Anna J. Schwartz

City University of New York (CUNY)

17 Lexington Avenue

New York, NY 10010

United States

National Bureau of Economic Research (NBER) - NY Office

365 Fifth Avenue, 5th Floor

New York, NY 10016-4309

United States

SCHOLARLY PAPERS

36

DOWNLOADS
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SSRN RANKINGS

Top 25,304

in Total Papers Downloads

2,895

SSRN CITATIONS
Rank 6,406

SSRN RANKINGS

Top 6,406

in Total Papers Citations

33

CROSSREF CITATIONS

173

Scholarly Papers (36)

1.

Verdict on the Crash: Causes and Policy Implications

Institute of Economic Affairs Monographs, No. HPB 37, 2009
Number of pages: 104 Posted: 23 Sep 2009
City University London - The Business School, Hebrew University of Jerusalem - Department of Economics, Adam Smith Institute, University of Buckingham, Cardiff University - Cardiff Business School, Nottingham University Business School (NUBS), Acton Institute for the Study of Religion and Liberty, St John's College, Oxford, Loughborough University - Department of Economics, University of Oxford - Said Business School, Cranfield University, City University of New York (CUNY), Cass Business School, affiliation not provided to SSRN and affiliation not provided to SSRN
Downloads 682 (55,047)

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credit crunch, financial crisis, bank bailouts, financial regulation, Financial Services Authority, bank regulation, monetary policy, central banks, Federal Reserve, Fannie Mae, Freddie Mac, Community Reinvestment Act, Bank of England, Alan Greenspan

The Impact of Milton Friedman on Modern Monetary Economics: Setting the Record Straight on Paul Krugman's 'Who Was Milton Friedman?'

FRB of St. Louis Working Paper No. 2007-048D
Number of pages: 45 Posted: 31 Oct 2007
Edward Nelson and Anna J. Schwartz
Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System and City University of New York (CUNY)
Downloads 286 (151,311)

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monetarism, New Keynesian economics, inflation, price controls, Great Depression

The Impact of Milton Friedman on Modern Monetary Economics: Setting the Record Straight on Paul Krugman's "Who Was Milton Friedman?"

NBER Working Paper No. w13546
Number of pages: 41 Posted: 31 Oct 2007 Last Revised: 08 Jul 2022
Edward Nelson and Anna J. Schwartz
Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System and City University of New York (CUNY)
Downloads 58 (506,321)
Citation 3

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3.

Is-Lm and Monetarism

NBER Working Paper No. w9713
Number of pages: 31 Posted: 16 May 2003 Last Revised: 16 Jan 2022
Michael D. Bordo and Anna J. Schwartz
Rutgers University, New Brunswick - Department of Economics and City University of New York (CUNY)
Downloads 136 (296,095)

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The Evolution of the Federal Reserve Swap Lines Since 1962

FRB of Cleveland Working Paper No. 14-14
Number of pages: 32 Posted: 04 Oct 2014
Michael D. Bordo, Owen Humpage and Anna J. Schwartz
Rutgers University, New Brunswick - Department of Economics, Federal Reserve Bank of Cleveland and City University of New York (CUNY)
Downloads 67 (470,503)
Citation 4

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Swap lines, Federal Reserve, Bretton Woods, Intervention, Mexico

5.

Bretton Woods and the U.S. Decision to Intervene in the Foreign-Exchange Market, 1957-1962

FRB of Cleveland Working Paper No. 06-09
Number of pages: 57 Posted: 18 Oct 2007
Michael D. Bordo, Owen Humpage and Anna J. Schwartz
Rutgers University, New Brunswick - Department of Economics, Federal Reserve Bank of Cleveland and City University of New York (CUNY)
Downloads 109 (347,471)
Citation 1

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Bretton Woods, Exchange Stabilization Fund, Federal Reserve System, foreign-exchange rates, intervention

Epilogue: Foreign-Exchange-Market Operations in the Twenty-First Century

FRB of Cleveland Working Paper No. 12-07
Number of pages: 22 Posted: 31 Mar 2012
Michael D. Bordo, Owen Humpage and Anna J. Schwartz
Rutgers University, New Brunswick - Department of Economics, Federal Reserve Bank of Cleveland and City University of New York (CUNY)
Downloads 81 (423,061)

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intervention, Japan, Switzerland, China, developing and emerging market economies, swap lines

Epilogue: Foreign-Exchange-Market Operations in the Twenty-First Century

NBER Working Paper No. w17984
Number of pages: 21 Posted: 07 Apr 2012 Last Revised: 22 Aug 2022
Michael D. Bordo, Owen Humpage and Anna J. Schwartz
Rutgers University, New Brunswick - Department of Economics, Federal Reserve Bank of Cleveland and City University of New York (CUNY)
Downloads 26 (687,032)

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7.

Monetary Policy Regimes and Economic Performance: The Historical Record

NBER Working Paper No. w6201
Number of pages: 128 Posted: 21 Jul 2000 Last Revised: 13 Jun 2021
Michael D. Bordo and Anna J. Schwartz
Rutgers University, New Brunswick - Department of Economics and City University of New York (CUNY)
Downloads 101 (365,669)
Citation 2

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8.

Real Versus Pseudo-International Systemic Risk: Some Lessons from History

NBER Working Paper No. w5371
Number of pages: 46 Posted: 13 Jul 2000 Last Revised: 05 Sep 2022
Michael D. Bordo, Bruce Mizrach and Anna J. Schwartz
Rutgers University, New Brunswick - Department of Economics, Rutgers University, Department of Economics and City University of New York (CUNY)
Downloads 96 (377,576)

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9.

On the Evolution of U.S. Foreign-Exchange-Market Intervention: Thesis, Theory, and Institutions

FRB of Cleveland Working Paper No. 11-13
Number of pages: 30 Posted: 22 Jun 2011
Michael D. Bordo, Owen Humpage and Anna J. Schwartz
Rutgers University, New Brunswick - Department of Economics, Federal Reserve Bank of Cleveland and City University of New York (CUNY)
Downloads 81 (418,732)

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intervention, portfolio-balance, signaling, coordination

10.

Asset Price Inflation and Monetary Policy

NBER Working Paper No. w9321
Number of pages: 28 Posted: 16 Nov 2002 Last Revised: 22 Dec 2021
Anna J. Schwartz
City University of New York (CUNY)
Downloads 78 (427,971)

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11.

Was Expansionary Monetary Policy Feasible During the Great Contraction? an Examination of the Gold Standard Constraint

NBER Working Paper No. w7125
Number of pages: 49 Posted: 30 Jul 1999 Last Revised: 04 Apr 2022
Michael D. Bordo, Ehsan U. Choudhri and Anna J. Schwartz
Rutgers University, New Brunswick - Department of Economics, Carleton University - Department of Economics and City University of New York (CUNY)
Downloads 73 (443,860)
Citation 4

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12.

From the Exchange Stabilization Fund to the International Monetary Fund

NBER Working Paper No. w8100
Number of pages: 29 Posted: 26 Jan 2001 Last Revised: 21 Aug 2022
Michael D. Bordo and Anna J. Schwartz
Rutgers University, New Brunswick - Department of Economics and City University of New York (CUNY)
Downloads 68 (460,855)

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U.S. Foreign-Exchange-Market Intervention During the Volcker-Greenspan Era

FRB of Cleveland Working Paper No. 10-07
Number of pages: 64 Posted: 11 Aug 2010 Last Revised: 28 Aug 2010
Michael D. Bordo, Owen Humpage and Anna J. Schwartz
Rutgers University, New Brunswick - Department of Economics, Federal Reserve Bank of Cleveland and City University of New York (CUNY)
Downloads 42 (583,217)

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central-bank independence, intervention, Mexican peso crisis, monetary policy, swap lines, warehousing

U.S. Foreign-Exchange-Market Intervention During the Volcker-Greenspan Era

NBER Working Paper No. w16345
Number of pages: 63 Posted: 13 Sep 2010 Last Revised: 31 Aug 2022
Michael D. Bordo, Owen Humpage and Anna J. Schwartz
Rutgers University, New Brunswick - Department of Economics, Federal Reserve Bank of Cleveland and City University of New York (CUNY)
Downloads 23 (711,660)

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14.

A Brief Empirical History of U.S. Foreign-Exchange Intervention: 1973-1995

FRB of Cleveland Working Paper No. 09-03
Number of pages: 40 Posted: 21 May 2009 Last Revised: 27 Aug 2010
Michael D. Bordo, Owen Humpage and Anna J. Schwartz
Rutgers University, New Brunswick - Department of Economics, Federal Reserve Bank of Cleveland and City University of New York (CUNY)
Downloads 65 (471,612)

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Foreign-exchange intervention, exchange rates, Federal Reserve

15.

Why Clashes between Internal and External Stability Goals End in Currency Crises, 1797-1994

NBER Working Paper No. w5710
Number of pages: 54 Posted: 03 Jul 1997 Last Revised: 10 Aug 2022
Michael D. Bordo and Anna J. Schwartz
Rutgers University, New Brunswick - Department of Economics and City University of New York (CUNY)
Downloads 65 (471,612)

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16.

David Laidler on Monetarism

NBER Working Paper No. w12593
Number of pages: 31 Posted: 20 Oct 2006 Last Revised: 30 May 2022
Michael D. Bordo and Anna J. Schwartz
Rutgers University, New Brunswick - Department of Economics and City University of New York (CUNY)
Downloads 64 (475,348)

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17.

Measuring Real Economic Effects of Bailouts: Historical Perspectives on How Countries in Financial Distress Have Fared with and Without Bailouts

NBER Working Paper No. w7701
Number of pages: 98 Posted: 17 May 2000 Last Revised: 18 Jul 2022
Michael D. Bordo and Anna J. Schwartz
Rutgers University, New Brunswick - Department of Economics and City University of New York (CUNY)
Downloads 64 (475,348)
Citation 2

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18.

U.S. Intervention During the Bretton Wood Era: 1962-1973

FRB of Cleveland Policy Discussion Paper No. 11-08
Number of pages: 89 Posted: 12 Apr 2011
Michael D. Bordo, Owen Humpage and Anna J. Schwartz
Rutgers University, New Brunswick - Department of Economics, Federal Reserve Bank of Cleveland and City University of New York (CUNY)
Downloads 60 (490,742)

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intervention, Bretton Woods, swap lines, Triffin’s paradox, gold

19.

U.S. Monetary-Policy Evolution and U.S. Intervention

FRB of Cleveland Working Paper No. 11-27
Number of pages: 13 Posted: 28 Oct 2011
Michael D. Bordo, Owen Humpage and Anna J. Schwartz
Rutgers University, New Brunswick - Department of Economics, Federal Reserve Bank of Cleveland and City University of New York (CUNY)
Downloads 53 (519,412)

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Trilemma, central-bank independence, intervention, monetary policy, swap lines, warehousing

20.

The Rise and Fall of Foreign Exchange Market Intervention

NBER Working Paper No. w7751
Number of pages: 38 Posted: 19 Jul 2000 Last Revised: 07 Sep 2022
Anna J. Schwartz
City University of New York (CUNY)
Downloads 51 (528,195)

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21.

The Historical Origins of U.S. Exchange Market Intervention Policy

NBER Working Paper No. w12662
Number of pages: 46 Posted: 20 Nov 2006 Last Revised: 06 Feb 2022
Michael D. Bordo, Owen Humpage and Anna J. Schwartz
Rutgers University, New Brunswick - Department of Economics, Federal Reserve Bank of Cleveland and City University of New York (CUNY)
Downloads 40 (581,658)

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22.

Charles Goodhart's Contributions to the History of Monetary Institutions

NBER Working Paper No. w8717
Number of pages: 27 Posted: 17 Jan 2002 Last Revised: 28 Apr 2022
Michael D. Bordo and Anna J. Schwartz
Rutgers University, New Brunswick - Department of Economics and City University of New York (CUNY)
Downloads 39 (586,959)

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23.

The Ecu - an Imaginary or Embryonic Form of Money: What Can We Learn from History?

NBER Working Paper No. w2345
Number of pages: 33 Posted: 26 Mar 2007 Last Revised: 30 May 2022
Michael D. Bordo and Anna J. Schwartz
Rutgers University, New Brunswick - Department of Economics and City University of New York (CUNY)
Downloads 38 (592,315)

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From Obscurity to Notoriety: A Biography of the Exchange Stabilization Fund

NBER Working Paper No. w5699
Number of pages: 36 Posted: 03 Oct 1996 Last Revised: 30 Jul 2022
Anna J. Schwartz
City University of New York (CUNY)
Downloads 37 (611,684)

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From Obscurity to Notoriety: A Biography of the Exchange Stabilization Fund

J. OF MONEY, CREDIT AND BANKING, Vol. 29 No. 2, May 1997
Posted: 07 Jan 1997
Anna J. Schwartz
City University of New York (CUNY)

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25.

The Specie Standard as a Contingent Rule: Some Evidence for Core and Peripheral Countries, 1880-1990

NBER Working Paper No. w4860
Number of pages: 72 Posted: 11 Jun 2000 Last Revised: 14 Apr 2022
Michael D. Bordo and Anna J. Schwartz
Rutgers University, New Brunswick - Department of Economics and City University of New York (CUNY)
Downloads 34 (615,259)
Citation 1

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26.

Under What Circumstances, Past and Present, Have International Rescues of Countries in Financial Distress Been Successful?

NBER Working Paper No. w6824
Number of pages: 54 Posted: 26 Dec 1998 Last Revised: 26 Aug 2022
Michael D. Bordo and Anna J. Schwartz
Rutgers University, New Brunswick - Department of Economics and City University of New York (CUNY)
Downloads 34 (615,259)
Citation 2

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27.

Money Versus Credit Rationing: Evidence for the National Banking Era, 1880-1914

NBER Working Paper No. w3689
Number of pages: 68 Posted: 13 Aug 2001 Last Revised: 01 Aug 2022
Michael D. Bordo, Peter Rappoport and Anna J. Schwartz
Rutgers University, New Brunswick - Department of Economics, Newark College of Arts & Sciences - Department of Economics and City University of New York (CUNY)
Downloads 33 (621,265)

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28.

Could Stable Money Have Averted the Great Contraction?

NBER Working Paper No. w4481
Number of pages: 33 Posted: 24 Jan 2007 Last Revised: 04 Apr 2022
Michael D. Bordo, Anna J. Schwartz and Ehsan U. Choudhri
Rutgers University, New Brunswick - Department of Economics, City University of New York (CUNY) and Carleton University - Department of Economics
Downloads 31 (633,736)
Citation 2

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29.

U.S. Intervention and the Early Dollar Float: 1973-1981

FRB of Cleveland Working Paper No. 10-23
Number of pages: 63 Posted: 12 Dec 2010
Michael D. Bordo, Owen Humpage and Anna J. Schwartz
Rutgers University, New Brunswick - Department of Economics, Federal Reserve Bank of Cleveland and City University of New York (CUNY)
Downloads 28 (653,466)

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intervention, monetary policy, Great Inflation, swap lines, warehousing

30.

The Federal Reserve as an Informed Foreign-Exchange Trader: 1973-1995

FRB of Cleveland Working Paper No. 11-18
Number of pages: 34 Posted: 08 Sep 2011
Michael D. Bordo, Owen Humpage and Anna J. Schwartz
Rutgers University, New Brunswick - Department of Economics, Federal Reserve Bank of Cleveland and City University of New York (CUNY)
Downloads 27 (660,545)
Citation 2

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exchange rates, sterilized intervention, Federal Reserve System

31.

What Has Foreign Market Intervention Since the Plaza Agreement Accomplished?

NBER Working Paper No. w3562
Number of pages: 46 Posted: 08 Jan 2008 Last Revised: 26 Sep 2022
Michael D. Bordo and Anna J. Schwartz
Rutgers University, New Brunswick - Department of Economics and City University of New York (CUNY)
Downloads 27 (660,545)

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32.

U.S. Intervention During the Bretton Woods Era: 1962-1973

NBER Working Paper No. w16946
Number of pages: 88 Posted: 18 Apr 2011 Last Revised: 22 Apr 2022
Michael D. Bordo, Owen Humpage and Anna J. Schwartz
Rutgers University, New Brunswick - Department of Economics, Federal Reserve Bank of Cleveland and City University of New York (CUNY)
Downloads 24 (682,776)

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33.

Money Growth Variability and Money Supply Interdependence Under Interestrate Control: Some Evidence for Canada

NBER Working Paper No. w1480
Number of pages: 43 Posted: 19 Jun 2004 Last Revised: 20 Jul 2022
Michael D. Bordo, Ehsan U. Choudhri and Anna J. Schwartz
Rutgers University, New Brunswick - Department of Economics, Carleton University - Department of Economics and City University of New York (CUNY)
Downloads 21 (706,219)

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34.

Money Stock Targeting, Base Drift and Price-Level Predictability: Lessons from the U.K. Experience

NBER Working Paper No. w2825
Number of pages: 37 Posted: 19 Jun 2004 Last Revised: 22 Sep 2022
Michael D. Bordo, Ehsan U. Choudhri and Anna J. Schwartz
Rutgers University, New Brunswick - Department of Economics, Carleton University - Department of Economics and City University of New York (CUNY)
Downloads 21 (706,219)
Citation 2

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35.

The Federal Reserve as an Informed Foreign Exchange Trader: 1973 - 1995

NBER Working Paper No. w17425
Number of pages: 33 Posted: 21 Sep 2011 Last Revised: 13 Aug 2022
Michael D. Bordo, Owen Humpage and Anna J. Schwartz
Rutgers University, New Brunswick - Department of Economics, Federal Reserve Bank of Cleveland and City University of New York (CUNY)
Downloads 18 (730,751)
Citation 3

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36.

U.S. Foreign-Exchange-Market Intervention and the Early Dollar Float: 1973 - 1981

NBER Working Paper No. w16647
Number of pages: 62 Posted: 28 Dec 2010 Last Revised: 27 Jun 2022
Michael D. Bordo, Owen Humpage and Anna J. Schwartz
Rutgers University, New Brunswick - Department of Economics, Federal Reserve Bank of Cleveland and City University of New York (CUNY)
Downloads 14 (766,294)

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