Anna J. Schwartz

City University of New York (CUNY)

17 Lexington Avenue

New York, NY 10010

United States

National Bureau of Economic Research (NBER) - NY Office

365 Fifth Avenue, 5th Floor

New York, NY 10016-4309

United States

SCHOLARLY PAPERS

34

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189

Scholarly Papers (34)

The Impact of Milton Friedman on Modern Monetary Economics: Setting the Record Straight on Paul Krugman's 'Who Was Milton Friedman?'

FRB of St. Louis Working Paper No. 2007-048D
Number of pages: 45 Posted: 31 Oct 2007
Edward Nelson and Anna J. Schwartz
Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System and City University of New York (CUNY)
Downloads 255 (118,584)

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monetarism, New Keynesian economics, inflation, price controls, Great Depression

The Impact of Milton Friedman on Modern Monetary Economics: Setting the Record Straight on Paul Krugman's "Who Was Milton Friedman?"

NBER Working Paper No. w13546
Number of pages: 41 Posted: 31 Oct 2007 Last Revised: 08 Jul 2010
Edward Nelson and Anna J. Schwartz
Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System and City University of New York (CUNY)
Downloads 49 (396,498)

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2.

Is-Lm and Monetarism

NBER Working Paper No. w9713
Number of pages: 31 Posted: 16 May 2003 Last Revised: 02 Nov 2010
Michael D. Bordo and Anna J. Schwartz
Rutgers University, New Brunswick - Department of Economics and City University of New York (CUNY)
Downloads 116 (237,767)

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3.

Bretton Woods and the U.S. Decision to Intervene in the Foreign-Exchange Market, 1957-1962

FRB of Cleveland Working Paper No. 06-09
Number of pages: 57 Posted: 18 Oct 2007
Michael D. Bordo, Owen Humpage and Anna J. Schwartz
Rutgers University, New Brunswick - Department of Economics, Federal Reserve Bank of Cleveland and City University of New York (CUNY)
Downloads 100 (263,762)

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Bretton Woods, Exchange Stabilization Fund, Federal Reserve System, foreign-exchange rates, intervention

Epilogue: Foreign-Exchange-Market Operations in the Twenty-First Century

FRB of Cleveland Working Paper No. 12-07
Number of pages: 22 Posted: 31 Mar 2012
Michael D. Bordo, Owen Humpage and Anna J. Schwartz
Rutgers University, New Brunswick - Department of Economics, Federal Reserve Bank of Cleveland and City University of New York (CUNY)
Downloads 77 (313,632)

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intervention, Japan, Switzerland, China, developing and emerging market economies, swap lines

Epilogue: Foreign-Exchange-Market Operations in the Twenty-First Century

NBER Working Paper No. w17984
Number of pages: 21 Posted: 07 Apr 2012
Michael D. Bordo, Owen Humpage and Anna J. Schwartz
Rutgers University, New Brunswick - Department of Economics, Federal Reserve Bank of Cleveland and City University of New York (CUNY)
Downloads 22 (524,413)

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5.

Monetary Policy Regimes and Economic Performance: The Historical Record

NBER Working Paper No. w6201
Number of pages: 128 Posted: 21 Jul 2000
Michael D. Bordo and Anna J. Schwartz
Rutgers University, New Brunswick - Department of Economics and City University of New York (CUNY)
Downloads 89 (284,321)
Citation 5

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The Evolution of the Federal Reserve Swap Lines Since 1962

FRB of Cleveland Working Paper No. 14-14
Number of pages: 32 Posted: 04 Oct 2014
Michael D. Bordo, Owen Humpage and Anna J. Schwartz
Rutgers University, New Brunswick - Department of Economics, Federal Reserve Bank of Cleveland and City University of New York (CUNY)
Downloads 62 (353,862)

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Swap lines, Federal Reserve, Bretton Woods, Intervention, Mexico

7.

Real Versus Pseudo-International Systemic Risk: Some Lessons from History

NBER Working Paper No. w5371
Number of pages: 46 Posted: 13 Jul 2000 Last Revised: 24 Sep 2010
Michael D. Bordo, Bruce Mizrach and Anna J. Schwartz
Rutgers University, New Brunswick - Department of Economics, Rutgers University, Department of Economics and City University of New York (CUNY)
Downloads 71 (325,092)
Citation 1

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8.

Was Expansionary Monetary Policy Feasible During the Great Contraction? an Examination of the Gold Standard Constraint

NBER Working Paper No. w7125
Number of pages: 49 Posted: 30 Jul 1999 Last Revised: 05 May 2000
Michael D. Bordo, Ehsan U. Choudhri and Anna J. Schwartz
Rutgers University, New Brunswick - Department of Economics, Carleton University - Department of Economics and City University of New York (CUNY)
Downloads 66 (338,201)
Citation 3

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9.

Asset Price Inflation and Monetary Policy

NBER Working Paper No. w9321
Number of pages: 28 Posted: 16 Nov 2002
Anna J. Schwartz
City University of New York (CUNY)
Downloads 63 (346,377)

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10.

Measuring Real Economic Effects of Bailouts: Historical Perspectives on How Countries in Financial Distress Have Fared with and Without Bailouts

NBER Working Paper No. w7701
Number of pages: 98 Posted: 17 May 2000 Last Revised: 17 Oct 2010
Michael D. Bordo and Anna J. Schwartz
Rutgers University, New Brunswick - Department of Economics and City University of New York (CUNY)
Downloads 61 (352,016)

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U.S. Foreign-Exchange-Market Intervention During the Volcker-Greenspan Era

FRB of Cleveland Working Paper No. 10-07
Number of pages: 64 Posted: 11 Aug 2010 Last Revised: 28 Aug 2010
Michael D. Bordo, Owen Humpage and Anna J. Schwartz
Rutgers University, New Brunswick - Department of Economics, Federal Reserve Bank of Cleveland and City University of New York (CUNY)
Downloads 40 (431,207)

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central-bank independence, intervention, Mexican peso crisis, monetary policy, swap lines, warehousing

U.S. Foreign-Exchange-Market Intervention During the Volcker-Greenspan Era

NBER Working Paper No. w16345
Number of pages: 63 Posted: 13 Sep 2010
Michael D. Bordo, Owen Humpage and Anna J. Schwartz
Rutgers University, New Brunswick - Department of Economics, Federal Reserve Bank of Cleveland and City University of New York (CUNY)
Downloads 20 (537,258)

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12.

From the Exchange Stabilization Fund to the International Monetary Fund

NBER Working Paper No. w8100
Number of pages: 29 Posted: 26 Jan 2001 Last Revised: 20 Oct 2010
Michael D. Bordo and Anna J. Schwartz
Rutgers University, New Brunswick - Department of Economics and City University of New York (CUNY)
Downloads 59 (357,815)

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13.

A Brief Empirical History of U.S. Foreign-Exchange Intervention: 1973-1995

FRB of Cleveland Working Paper No. 09-03
Number of pages: 40 Posted: 21 May 2009 Last Revised: 27 Aug 2010
Michael D. Bordo, Owen Humpage and Anna J. Schwartz
Rutgers University, New Brunswick - Department of Economics, Federal Reserve Bank of Cleveland and City University of New York (CUNY)
Downloads 56 (367,054)

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Foreign-exchange intervention, exchange rates, Federal Reserve

14.

David Laidler on Monetarism

NBER Working Paper No. w12593
Number of pages: 31 Posted: 20 Oct 2006 Last Revised: 07 Mar 2007
Michael D. Bordo and Anna J. Schwartz
Rutgers University, New Brunswick - Department of Economics and City University of New York (CUNY)
Downloads 52 (379,792)

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15.

Why Clashes between Internal and External Stability Goals End in Currency Crises, 1797-1994

NBER Working Paper No. w5710
Number of pages: 54 Posted: 03 Jul 1997 Last Revised: 03 Oct 2010
Michael D. Bordo and Anna J. Schwartz
Rutgers University, New Brunswick - Department of Economics and City University of New York (CUNY)
Downloads 52 (379,792)

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16.

U.S. Intervention During the Bretton Wood Era: 1962-1973

FRB of Cleveland Policy Discussion Paper No. 11-08
Number of pages: 89 Posted: 12 Apr 2011
Michael D. Bordo, Owen Humpage and Anna J. Schwartz
Rutgers University, New Brunswick - Department of Economics, Federal Reserve Bank of Cleveland and City University of New York (CUNY)
Downloads 48 (393,236)

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intervention, Bretton Woods, swap lines, Triffin’s paradox, gold

17.

The Rise and Fall of Foreign Exchange Market Intervention

NBER Working Paper No. w7751
Number of pages: 38 Posted: 19 Jul 2000 Last Revised: 18 Oct 2010
Anna J. Schwartz
City University of New York (CUNY)
Downloads 47 (396,638)

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18.

U.S. Monetary-Policy Evolution and U.S. Intervention

FRB of Cleveland Working Paper No. 11-27
Number of pages: 13 Posted: 28 Oct 2011
Michael D. Bordo, Owen Humpage and Anna J. Schwartz
Rutgers University, New Brunswick - Department of Economics, Federal Reserve Bank of Cleveland and City University of New York (CUNY)
Downloads 46 (400,177)

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Trilemma, central-bank independence, intervention, monetary policy, swap lines, warehousing

19.

The Historical Origins of U.S. Exchange Market Intervention Policy

NBER Working Paper No. w12662
Number of pages: 46 Posted: 20 Nov 2006 Last Revised: 08 Aug 2010
Michael D. Bordo, Owen Humpage and Anna J. Schwartz
Rutgers University, New Brunswick - Department of Economics, Federal Reserve Bank of Cleveland and City University of New York (CUNY)
Downloads 39 (426,293)

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20.

Charles Goodhart's Contributions to the History of Monetary Institutions

NBER Working Paper No. w8717
Number of pages: 27 Posted: 17 Jan 2002 Last Revised: 12 Dec 2009
Michael D. Bordo and Anna J. Schwartz
Rutgers University, New Brunswick - Department of Economics and City University of New York (CUNY)
Downloads 37 (434,487)

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21.

The Ecu - an Imaginary or Embryonic Form of Money: What Can We Learn from History?

NBER Working Paper No. w2345
Number of pages: 33 Posted: 26 Mar 2007
Michael D. Bordo and Anna J. Schwartz
Rutgers University, New Brunswick - Department of Economics and City University of New York (CUNY)
Downloads 34 (451,201)

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22.

The Specie Standard as a Contingent Rule: Some Evidence for Core and Peripheral Countries, 1880-1990

NBER Working Paper No. w4860
Number of pages: 72 Posted: 11 Jun 2000
Michael D. Bordo and Anna J. Schwartz
Rutgers University, New Brunswick - Department of Economics and City University of New York (CUNY)
Downloads 33 (451,201)
Citation 1

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23.

Money Versus Credit Rationing: Evidence for the National Banking Era, 1880-1914

NBER Working Paper No. w3689
Number of pages: 68 Posted: 13 Aug 2001 Last Revised: 11 Aug 2010
Michael D. Bordo, Peter Rappoport and Anna J. Schwartz
Rutgers University, New Brunswick - Department of Economics, Newark College of Arts & Sciences - Department of Economics and City University of New York (CUNY)
Downloads 31 (460,367)

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24.

Under What Circumstances, Past and Present, Have International Rescues of Countries in Financial Distress Been Successful?

NBER Working Paper No. w6824
Number of pages: 54 Posted: 26 Dec 1998 Last Revised: 11 Oct 2010
Michael D. Bordo and Anna J. Schwartz
Rutgers University, New Brunswick - Department of Economics and City University of New York (CUNY)
Downloads 31 (460,367)
Citation 3

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25.

Could Stable Money Have Averted the Great Contraction?

NBER Working Paper No. w4481
Number of pages: 33 Posted: 24 Jan 2007
Michael D. Bordo, Anna J. Schwartz and Ehsan U. Choudhri
Rutgers University, New Brunswick - Department of Economics, City University of New York (CUNY) and Carleton University - Department of Economics
Downloads 29 (469,893)
Citation 4

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26.

U.S. Intervention and the Early Dollar Float: 1973-1981

FRB of Cleveland Working Paper No. 10-23
Number of pages: 63 Posted: 12 Dec 2010
Michael D. Bordo, Owen Humpage and Anna J. Schwartz
Rutgers University, New Brunswick - Department of Economics, Federal Reserve Bank of Cleveland and City University of New York (CUNY)
Downloads 24 (496,437)

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intervention, monetary policy, Great Inflation, swap lines, warehousing

From Obscurity to Notoriety: A Biography of the Exchange Stabilization Fund

NBER Working Paper No. w5699
Number of pages: 36 Posted: 03 Oct 1996 Last Revised: 03 Oct 2010
Anna J. Schwartz
City University of New York (CUNY)
Downloads 24 (511,882)

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From Obscurity to Notoriety: A Biography of the Exchange Stabilization Fund

J. OF MONEY, CREDIT AND BANKING, Vol. 29 No. 2, May 1997
Posted: 07 Jan 1997
Anna J. Schwartz
City University of New York (CUNY)

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28.

The Federal Reserve as an Informed Foreign-Exchange Trader: 1973-1995

FRB of Cleveland Working Paper No. 11-18
Number of pages: 34 Posted: 08 Sep 2011
Michael D. Bordo, Owen Humpage and Anna J. Schwartz
Rutgers University, New Brunswick - Department of Economics, Federal Reserve Bank of Cleveland and City University of New York (CUNY)
Downloads 22 (507,725)

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exchange rates, sterilized intervention, Federal Reserve System

29.

U.S. Intervention During the Bretton Woods Era: 1962-1973

NBER Working Paper No. w16946
Number of pages: 88 Posted: 18 Apr 2011 Last Revised: 21 Nov 2013
Michael D. Bordo, Owen Humpage and Anna J. Schwartz
Rutgers University, New Brunswick - Department of Economics, Federal Reserve Bank of Cleveland and City University of New York (CUNY)
Downloads 22 (507,725)

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30.

What Has Foreign Market Intervention Since the Plaza Agreement Accomplished?

NBER Working Paper No. w3562
Number of pages: 46 Posted: 08 Jan 2008 Last Revised: 29 Sep 2010
Michael D. Bordo and Anna J. Schwartz
Rutgers University, New Brunswick - Department of Economics and City University of New York (CUNY)
Downloads 22 (507,725)
Citation 4

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31.

Money Stock Targeting, Base Drift and Price-Level Predictability: Lessons from the U.K. Experience

NBER Working Paper No. w2825
Number of pages: 37 Posted: 19 Jun 2004 Last Revised: 22 Sep 2010
Michael D. Bordo, Ehsan U. Choudhri and Anna J. Schwartz
Rutgers University, New Brunswick - Department of Economics, Carleton University - Department of Economics and City University of New York (CUNY)
Downloads 21 (513,571)
Citation 2

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32.

Money Growth Variability and Money Supply Interdependence Under Interestrate Control: Some Evidence for Canada

NBER Working Paper No. w1480
Number of pages: 43 Posted: 19 Jun 2004 Last Revised: 20 Jul 2010
Michael D. Bordo, Ehsan U. Choudhri and Anna J. Schwartz
Rutgers University, New Brunswick - Department of Economics, Carleton University - Department of Economics and City University of New York (CUNY)
Downloads 20 (519,341)

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33.

The Federal Reserve as an Informed Foreign Exchange Trader: 1973 - 1995

NBER Working Paper No. w17425
Number of pages: 33 Posted: 21 Sep 2011 Last Revised: 03 Oct 2011
Michael D. Bordo, Owen Humpage and Anna J. Schwartz
Rutgers University, New Brunswick - Department of Economics, Federal Reserve Bank of Cleveland and City University of New York (CUNY)
Downloads 14 (554,587)

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34.

U.S. Foreign-Exchange-Market Intervention and the Early Dollar Float: 1973 - 1981

NBER Working Paper No. w16647
Number of pages: 62 Posted: 28 Dec 2010 Last Revised: 11 Jan 2011
Michael D. Bordo, Owen Humpage and Anna J. Schwartz
Rutgers University, New Brunswick - Department of Economics, Federal Reserve Bank of Cleveland and City University of New York (CUNY)
Downloads 13 (560,521)

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