Robert G. Natelson

Independence & Montana Policy Institutes

Senior Fellow in Constitutional Jurisprudence

727 E. 16th Ave.

Denver, CO 80203

United States

http://robnatelson.com

SCHOLARLY PAPERS

41

DOWNLOADS
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2

CROSSREF CITATIONS

21

Scholarly Papers (41)

1.

The Original Understanding of the Indian Commerce Clause

Denver University Law Review, Vol. 85, No. 201, 2007
Number of pages: 66 Posted: 15 Feb 2008
Robert G. Natelson
Independence & Montana Policy Institutes
Downloads 483 (82,927)

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Constitutional Law, Indian Law, Native Americans, Indians, American Indians, Original Meaning, Original Understanding, Original Intent, Constitutional History, Commerce Clause, Commerce Power, Indian Reservations

2.

The Original Meaning of ‘Emoluments’ in the Constitution

Georgia Law Review, Vol. 52, No. 1, 2017
Number of pages: 55 Posted: 06 Feb 2017 Last Revised: 25 Mar 2018
Robert G. Natelson
Independence & Montana Policy Institutes
Downloads 443 (91,637)

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Constitution, Emoluments Clause, Original Meaning, Original Understanding, Original Intent

3.

Founding-Era Conventions and the Meaning of the Constitution’s 'Convention for Proposing Amendments'

Florida Law Review, Vol. 65, 2013
Number of pages: 76 Posted: 23 Apr 2012 Last Revised: 10 Apr 2013
Robert G. Natelson
Independence & Montana Policy Institutes
Downloads 442 (91,881)
Citation 3

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constitution, constitutional law, constitutional amendments, Article V, convention, constitutional convention, amendments convention, Article V convention, constitutional amendments

4.

The Fiduciary Foundations of Federal Equal Protection

Boston Univ. School of Law, Public Law Research Paper No. 13-32
Number of pages: 48 Posted: 28 Jul 2013
Gary Lawson, Guy I. Seidman and Robert G. Natelson
Boston University School of Law, Interdisciplinary Center (IDC) Herzliyah - Radzyner School of Law and Independence & Montana Policy Institutes
Downloads 325 (129,880)
Citation 3

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Constitutional law, equal protection, fiduciary

5.

The Origins and Meaning of 'Vacancies that May Happen During the Recess' in the Constitution's Recess Appointments Clause

Harvard Journal of Law and Public Policy, Vol. 37, Page 199, 2014
Number of pages: 41 Posted: 01 May 2013 Last Revised: 24 Feb 2017
Robert G. Natelson
Independence & Montana Policy Institutes
Downloads 299 (141,780)

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recess appointments, recess appointments clause, Constitution, presidential appointments, original meaning, original understanding, original intent, originalism

6.

What the Constitution Means by 'Duties, Imposts, and Excises' — And 'Taxes' (Direct or Otherwise)

Case Western Reserve Law Review, Vol. 66, No. 297, 2015
Number of pages: 55 Posted: 04 Mar 2015 Last Revised: 09 Jan 2017
Robert G. Natelson
Independence & Montana Policy Institutes
Downloads 293 (144,759)
Citation 1

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constitutional law, Taxation Clause, original intent, original understanding, original meaning, excise, tonnage, duty, tax, Obamacare, ACA, PPACA, NFIB v. Sebelius, direct tax, indirect tax

7.

The Founders' Hermeneutic: The Real Original Understanding of Original Intent

Ohio State Law Journal, Vol. 68, No. 5, 2007
Number of pages: 67 Posted: 31 Jan 2008
Robert G. Natelson
Independence & Montana Policy Institutes
Downloads 285 (148,971)

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constitution, interpretation, constitutional law, constitutional history, original meaning, original intent, original understanding, founders

8.

A Republic, Not a Democracy? Initiative, Referendum, and the Constitution's Guarantee Clause

Texas Law Review, Vol. 80, p. 807, 2002
Number of pages: 52 Posted: 04 Jan 2012
Robert G. Natelson
Independence & Montana Policy Institutes
Downloads 277 (153,251)

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constitution, democracy, republic, initiative and referendum, guarantee clause, republican form, founders, Madison, Greek, Rome, classics

9.

Federalism & Separation of Powers - 'Health Laws of Every Description': John Marshall’s Ruling on a Federal Health Care Law

Engage, Vol. 12, No. 1, pp. 49-54, June 2011, University of Denver Legal Studies Research Paper No. 11-03
Number of pages: 6 Posted: 01 Feb 2011 Last Revised: 26 Apr 2012
Robert G. Natelson, David B. Kopel and David B. Kopel
Independence & Montana Policy Institutes and Independence InstituteDenver University - Sturm College of Law
Downloads 267 (159,107)

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John Marshall, Affordable Care Act, Gibbons v. Ogden, Health Care

10.

Founding-Era Socialism: The Original Meaning of the Constitution's Postal Clause

British Journal of American Legal Studies, Vol. 7, No. 1, Spring 2018
Number of pages: 74 Posted: 15 Feb 2017 Last Revised: 16 Jun 2018
Robert G. Natelson
Independence & Montana Policy Institutes
Downloads 252 (168,567)

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Constitution, Post Office Clause, Postal Clause, post roads, Original Meaning, Original Understanding, Original Intent

11.

Does 'The Freedom of the Press' Include a Right to Anonymity? The Original Understanding

Number of pages: 47 Posted: 30 Sep 2013 Last Revised: 13 Oct 2013
Robert G. Natelson
Independence & Montana Policy Institutes
Downloads 241 (175,903)

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constitution, constitutional law, citizens united, anonymous, anonymity, First Amendment, freedom of speech, freedom of the press, press freedom, original understanding, original intent, original meaning, original public meaning, disclosure, political advertising, campaign finance, campaign spending

12.

Proposing Constitutional Amendments by Convention: Rules Governing the Process

Tennessee Law Review, Vol. 78, p. 693, 2011
Number of pages: 58 Posted: 04 Aug 2011 Last Revised: 04 Jan 2012
Robert G. Natelson
Independence & Montana Policy Institutes
Downloads 210 (200,362)

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constitution, constitutional law, amendments, constitutional amendments, constitutional convention, original understanding, original meaning, original intent, convention for proposing amendments, Founding Era, Founders, Article V

13.

The Constitution and the Public Trust

Buffalo Law Review Vol. 52, No. 1077, p. 1082, 2004
Number of pages: 102 Posted: 04 Jan 2012
Robert G. Natelson
Independence & Montana Policy Institutes
Downloads 201 (208,630)
Citation 1

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Constitution, public trust, fiduciary, founding, founders, political theory

14.

The Original Meaning of the Constitution's 'Executive Vesting Clause' - Evidence from Eighteenth-Century Drafting Practice

Whittier Law Review, Vol. 31, No. 1, pp. 1-46, 2009
Number of pages: 46 Posted: 07 Feb 2010
Robert G. Natelson
Independence & Montana Policy Institutes
Downloads 201 (208,630)

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Constitution, Constitutional Law, Original Intent, Original Understanding, Original Meaning, Executive Vesting Clause, President, Powers of The President, Presidential Powers

15.

The Agency Law Origins of the Necessary and Proper Clause

Case Western Reserve Law Review, Vol. 55, p. 243, 2004
Number of pages: 80 Posted: 04 Jan 2012
Robert G. Natelson
Independence & Montana Policy Institutes
Downloads 188 (221,372)

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constitution, necessary and proper, incidental powers, elastic clause, sweeping clause, federal power, states rights

16.

The General Welfare Clause and the Public Trust: An Essay in Original Understanding

Kansas Law Review, Vol. 52, p. 1, 2003
Number of pages: 56 Posted: 04 Jan 2012
Robert G. Natelson
Independence & Montana Policy Institutes
Downloads 152 (264,776)

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17.

The Constitutional Contributions of John Dickinson

Penn State Law Review, Vol. 108, p. 415, 2003
Number of pages: 64 Posted: 04 Jan 2012
Robert G. Natelson
Independence & Montana Policy Institutes
Downloads 135 (290,678)

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constitution, founders, John Dickinson, Dickinson, original understanding, original intent, original meaning, constitutional convention, federal convention, 1787, convention delegates

18.

Federal Land Retention and the Constitution's Property Clause: The Original Understanding

University of Colorado Law Review, Vol. 76, No. 2, p. 327, 2005
Number of pages: 52 Posted: 04 Jan 2012
Robert G. Natelson
Independence & Montana Policy Institutes
Downloads 133 (293,900)

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constitution, federal land, environment, property clause, enclave clause, original understanding, original meaning, original intent

19.

The Legal Meaning of "Commerce" in the Commerce Clause

St. John's Law Review, Vol. 80, No. 3, 2006
Number of pages: 60 Posted: 31 Jan 2008
Robert G. Natelson
Independence & Montana Policy Institutes
Downloads 113 (330,861)

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constitutional law, constitution, commerce clause, original intent, original meaning, original understanding, congress, constitutional history

20.

Health Insurance is Not ‘Commerce’

National Law Journal, March 28, 2011
Number of pages: 2 Posted: 04 Jan 2012
Robert G. Natelson, David B. Kopel and David B. Kopel
Independence & Montana Policy Institutes and Independence InstituteDenver University - Sturm College of Law
Downloads 106 (345,660)

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Constitution, Commerce Clause, Commerce Power, Obamacare, health insurance, original understanding, original intent, original meaning, Supreme Court

21.

Impeachment: The Constitution's Fiduciary Meaning of 'High . . . Misdemeanors'

19 Federalist Soc'y Rev. 68 (2018)
Number of pages: 5 Posted: 31 Dec 2019
Robert G. Natelson
Independence & Montana Policy Institutes
Downloads 91 (381,191)

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impeachment, constitutional law, high misdemeanors, public trust, fiduciary government

22.

The Government as Fiduciary: A Practical Demonstration from the Reign of Trajan

University of Richmond Law Review, Vol. 35, No. 191, 2001
Number of pages: 46 Posted: 27 Mar 2012 Last Revised: 28 Mar 2012
Robert G. Natelson
Independence & Montana Policy Institutes
Downloads 91 (381,191)
Citation 1

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fiduciary, public trust, trust, official duties, Roman law, imperial law, Trajan, legal history

23.

Commerce in the Commerce Clause: A Response to Jack Balkin

Michigan Law Review First Impressions, Vol. 109, No. 55, 2010, U Denver Legal Studies Research Paper No. 10-25
Number of pages: 8 Posted: 07 Nov 2010 Last Revised: 15 Apr 2014
David B. Kopel, David B. Kopel and Robert G. Natelson
Independence InstituteDenver University - Sturm College of Law and Independence & Montana Policy Institutes
Downloads 88 (389,078)

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24.

The Founders Interpret the Constitution: The Division of Federal and State Powers

19 Federalist Soc. Rev. 60
Number of pages: 7 Posted: 24 Jun 2018
Robert G. Natelson
Independence & Montana Policy Institutes
Downloads 86 (394,646)

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federalism, constitutional law, originalism, original meaning, original public meaning, original intent, original understanding, states rights

25.

Is the Constitution’s Convention for Proposing Amendments a 'Mystery'? Overlooked Evidence in the Narrative of Uncertainty

Marquette Law Review, Vol. 104, 2020
Number of pages: 58 Posted: 27 Jan 2020 Last Revised: 13 Jul 2020
Robert G. Natelson
Independence & Montana Policy Institutes
Downloads 72 (436,638)

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constitutional law, constitutional convention, amendments convention, amendments

26.

Tempering the Commerce Power

Montana Law Review, Vol. 68, p. 97
Number of pages: 34 Posted: 31 Jan 2008
Robert G. Natelson
Independence & Montana Policy Institutes
Downloads 72 (436,638)

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k10,k19,k30,k39,k40

27.

The Original Scope of the Congressional Power to Regulate Elections

University of Pennsylvania Journal of Constitutional Law, Vol. 13, No. 1, 2010
Number of pages: 46 Posted: 31 Jan 2011 Last Revised: 04 Jan 2012
Robert G. Natelson
Independence & Montana Policy Institutes
Downloads 67 (453,562)

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constitution, constitutional law, election law, elections, campaign finance, campaign regulation, original intent, original understanding, original meaning, founders

28.

State Initiation of Constitutional Amendments: A Guide for Lawyers and Legislative Drafters

Number of pages: 337 Posted: 07 Apr 2014
Robert G. Natelson
Independence & Montana Policy Institutes
Downloads 62 (471,515)

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constitutional law, constitutional amendments, constitutional history, amendments convention, constitutional convention, convention for proposing amendments, Article V, convention of states, application for convention

29.

The Enumerated Powers of States

Nevada Law Review, Vol. 3, p. 469, 2003
Number of pages: 26 Posted: 04 Jan 2012
Robert G. Natelson
Independence & Montana Policy Institutes
Downloads 62 (471,515)

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constitution, states rights, tenth amendment, reserved powers, original intent, original meaning, original understanding

30.

The Founders’ Origination Clause (and Implications for the Affordable Care Act)

Harvard Journal of Law and Public Policy, Vol. 38, No. 639, 2015
Number of pages: 81 Posted: 03 May 2014 Last Revised: 31 Dec 2019
Robert G. Natelson
Independence & Montana Policy Institutes
Downloads 55 (498,669)

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Constitution, Origination Clause, original meaning, original understanding, original intent, Senate amendment, Affordable Care Act, Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act, ACA, PPACA, Obamacare, bill for raising revenue

31.

The State-Application-and-Convention Method of Amending the Constitution: The Founding-Era Vision

Thomas M. Cooley Law Review, Vol. 29, No. 1, p. 9, 2011
Number of pages: 15 Posted: 04 Jan 2012
Robert G. Natelson
Independence & Montana Policy Institutes
Downloads 55 (498,669)

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Constitution, convention, amend, amendment, Article V, constitutional convention

32.

The Colorado Taxpayer's Bill of Rights

The Independence Institute, IP-3-2016
Number of pages: 78 Posted: 12 Jan 2017
Robert G. Natelson
Independence & Montana Policy Institutes
Downloads 50 (519,885)

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TELs, state constitutional law, tax and expenditure limitations, taxpayer's bill of rights, Colorado Constitution

33.

Constitutional Coup? The Case that Promulgated a New Constitution for Montana

Number of pages: 97 Posted: 12 Nov 2018 Last Revised: 31 Dec 2018
Robert G. Natelson
Independence & Montana Policy Institutes
Downloads 49 (524,309)

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Montana Constitution, Montana Supreme Court, rule of law, judicial activism, state constitutional law

34.

Federal Functions: Execution of Powers the Constitution Grants to Persons and Entities Outside the U.S. Government

University of Pennsylvania Journal of Constitutional Law, Vol. 23, No. 1, 2020
Number of pages: 20 Posted: 04 May 2020 Last Revised: 04 Jun 2020
Robert G. Natelson
Independence & Montana Policy Institutes
Downloads 45 (542,646)

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federal functions, constitutional amendment, Elections Clause, Enclave Clause, Article V

35.

Judicial Review of Special Interest Spending: The General Welfare Clause and the Fiduciary Law of the Founders

Texas Review of Law and Politics, Vol. 11, No. 2, p. 239, 2007
Number of pages: 44 Posted: 04 Jan 2012
Robert G. Natelson
Independence & Montana Policy Institutes
Downloads 28 (636,730)

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constitution, federal spending, federal expenditures, porkbarrel spending, General Welfare Clause, fiduciary law, 18th century law, original understanding, original intent, original meaning, federal deficit

36.

Why Nineteenth Century Bans on 'Sectarian' Aid are Facially Unconstitutional: New Evidence on Plain Meaning

19 Federalist Soc. Rev. 98
Number of pages: 9 Posted: 24 Jun 2018
Robert G. Natelson
Independence & Montana Policy Institutes
Downloads 27 (643,395)

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Blaine Amendments, Blaine Provisions, Constitutional Law, Freedom of Religion, First Amendment, School Choice, Free Exercise of Religion, Sectarian

37.

A Reminder: The Constitutional Values of Sympathy and Independence

Kentucky Law Journal, Vol. 91, p. 353, 2003
Number of pages: 72 Posted: 04 Jan 2012
Robert G. Natelson
Independence & Montana Policy Institutes
Downloads 27 (643,395)

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constitution, political theory, constitutional interpretation, federalism, states' rights, voter qualifications, property qualifications

38.

Counting to Two Thirds: How Close are We to a Convention for Proposing Amendments to the Constitution?

The Federalist Society Review, 19 Federalist Soc. Rev. 50 (2018)
Number of pages: 11 Posted: 31 Dec 2019
Robert G. Natelson
Independence & Montana Policy Institutes
Downloads 17 (718,299)

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convention for proposing amendments, amendments convention, constitutional convention, balanced budget amendment, Article V

39.

The Original Meaning of the Privileges and Immunities Clause

Georgia Law Review, Vol. 43, p. 1117, 2009
Posted: 08 Aug 2009
Robert G. Natelson
Independence & Montana Policy Institutes

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Constitution, privileges and immunities, privileges, immunities, comity, legal history, constitutional history

40.

Paper Money and the Original Understanding of the Coinage Clause

Posted: 08 Sep 2008
Robert G. Natelson
Independence & Montana Policy Institutes

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Constitutional Law, money, paper money, original understanding, original meaning, original intent, coinage, coins, constitutional history

41.

The Original Meaning of the Establishment Clause

William & Mary Bill of Rights Journal, Vol. 14, 2005
Posted: 30 Dec 2005
Robert G. Natelson
Independence & Montana Policy Institutes

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establishment of religion, first amendment, separation of church and state, ten commandments, religion, constitutional law, freedom of religion, supreme court, Newdow, Mccreary, Van Orden

Other Papers (1)

Total Downloads: 153
1.

Why the Constitution's 'Convention for Proposing Amendments' Is a Convention of the States

Marquette Law Review, Vol. 104, No. 1, 2020
Number of pages: 59 Posted: 08 May 2017 Last Revised: 04 Jun 2020
Robert G. Natelson
Independence & Montana Policy Institutes
Downloads 153 (219,748)

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constitutional law, constitution, Article V, Article 5, constitutional amendment, constitutional convention, amendments convention, convention for proposing amendments, convention of states, convention of the states