Toni M. Massaro

University of Arizona College of Law

P.O. Box 210176

Tucson, AZ 85721-0176

United States

SCHOLARLY PAPERS

32

DOWNLOADS
Rank 4,251

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Top 4,251

in Total Papers Downloads

15,981

SSRN CITATIONS
Rank 30,498

SSRN RANKINGS

Top 30,498

in Total Papers Citations

8

CROSSREF CITATIONS

25

Ideas:
“  Constitutional Cities: Sanctuary Jurisdictions, Local Voice and Individual Liberty  ”

Scholarly Papers (32)

1.

A Legal Labyrinth: Issues Raised by Arizona Senate Bill 1070

Georgetown Immigration Law Journal, Vol. 25, p. 47, 2010, Arizona Legal Studies Discussion Paper No. 10-24
Number of pages: 47 Posted: 29 May 2010 Last Revised: 11 Apr 2011
University of California, Davis - School of Law, University of North Carolina School of Law, University of Arizona College of Law and University of Arizona College of Law
Downloads 5,095 (3,077)

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SB 1070, Arizona, Immigration, Undocumented, Illegal Alien, Federalism, Arizona, Crimmigration, Preemption

2.

Experts, Psychology, Credibility, and Rape: The Rape Trauma Syndrome Issue and Its Implications for Expert Psychological Testimony

69 Minnesota Law Review 395 (1985)
Number of pages: 76 Posted: 25 Mar 2015
Toni M. Massaro
University of Arizona College of Law
Downloads 1,187 (31,237)
Citation 1

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rape, rape trauma syndrome, expert testimony, psychologist

3.

Equality and Freedom of Expression: The Hate Speech Dilemma

32 William & Mary Law Review 211 (1991), Arizona Legal Studies Discussion Paper
Number of pages: 55 Posted: 24 Mar 2015
Toni M. Massaro
University of Arizona College of Law
Downloads 1,138 (33,199)

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Hate speech, First Amendment, freedom of expression, offensive speech, content regulation

4.

Free Speech and Democracy: A Primer for 21st Century Reformers

54 UC Davis Law Review 1631 (2021), Arizona Legal Studies Discussion Paper No. 20-27, U of Colorado Law Legal Studies Research Paper No. 20-43
Number of pages: 55 Posted: 18 Jun 2020 Last Revised: 26 Feb 2021
Toni M. Massaro and Helen L. Norton
University of Arizona College of Law and University of Colorado Law School
Downloads 1,079 (35,804)

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Constitutional law, first Amendment, democracy, free speech, political speech, separation of powers, federalism, state action doctrine, liberalism

5.

Siri-ously? Free Speech Rights and Artificial Intelligence

110 Northwestern University Law Review 1169 (2016), Arizona Legal Studies Discussion Paper No. 15-29
Number of pages: 27 Posted: 14 Aug 2015 Last Revised: 06 Oct 2016
Toni M. Massaro and Helen L. Norton
University of Arizona College of Law and University of Colorado Law School
Downloads 990 (40,477)
Citation 1

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first amendment, freedom of speech, speech theory, constitutional law, constitutional theory, personhood, computer speech, robots, artificial intelligence, strong artificial intelligence, machine speech, fundamental rights, autonomy, theories of rights

6.

Freedom of Speech, Liberal Democracy, and Emerging Evidence on Civility and Effective Democratic Engagement

54 Arizona Law Review 375 (2012), Arizona Legal Studies Discussion Paper No. 12-12
Number of pages: 68 Posted: 18 Apr 2012 Last Revised: 05 May 2012
Toni M. Massaro and Robin Stryker
University of Arizona College of Law and University of Arizona - Department of Sociology
Downloads 960 (42,263)

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freedom of speech, political campaigns, civil discourse, first amendment, liberal theory, political theory, cognitive theory, law and emotions, campaign finance, political discourse, election law and policy, law and society

7.

Pandemics and the Constitution

Arizona Legal Studies Discussion Paper No. 21-01, 2022 University of Illinois Law Review 229 (2022)
Number of pages: 48 Posted: 26 Jun 2020 Last Revised: 01 Feb 2022
Toni M. Massaro, Justin R. Pidot and Marvin Slepian
University of Arizona College of Law, University of Arizona - James E. Rogers College of Law and University of Arizona - James E. Rogers College of Law
Downloads 813 (53,082)

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COVID-19, constitutional law, health law, due process, equal protection, liberalism, fundamental rights, liberty, pandemic, discrimination

8.

SIRI-OUSLY 2.0: What Artificial Intelligence Reveals about the First Amendment

101 Minnesota Law Review 2481 (2017), Arizona Legal Studies Discussion Paper No. 17-01, Ohio State Public Law Working Paper No. 374, U of Colorado Law Legal Studies Research Paper No. 17-3
Number of pages: 47 Posted: 10 Jan 2017 Last Revised: 27 Sep 2017
Toni M. Massaro, Helen L. Norton and Margot E. Kaminski
University of Arizona College of Law, University of Colorado Law School and University of Colorado Law SchoolYale University - Yale Information Society Project
Downloads 708 (63,889)
Citation 1

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First Amendment, Freedom of Speech, Speech Theory, Constitutional Law, Constitutional Theory, Personhood, Computer Speech, Robots, Artificial Intelligence, Strong Artificial Intelligence, Machine Speech, Fundamental Rights, Autonomy, Theories of Rights

9.

Significant Silences: Freedom of Speech in the Public Sector Workplace

61 Southern California Law Review 1 (1987)
Number of pages: 77 Posted: 25 Mar 2015
Toni M. Massaro
University of Arizona College of Law
Downloads 531 (91,717)

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public employee speech, freedom of speech, disciplinary discretion, regulation of speech

The Meanings of Shame: Implications for Legal Reform

Psychology, Public Policy, and Law, Vol. 3, No. 4, p. 645, 1997, Arizona Legal Studies Discussion Paper No. 12-13
Number of pages: 61 Posted: 22 Apr 2012 Last Revised: 05 May 2012
Toni M. Massaro
University of Arizona College of Law
Downloads 346 (149,690)
Citation 4

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shame, shaming, shameful, criminal punishment, social norms, legal norms, enforcing norms, law and society

The Meanings of Shame: Implications for Legal Reform

Posted: 30 Apr 1997
Toni M. Massaro
University of Arizona College of Law

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11.

Tread on Me!

17 University of Pennsylvania Journal of Constitutional Law 365 (2014), Arizona Legal Studies Discussion Paper No. 14-06
Number of pages: 73 Posted: 26 Feb 2014 Last Revised: 18 Dec 2014
Toni M. Massaro
University of Arizona College of Law
Downloads 263 (200,693)

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First Amendment, constitutional law, law and policy, compelled speech, big data, freedom of expression, free speech practice

12.

Foreign Nationals, Electoral Spending, and the First Amendment

Harvard Journal of Law and Public Policy, Vol. 34, 2011, Arizona Legal Studies Discussion Paper No. 10-33
Number of pages: 42 Posted: 24 Sep 2010 Last Revised: 20 Oct 2011
Toni M. Massaro
University of Arizona College of Law
Downloads 255 (207,015)

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Citizens United, Campaign Finance, International Corporation, Foreign Corporation, First Amendment, Equal Protection, National Security, Elections, McCain-Feingold Act, Bipartisan Electoral Reform, Free Speech, Electoral Spending, Technology and Elections

13.

Christian Legal Society v. Martinez: Six Frames

38 Hastings Constitutional Law Quarterly 569 (2011), Arizona Legal Studies Discussion Paper No. 10-27
Number of pages: 63 Posted: 09 Aug 2010 Last Revised: 21 Jun 2016
Toni M. Massaro
University of Arizona College of Law
Downloads 225 (233,679)

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Christian Legal Society v. Martinez, free speech, religious freedom, right of association, nondiscrimination rules, state action

14.

Empathy, Legal Storytelling, and the Rule of Law: New Words, Old Wounds?

87 Michigan Law Review 2099 (1989)
Number of pages: 29 Posted: 25 Mar 2015
Toni M. Massaro
University of Arizona College of Law
Downloads 210 (249,325)

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empathy, legal narrative, context, legal storytelling

15.

Shame, Culture, and American Criminal Law

89 Michigan Law Review 1880 (1991), Arizona Legal Studies Discussion Paper
Number of pages: 65 Posted: 26 Mar 2015
Toni M. Massaro
University of Arizona College of Law
Downloads 207 (252,534)
Citation 1

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shame, sentencing, punishment, criminal sanction, alternative punishment

16.

Constitutional Law as 'Normal Science'

Constitutional Commentary, Vol. 21, 2004
Number of pages: 38 Posted: 25 Oct 2004
Toni M. Massaro
University of Arizona College of Law
Downloads 207 (252,534)

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Constitutional theory, rational basis, equal protection, due process, judicial activism, judicial review

17.

The Lawfulness of the Same-Sex Marriage Decisions: Charles Black on Obergefell

25 William & Mary Bill of Rights Journal 321 (2016), Arizona Legal Studies Discussion Paper No. 15-27
Number of pages: 22 Posted: 02 Aug 2015 Last Revised: 10 Jan 2017
Toni M. Massaro
University of Arizona College of Law
Downloads 203 (257,125)

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Charles Black, Obergefell, equal protection, due process, liberty, constitutional history, fourteenth amendment, sexual orientation, family law, civil rights, fundamental rights

18.

Outrageous and Irrational

100 Minnesota Law Review 281 (2015), Arizona Legal Studies Discussion Paper No. 15-14
Number of pages: 73 Posted: 23 Mar 2015 Last Revised: 15 Dec 2015
Jane R. Bambauer and Toni M. Massaro
University of Florida Levin College of Law and University of Arizona College of Law
Downloads 201 (259,431)

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fundamental rights, judicial scrutiny, shock the conscience, rational basis, deferential judicial review, abuse of power, judicial restraint

19.

Substantive Due Process, Black Swans, and Innovation

Utah Law Review, Forthcoming, Arizona Legal Studies Discussion Paper No. 11-09
Number of pages: 57 Posted: 07 Mar 2011 Last Revised: 28 Jun 2011
Toni M. Massaro
University of Arizona College of Law
Downloads 178 (289,062)

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Substantive Due Process, Evolutionary Due Process, Black Swan, Living Constitution

20.

Constitutional Cities: Sanctuary Jurisdictions, Local Voice, and Individual Liberty

50 Columbia Human Rights Law Review 1 (2018), Arizona Legal Studies Discussion Paper No. 18-31
Number of pages: 116 Posted: 17 Oct 2018 Last Revised: 23 Jan 2019
Toni M. Massaro and Shefali Milczarek-Desai
University of Arizona College of Law and University of Arizona - James E. Rogers College of Law
Downloads 159 (318,411)

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executive power, immigration law and policy, separation of powers, anti-commandeering, Tenth Amendment, state and local government power, federal spending power, state preemption of local government, fourth amendment, freedom of expression, due process, equal protection, sanctuary cities, federalism

21.

Religious Freedom and "Accommodationist Neutrality": A Non-Neutral Critique

Oregon Law Review, Vol. 84, p. 935, 2005, Arizona Legal Studies Discussion Paper No. 06-02
Number of pages: 47 Posted: 05 Dec 2005
Toni M. Massaro
University of Arizona College of Law
Downloads 156 (323,561)

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religion, constitutional law, establishment clause, free exercise clause

22.

Nuts and Seeds: Mitigating Third-Party Harms of Religious Exemptions, Post-Hobby Lobby

92 Denver University Law Review 325 (2015), Arizona Legal Studies Discussion Paper No. 14-10
Number of pages: 39 Posted: 18 Jul 2014 Last Revised: 16 Jul 2015
Toni M. Massaro
University of Arizona College of Law
Downloads 149 (336,047)
Citation 1

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Freedom of religion, Religious Freedom Restoration Act, Freedom of expression, Compelled speech, Anti discrimination law, Public Accommodations, Gay rights, Establishment Clause, Equal employment law, Reproductive rights, Women's rights, Hobby Lobby

23.

Chilling Rights

88 University of Colorado Law Review 33 (2016), Arizona Legal Studies Discussion Paper No. 16-08
Number of pages: 64 Posted: 07 Mar 2016 Last Revised: 30 Jan 2017
Toni M. Massaro
University of Arizona College of Law
Downloads 134 (365,286)

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free speech, first amendment, facial challenge, overbreadth doctrine, fundamental rights, standing doctrine, justiciability, federal courts, separation of powers

24.

Flint of Outrage

93 Notre Dame Law Review 155 (2017), Arizona Legal Studies Discussion Paper No. 17-03
Number of pages: 58 Posted: 04 Mar 2017 Last Revised: 22 Dec 2017
Toni M. Massaro and Ellen Brooks
University of Arizona College of Law and New York University (NYU), School of Law, Students
Downloads 129 (376,005)

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environmental law, water law, constitutional law, rational basis, environmental justice, equal protection, due process, fundamental rights

25.

Some Realism about Constitutional Liberalism

28 Constitutional Commentary 101 (2013), Arizona Legal Studies Discussion Paper No. 13-09
Number of pages: 24 Posted: 15 Feb 2013
Toni M. Massaro
University of Arizona College of Law
Downloads 110 (422,970)

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constitutional interpretation, liberal theory of rights, limits of government power, individual freedoms

26.

Peremptories or Peers? Rethinking Sixth Amendment Doctrine, Images, and Procedures

64 North Carolina Law Review 501 (1986)
Number of pages: 64 Posted: 25 Mar 2015
Toni M. Massaro
University of Arizona College of Law
Downloads 99 (458,698)

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peremptory challenges, prosecutor, pattern of exclusion, sixth amendment

27.

The Dignity Value of Face-to-Face Confrontations

40 University of Florida Law Review 863 (1988)
Number of pages: 56 Posted: 25 Mar 2015
Toni M. Massaro
University of Arizona College of Law
Downloads 74 (544,491)

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Sixth Amendment, confrontation clause, cross-examination, witness credibility, evidence reliability

28.

Gay Rights, Thick and Thin

49 Stanford Law Review 45 (1996), Arizona Legal Studies Discussion Paper
Number of pages: 66 Posted: 25 Mar 2015
Toni M. Massaro
University of Arizona College of Law
Downloads 63 (592,839)

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homosexuality, constitution, rights, strict scrutiny, rational bases, Bowers, Romer

29.

Reviving Hugo Black? The Court's 'Jot for Jot' Account of Substantive Due Process

73 New York University Law Review 1086 (1998), Arizona Legal Studies Discussion Paper
Number of pages: 36 Posted: 25 Mar 2015
Toni M. Massaro
University of Arizona College of Law
Downloads 47 (678,790)

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Graham, Fourth Amendment, substantive due process, excessive force, arrest, Hugo Black, unenumerated rights

30.

Respectful Tribal Partnership: What Philanthropy Can Learn From the Navajo Nation’s Collaborative Response to the COVID-19 Crisis

14 The Foundation Review 93 (2022) , Arizona Legal Studies Discussion Paper No. 23-23
Number of pages: 13 Posted: 10 Jan 2023
University of Arizona, University of Arizona, University of Arizona College of Law, University of Arizona, University of Arizona and Navajo Nation Department of Water Resources
Downloads 35 (759,342)

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Tribal consultation, collaborative philanthropy, Navajo Nation, COVID-19, tribal water access

31.

History Unbecoming, Becoming History

98 Michigan Law Review 1564 (2000), Arizona Legal Studies Discussion Paper
Number of pages: 49 Posted: 25 Mar 2015
Toni M. Massaro
University of Arizona College of Law
Downloads 30 (797,903)

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homosexuality, gay equality, William Eskridge, gaylaw, discrimination

32.

Show (Some) Emotions

The Passions of Law (Book) 80 (Susan A. Bandes ed., 1999), Arizona Legal Studies Discussion Paper
Posted: 25 Mar 2015
Toni M. Massaro
University of Arizona College of Law

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social norm theory, social context, human emotions, criminal law, social meaning, social influence