Downloads 1,290 (18,984)
Citation 18

Abstract:

Loading...

Credit default swap spread, option-implied volatility, volatility risk premium, informed trading

5.

Informational Content of Option Volume Prior to Takeovers

Number of pages: 58 Posted: 27 Oct 2003
Charles Cao, John M. Griffin and Zhiwu Chen
Pennsylvania State University, University of Texas at Austin - Department of Finance and University of Hong Kong
Downloads 917 (31,309)
Citation 13

Abstract:

Loading...

6.
Downloads 913 ( 31,516)
Citation 12

Hedge Fund Holdings and Stock Market Efficiency

FEDS Working Paper No. 2014-36
Number of pages: 61 Posted: 25 May 2014
Pennsylvania State University, University of Massachusetts Amherst - Department of Finance, Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) - Laboratory for Financial Engineering and Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System
Downloads 503 (68,330)
Citation 3

Abstract:

Loading...

Hedge funds, institutional investors, market efficiency

Hedge Fund Holdings and Stock Market Efficiency

Review of Asset Pricing Studies (RAPS), Forthcoming
Number of pages: 65 Posted: 14 Jun 2016 Last Revised: 20 Apr 2017
Pennsylvania State University, University of Massachusetts Amherst - Department of Finance, Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) - Laboratory for Financial Engineering and Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System
Downloads 410 (87,459)
Citation 10

Abstract:

Loading...

hedge funds, institutional investors, equity holdings, market efficiency, liquidity crises

Does Insider Trading Impair Market Liquidity? Evidence from IPO Lockup Expirations

Number of pages: 40 Posted: 27 Apr 2003
Pennsylvania State University, University of Delaware - Alfred Lerner College of Business and Economics and University of Texas at Austin - Department of Finance
Downloads 895 (31,916)
Citation 15

Abstract:

Loading...

Initial Public Offerings, Lockups, Insider Trading

Does Insider Trading Impair Market Liquidity? Evidence from IPO Lockup Expirations

Posted: 27 Apr 2003
Pennsylvania State University, University of Delaware - Alfred Lerner College of Business and Economics and University of Texas at Austin - Department of Finance

Abstract:

Loading...

Initial Public Offerings, Lockups, Insider Trading

8.

Hedge Funds and Stock Price Formation

Financial Analysts Journal, Vol. 74, No. 3, 2018, pp. 54–69
Number of pages: 30 Posted: 02 Aug 2012 Last Revised: 16 Aug 2018
Pennsylvania State University, Texas A&M University - Department of Finance, Yale School of Management - International Center for Finance and University of Massachusetts Amherst - Department of Finance
Downloads 727 (43,047)
Citation 1

Abstract:

Loading...

Hedge funds, stock holdings, stock mispricing, investment value, arbitrage

9.

Do Mutual Fund Managers Time Market Liquidity?

Journal of Financial Markets, Vol. 16, Iss. 2, Pg 279–307, 2013
Number of pages: 43 Posted: 03 Jul 2009 Last Revised: 03 Oct 2013
Charles Cao, Timothy T. Simin and Ying Wang
Pennsylvania State University, Pennsylvania State University and State University of New York at Albany - School of Business
Downloads 590 (56,624)
Citation 7

Abstract:

Loading...

Liquidity timing, mutual fund performance, market liquidity, bootstrap

10.

Which Hedge Fund Styles Hedge Against Bad Times?

Number of pages: 55 Posted: 18 Aug 2013 Last Revised: 24 Feb 2015
Charles Cao, David Rapach and Guofu Zhou
Pennsylvania State University, Saint Louis University and Washington University in St. Louis - John M. Olin Business School
Downloads 556 (60,996)
Citation 3

Abstract:

Loading...

Asset-based style factors, Multifactor model, Regime switching, Financial stress,Threshold regression, Portfolio performance

11.

An Empirical Analysis of the Dynamic Relationship between Mutual Fund Flow and Market Return Volatility

Journal of Banking and Finance, Vol. 32, No. 10, pp. 2111-2123, 2008
Number of pages: 40 Posted: 10 Nov 2008
Charles Cao, Eric C. Chang and Ying Wang
Pennsylvania State University, University of Hong Kong - School of Business and State University of New York at Albany - School of Business
Downloads 524 (65,624)
Citation 5

Abstract:

Loading...

Mutual fund flow, Market volatility, Volatility timing, Fund inflow and fund outflow

12.

What Is the Nature of Hedge Fund Manager Skills? Evidence from the Risk Arbitrage Strategy

Journal of Financial and Quantitative Analysis (JFQA), Forthcoming
Number of pages: 56 Posted: 20 Apr 2012 Last Revised: 01 Aug 2014
Pennsylvania State University, Miami University, University of Massachusetts Amherst - Department of Finance and Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System
Downloads 455 (78,075)
Citation 6

Abstract:

Loading...

Hedge funds, hedge fund holdings, performance evaluation, risk arbitrage strategy

13.

Assessing Models of Individual Equity Option Prices

Review of Quantitative Finance and Accounting, Forthcoming
Number of pages: 34 Posted: 11 Apr 2012 Last Revised: 28 Nov 2020
Gurdip Bakshi, Charles Cao and Zhaodong Zhong
Temple University - Fox School of Business and Management, Pennsylvania State University and Rutgers, The State University of New Jersey - Rutgers Business School at Newark & New Brunswick
Downloads 384 (95,140)
Citation 7

Abstract:

Loading...

individual equity option-models, risk-neutral kurtosis, return-jumps, volatility-jumps, stochastic volatility, option-implied return distributions

14.

Predicting the Equity Premium with the Implied Volatility Spread

Journal of Financial Markets, Vol.51, 2020
Number of pages: 53 Posted: 01 Oct 2020 Last Revised: 18 Nov 2020
Charles Cao, Timothy T. Simin and Han Xiao
Pennsylvania State University, Pennsylvania State University and Pennsylvania State University
Downloads 298 (125,893)

Abstract:

Loading...

Implied volatility spread, Equity premium, Prediction

15.

Liquidity Risk and Institutional Ownership

Journal of Financial Markets, Forthcoming, FEDS Working Paper No. 2011-49
Number of pages: 54 Posted: 17 Nov 2011 Last Revised: 20 Oct 2015
Charles Cao and Lubomir Petrasek
Pennsylvania State University and Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System
Downloads 254 (148,371)
Citation 4

Abstract:

Loading...

Liquidity risk, institutional investors, hedge funds

16.

Index Membership and Small Firm Financing

Number of pages: 49 Posted: 23 Dec 2015 Last Revised: 26 Oct 2020
Pennsylvania State University, Pennsylvania State University - Smeal College of Business and Villanova University - Department of Finance
Downloads 228 (164,776)
Citation 4

Abstract:

Loading...

Bank Borrowing, Seasoned Equity Offering, Regression Discontinuity, Index Membership, Russell 2000 Index

17.

Do Hedge Funds Prefer Safe Stocks? Revisiting Hedge Fund Preferences for Stock Characteristics

Number of pages: 50 Posted: 12 Jun 2014
Charles Cao, Jeremiah Green and Jiahan Li
Pennsylvania State University, Texas A&M University - Department of Accounting and University of Notre Dame
Downloads 202 (184,707)
Citation 2

Abstract:

Loading...

hedge funds, stock characteristics, cross-section of returns, safe stocks

18.

The Economics of Hedge Fund Startups: Theory and Empirical Evidence

Journal of Finance, Forthcoming
Number of pages: 108 Posted: 13 Aug 2020
Charles Cao, Grant V Farnsworth and Hong Zhang
Pennsylvania State University, Texas Christian University and Tsinghua University - PBC School of Finance
Downloads 201 (185,578)

Abstract:

Loading...

Hedge Funds, Inceptions, Startups, Search Frictions

19.

Style Drift: Evidence from Small-Cap Mutual Funds

Journal of Banking & Finance, Vol. 78, 42-57 (May 2017)
Number of pages: 53 Posted: 11 Mar 2016 Last Revised: 28 Mar 2017
Charles Cao, Peter Iliev and Raisa Velthuis
Pennsylvania State University, Pennsylvania State University - Department of Finance and Villanova University - Department of Finance
Downloads 181 (203,763)
Citation 1

Abstract:

Loading...

Mutual Funds; Small-Cap; Investment Objectives; Style Drift

20.

Information Choice, Uncertainty, and Expected Returns

Review of Financial Studies, forthcoming
Number of pages: 80 Posted: 10 Aug 2019 Last Revised: 10 Dec 2020
Charles Cao, David Gempesaw and Timothy T. Simin
Pennsylvania State University, Miami University and Pennsylvania State University
Downloads 154 (233,754)
Citation 1

Abstract:

Loading...

Information Choice, Learning, Expected Returns, Cross-Section of Stock Returns, Volatility, Risk, Uncertainty

21.

Liquidity Characteristics of Market Anomalies and Institutional Trading

Number of pages: 64 Posted: 14 Dec 2020 Last Revised: 26 May 2021
Pennsylvania State University, University of Massachusetts Amherst - Department of Finance, University of Iowa - Henry B. Tippie College of Business and University of Nevada, Las Vegas - Department of Finance
Downloads 68 (404,455)

Abstract:

Loading...

Institutional trading, market anomalies, liquidity characteristics, market efficiency

22.

The Decline of Informed Trading in the Equity and Options Markets

Journal of Alternative Investments (2018), Volume 21 (2), 16-29
Posted: 02 Mar 2018 Last Revised: 02 Aug 2019
Charles Cao, David Gempesaw and Timothy T. Simin
Pennsylvania State University, Miami University and Pennsylvania State University

Abstract:

Loading...

informed trading, hedge funds, implied volatility, stock return predictability

23.

Real Estate Risk and Hedge Fund Returns

Journal of Real Estate Finance and Economics, Vol. 52, No. 3, 2016
Posted: 04 Mar 2016
Brent W. Ambrose, Charles Cao and Walter D'Lima
Pennsylvania State University, Pennsylvania State University and Old Dominion University

Abstract:

Loading...

Hedge funds; Real estate; Perofrmance analysis; Portfolio theory

24.

Liquidity Costs, Return Smoothing, and Investor Flows: Evidence from a Separate Account Platform

Asian Finance Association (AsFA) 2013 Conference
Posted: 24 May 2013
Pennsylvania State University, Texas Christian University, University of Massachusetts Amherst - Department of Finance and Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) - Laboratory for Financial Engineering

Abstract:

Loading...

25.

Pricing Credit Default Swaps with Option-Implied Volatility

Financial Analysts Journal, Vol. 67, No. 4, 2011
Posted: 09 Aug 2011 Last Revised: 11 Sep 2011
Charles Cao, Fan Yu and Zhaodong Zhong
Pennsylvania State University, Claremont McKenna College - Robert Day School of Economics and Finance and Rutgers, The State University of New Jersey - Rutgers Business School at Newark & New Brunswick

Abstract:

Loading...

Derivatives, Credit Derivatives Markets and Instruments, Modeling and Pricing Credit Derivatives, Options Markets and Instruments, Volatility Issues

Can Growth Options Explain the Trend in Idiosyncratic Risk?

Review of Financial Studies, Forthcoming
Posted: 10 Oct 2006
Charles Cao, Timothy T. Simin and Jing Zhao
Pennsylvania State University, Pennsylvania State University and Portland State University - The School of Business

Abstract:

Loading...

Idiosyncratic volatility, growth options, real options

Can Growth Options Explain the Trend in Idiosyncratic Risk?

The Review of Financial Studies, Vol. 21, Issue 6, pp. 2599-2633, 2008
Posted: 15 Dec 2008
Charles Cao, Timothy T. Simin and Jing Zhao
Pennsylvania State University, Pennsylvania State University and Portland State University - The School of Business

Abstract:

Loading...

27.

Do Call Prices and the Underlying Stock Always Move in the Same Direction?

Posted: 14 Oct 1999
Zhiwu Chen, Gurdip Bakshi and Charles Cao
University of Hong Kong, Temple University - Fox School of Business and Management and Pennsylvania State University

Abstract:

Loading...

Price Discovery Without Trading: Evidence from the NASDAQ Pre-Opening

Posted: 11 Oct 1999
Charles Cao, Eric Ghysels and Frank Hatheway
Pennsylvania State University, University of North Carolina Kenan-Flagler Business School and National Association of Securities Dealers, Inc., NASD

Abstract:

Loading...

Price Discovery Without Trading: Evidence from the NASDAQ Pre-Opening

Posted: 03 Nov 1999
Charles Cao, Eric Ghysels and Frank Hatheway
Pennsylvania State University, University of North Carolina Kenan-Flagler Business School and National Association of Securities Dealers, Inc., NASD

Abstract:

Loading...

29.

Tick Size, Spread and Volume

J. OF FINANCIAL INTERMEDIATION, Vol. 5 No. 1, 1996
Posted: 16 Jun 1998
Charles Cao and Hyuk Choe
Pennsylvania State University and Seoul National University - College of Business Administration

Abstract:

Loading...

30.

Pricing and Hedging Long-Term Options

Journal of Econometrics, 1998
Posted: 06 May 1998
Zhiwu Chen, Gurdip Bakshi and Charles Cao
University of Hong Kong, Temple University - Fox School of Business and Management and Pennsylvania State University

Abstract:

Loading...

Empirical Performance of Alternative Option Pricing Models

J. OF FINANCE
Posted: 30 Apr 1997
Zhiwu Chen, Charles Cao and Gurdip Bakshi
University of Hong Kong, Pennsylvania State University and Temple University - Fox School of Business and Management

Abstract:

Loading...

Empirical Performance of Alternative Option Pricing Models

Posted: 06 Mar 1997
Zhiwu Chen, Charles Cao and Gurdip Bakshi
University of Hong Kong, Pennsylvania State University and Temple University - Fox School of Business and Management

Abstract:

Loading...

32.

Decimalization and Competition Among Exchanges: Evidence from the Toronto Stock Exchange Cross-Listed Securities

Posted: 19 Feb 1997
Charles Cao and Hyuk Choe
Pennsylvania State University and Seoul National University - College of Business Administration

Abstract:

Loading...

33.

Does the Specialist Matter? Differential Execution Costs and Inter-Security Subsidization on the NYSE

Posted: 19 Feb 1997
Charles Cao, Hyuk Choe and Frank Hatheway
Pennsylvania State University, Seoul National University - College of Business Administration and National Association of Securities Dealers, Inc., NASD

Abstract:

Loading...