Paul De Hert

Free University of Brussels (VUB)- LSTS

Pleinlaan 2

Brussels, Brabant 1050

Belgium

Tilburg University - Tilburg Institute for Law, Technology, and Society (TILT)

P.O.Box 90153

Prof. Cobbenhagenlaan 221

Tilburg, 5037

Netherlands

SCHOLARLY PAPERS

50

DOWNLOADS
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9,199

SSRN CITATIONS
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SSRN RANKINGS

Top 26,179

in Total Papers Citations

35

CROSSREF CITATIONS

9

Scholarly Papers (50)

1.

Understanding the Balancing Act Behind the Legitimate Interest of the Controller Ground: A Pragmatic Approach

Brussels Privacy Hub, Vol. 4, No. 12, August 2018
Number of pages: 35 Posted: 20 Aug 2018
Irene Kamara and Paul De Hert
Tilburg University - Tilburg Institute for Law, Technology, and Society (TILT) and Free University of Brussels (VUB)- LSTS
Downloads 1,379 (26,756)
Citation 4

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Article 6 GDPR, balancing, Breyer, consent, Data processing, ground for processing, legitimate interest

2.

The New Cloud Computing ISO/IEC 27018 Standard Through the Lens of the EU Legislation on Data Protection

Number of pages: 26 Posted: 06 Mar 2015
Free University of Brussels (VUB)- LSTS, Faculty of Law and Criminology, Vrije Universiteit Brussel and Tilburg University - Tilburg Institute for Law, Technology, and Society (TILT)
Downloads 1,050 (39,528)
Citation 1

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cloud computing, standardisation, ISO, personal data, security, confidentiality

3.

The Regulation of Technology: Policy Tools and Policy Actors

TILT Law & Technology Working Paper Series No. 003/2007, Tilburg University Legal Studies Working Paper No. 004/2007
Number of pages: 25 Posted: 27 Nov 2007 Last Revised: 05 Mar 2015
Charles D. Raab and Paul De Hert
University of Edinburgh and Free University of Brussels (VUB)- LSTS
Downloads 867 (51,979)
Citation 6

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Regulation, Technology, Law, Policy Tools, Policy Actors

4.

Creating a European Health Data Space. Obstacles in Four Key Legal Areas

European Pharmaceutical Law Review (EPLR), Lexxion Publisher, Forthcoming 2021
Number of pages: 18 Posted: 18 May 2021
Anastasiya Kiseleva and Paul De Hert
Vrije Universiteit Brussel (VUB) and Free University of Brussels (VUB)- LSTS
Downloads 462 (115,912)
Citation 2

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European Health Data Space, EU Data Strategy, AI Regulation, personal data, non personal data, rules on healthcare provision in the EU, health policy, data policy, AI policy, Data Act, Data Governance Act

5.

Article 8 ECHR Compliant and Foreseeable Surveillance: The ECTHR's Expanded Legality Requirement Copied by the CJEU. A Discussion of European Surveillance Case Law

ECLAN Volume, Forthcoming, Brussels Privacy Hub Working Paper, Vol. 6, N° 21, April 2020
Number of pages: 42 Posted: 14 Dec 2020
Paul De Hert and Gianclaudio Malgieri
Free University of Brussels (VUB)- LSTS and Universiteit Leiden, eLaw
Downloads 450 (120,176)
Citation 1

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Privacy, Surveillance, ECHR, Legality, Necessity, Strict, Necessity

6.

European Human Rights, Criminal Surveillance, and Intelligence Surveillance: Towards 'Good Enough' Oversight, Preferably But Not Necessarily by Judges

D. Gray and S. Henderson (eds.), Cambridge Handbook of Surveillance Law, 2017, Forthcoming
Number of pages: 25 Posted: 11 Apr 2017
Gianclaudio Malgieri and Paul De Hert
Universiteit Leiden, eLaw and Free University of Brussels (VUB)- LSTS
Downloads 416 (130,804)

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Privacy, Surveillance, judicial review, European Court of Human Rights, European Convention on Human Rights

7.

Humans in the GDPR and AIA governance of automated and algorithmic systems. Essential pre-requisites against abdicating responsibilities

Number of pages: 31 Posted: 28 Jan 2022
Guillermo Lazcoz and Paul De Hert
University of the Basque Country (UPV/EHU) and Free University of Brussels (VUB)- LSTS
Downloads 374 (147,540)
Citation 2

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Human oversight, GDPR, Human intervention, Artificial intelligence, Accountability

8.

The fundamental right to personal data protection in criminal investigations and proceedings: framing big data policing through the purpose limitation and data minimisation principles of the Directive (EU) 2016/680

Number of pages: 17 Posted: 28 Jan 2022
Paul De Hert and Juraj Sajfert
Free University of Brussels (VUB)- LSTS and Vrije Universiteit Brussel (VUB) - LSTS, Interdisciplinary Research Group on Law Science Technology & Society
Downloads 360 (153,898)

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data protection, Law Enforcement Directive, criminal justice, big data, purpose limitation, data minimisation

9.

Impossible Explanations? Beyond explainable AI in the GDPR from a COVID-19 Use Case Scenario

Proceedings of ACM FaaCT. ACM, New York, NY, USA, 2 pages. https://doi.org/10.1145/1234567890
Number of pages: 11 Posted: 01 Feb 2021
European Commission Joint Research Center, European Commission Joint Research Center, Universiteit Leiden, eLaw, Free University of Brussels (VUB)- LSTS, European Commission Joint Research Center and European Commission Joint Research Center
Downloads 339 (163,776)
Citation 2

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10.

Interoperability of Police Databases Within the EU: An Accountable Political Choice?

Tilburg University Legal Studies Working Paper No. 003/2006, TILT Law & Technology Working Paper Series No. 001/2006
Number of pages: 15 Posted: 28 Mar 2007
Paul De Hert and Serge Gutwirth
Free University of Brussels (VUB)- LSTS and Vrije Universiteit Brussel (VUB)
Downloads 311 (179,489)
Citation 1

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data protection, data exchange, police and justice, fundamental rights, privacy, organised crime, European Data Protection Supervisor (EDPS)

11.

The Regulation of Digital Technologies in the EU: The Law-Making Phenomena of 'Act-ification', 'GDPR Mimesis' and 'EU Law Brutality'

Technology and Regulation Journal 2022
Number of pages: 13 Posted: 13 Jun 2022
Vagelis Papakonstantinou and Paul De Hert
Faculty of Law and Criminology, Vrije Universiteit Brussel and Free University of Brussels (VUB)- LSTS
Downloads 300 (186,427)
Citation 1

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12.

The New EU Cybersecurity Framework: The NIS Directive, ENISA’s Role and the General Data Protection Regulation

Computer Law & Security Review, Volume 35, Issue 6, November 2019, 105336
Number of pages: 11 Posted: 31 Mar 2021
Vrije Universiteit Brussel (VUB), Faculty of Law and Criminology, Vrije Universiteit Brussel and Free University of Brussels (VUB)- LSTS
Downloads 300 (188,457)

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EU data protection, Cybersecurity, NIS Directive, ENISA

13.

The Right to Data Portability in the GDPR: Towards User-Centric Interoperability of Digital Services

Computer Law & Security Review (2018) 193–203
Number of pages: 12 Posted: 03 Aug 2021
Free University of Brussels (VUB)- LSTS, Faculty of Law and Criminology, Vrije Universiteit Brussel, Universiteit Leiden, eLaw, European Commission Joint Research Center and European Commission Joint Research Center
Downloads 220 (253,792)
Citation 8

Abstract:

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Data, Protection

14.

Access to the Internet in the EU: A Policy Priority, a Fundamental, a Human Right or a Concern for eGovernment?

BRUSSELS PRIVACY HUB WORKING PAPER, VOL. 6, N 19, FEBRUARY 2020
Number of pages: 23 Posted: 11 Mar 2020
Lina Jasmontaite and Paul De Hert
Vrije Universiteit Brussel (VUB) and Free University of Brussels (VUB)- LSTS
Downloads 201 (277,026)
Citation 1

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eGovernment, European Union, fundamental rights, gigabit society, human rights, Internet access regulation

15.

The Data Protection Regime in China. In-Depth Analysis

Brussels Privacy Hub Working Paper, Volume 1, Number 4
Number of pages: 29 Posted: 03 May 2016
Paul De Hert and Vagelis Papakonstantinou
Free University of Brussels (VUB)- LSTS and Faculty of Law and Criminology, Vrije Universiteit Brussel
Downloads 200 (277,026)
Citation 3

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data protection, China

16.

The Microsoft Ireland Case and the Cyberspace Sovereignty Trilemma. Post-Territorial Technologies and Companies Question Territorial State Sovereignty and Regulatory State Monopolies

BRUSSELS PRIVACY HUB, WORKING PAPER, VOL. 4 • N° 11 • JULY 2018
Number of pages: 27 Posted: 17 Dec 2018 Last Revised: 14 Mar 2020
Paul De Hert and Johannes Thumfart
Free University of Brussels (VUB)- LSTS and Vrije Universiteit Brussel (VUB) - LSTS, Interdisciplinary Research Group on Law Science Technology & Society
Downloads 195 (283,444)
Citation 4

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Sovereignty, Territoriality, Cyberspace, Microsoft Ireland Case, Cyber Sovereignty, Internet

17.

Complementing the Surveillance Law Principles of the ECtHR with its Environmental Law Principles: An Integrated Technology Approach to a Human Rights Framework for Surveillance

Utrecht Law Review, Vol. 10, No. 1, p. 55-75, 2014
Number of pages: 21 Posted: 14 Feb 2014
Antonella Galetta and Paul De Hert
Vrije Universiteit Brussel (VUB) - Law, Science, Technology & Society Research Group and Free University of Brussels (VUB)- LSTS
Downloads 191 (288,946)

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Article 8 ECHR, private life interferences, surveillance technologies and surveillance law principles, polluting technologies and environmental law principles

The Data Protection Regime Applying to the Inter-Agency Cooperation and Future Architecture of the EU Criminal Justice and Law Enforcement Area

Number of pages: 37 Posted: 06 Mar 2015
Paul De Hert and Vagelis Papakonstantinou
Free University of Brussels (VUB)- LSTS and Faculty of Law and Criminology, Vrije Universiteit Brussel
Downloads 121 (422,154)
Citation 1

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Data Protection in the EU criminal justice and law enforcement area, Europol, Eurojust, EPPO, OLAF

The Data Protection Regime Applying to the Inter-Agency Cooperation and Future Architecture of the EU Criminal Justice and Law Enforcement Area

Brussels Privacy Hub Working Paper Series, Vol. 1, No. 1, 2014
Number of pages: 37 Posted: 23 Feb 2019
Brussels Privacy Hub, Free University of Brussels (VUB)- LSTS and Faculty of Law and Criminology, Vrije Universiteit Brussel
Downloads 52 (707,959)

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Data Protection in the EU Criminal Justice and Law Enforcement Area, Europol, Eurojust, EPPO, OLAF

19.

Belgium, Courts, Privacy and Data Protection: An Inventory of Belgian Case Law From the Pre-GDPR Regime (1995–2015)

Brussels Privacy Hubworking Papervol. 5, N° 15, January 2019
Number of pages: 34 Posted: 24 Feb 2019
Paul De Hert
Free University of Brussels (VUB)- LSTS
Downloads 172 (317,012)
Citation 1

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Belgian Constitutional Court, Belgian Cour De Cassation, Belgian Ordinary Courts, Belgian and European Provisions on the Right to Privacy and the Right to Have Personal Data, Constitutional Patriotism, Exit Strategy, Evidence Law

20.

Open Season for Data Fishing on the Web: The Challenges of the US PRISM Programme for the EU

CEPS Policy Brief No. 293
Number of pages: 10 Posted: 18 Nov 2014
Institut d'Etudes Politiques de Paris (Sciences Po) - International Relations, Vrije Universiteit Brussel (VUB), Independent, Centre for European Policy Studies, Radboud University Nijmegen - Faculty of Law, Centre for European Policy Studies (CEPS), Free University of Brussels (VUB)- LSTS, Independent and The Open University - Centre for Conflict Studies, Liberty and Security (CCLS)
Downloads 169 (321,784)

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US, PRISM, EU, PRISM programme, US National Security Agency, electronic surveillance

21.

Cloud Computing and Trans-Border Law Enforcement Access to Private Sector Data. Challenges to Sovereignty, Privacy and Data Protection

Workshop paper collection: 'Big data & Privacy. Making Ends Meet', organised by the 'Future of Privacy Forum' and the 'Center for Internet and Society' at Stanford Law School, pp. 23-26
Number of pages: 5 Posted: 26 Nov 2014 Last Revised: 05 Jul 2015
Paul De Hert and Gertjan Boulet
Free University of Brussels (VUB)- LSTS and Vrije Universiteit Brussel (VUB)
Downloads 160 (337,329)

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Privacy, Data Protection, Sovereignty, Cloud Computing, Law Enforcement

22.

European Law Enforcement and US Data Companies: A Decade of Cooperation Free from Law

Brussels Privacy Hub Working Paper, Vol. 6, N° 26, September 2020
Number of pages: 16 Posted: 14 Dec 2020
Angela Aguinaldo and Paul De Hert
affiliation not provided to SSRN and Free University of Brussels (VUB)- LSTS
Downloads 121 (420,493)

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US CLOUD Act, European Union, Council of Europe, cross-border access to online evidence, online evidence, mutual legal assistance, data protection, privacy, Schrems 1, Schrems 2, data companies, direct cooperation, unilateralism, jurisdictional expansion

23.

Facial Recognition, Visual and Biometric Data in the US. Recent, Promising Developments to Regulate Intrusive Technologies

Number of pages: 46 Posted: 18 Oct 2021
Paul De Hert and George Bouchagiar
Free University of Brussels (VUB)- LSTS and Aristotle University of Thessaloniki
Downloads 107 (460,674)
Citation 1

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face recognition, visual data, biometric data, surveillance

24.

Adding and Removing Elements of the Proportionality and Necessity Test to Achieve Desired Outcomes. Breyer and the Necessity to End Anonymity of Cell Phone Users

Number of pages: 26 Posted: 29 Oct 2021
Paul De Hert and George Bouchagiar
Free University of Brussels (VUB)- LSTS and Aristotle University of Thessaloniki
Downloads 91 (513,539)

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Breyer, subscriber data, telecommunications service providers, right to privacy

25.

The Proposed Data Protection Regulation Replacing Directive 95/46/Ec: A Sound System for the Protection of Individuals

Number of pages: 13 Posted: 31 Mar 2021 Last Revised: 09 Sep 2021
Paul De Hert and Vagelis Papakonstantinou
Free University of Brussels (VUB)- LSTS and Faculty of Law and Criminology, Vrije Universiteit Brussel
Downloads 75 (576,502)
Citation 1

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Data, Protection

26.

The Right to Protection of Personal Data. Incapable of Autonomous Standing in the Basic EU Constituting Documents?

Utrecht Journal of International and European Law, Vol. 31, No. 80, pp. 01-04, 2015
Number of pages: 4 Posted: 12 Oct 2016
Paul De Hert
Free University of Brussels (VUB)- LSTS
Downloads 66 (617,725)

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27.

The Amended EU Law on Eprivacy and Electronic Communications: New Rules on Data Protection, Spam, Data Breaches and Protection of Intellectual Property Rights

The John Marshall Journal of Information Technology & Privacy Law, Volume 29, Issue 1, Journal of Computer & Information Law - Fall 2011
Number of pages: 48 Posted: 03 Aug 2021
Vagelis Papakonstantinou and Paul De Hert
Faculty of Law and Criminology, Vrije Universiteit Brussel and Free University of Brussels (VUB)- LSTS
Downloads 62 (637,872)
Citation 1

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Data, Protection

28.

Big Data Analytics in Electronic Communications: A Reality in Need of Granular Regulation (Even if This Includes An Interim Period of No Regulation at All)

Cyber and Data Security Lab Working Paper, 1/2019
Number of pages: 28 Posted: 14 Dec 2020 Last Revised: 23 Nov 2021
Vagelis Papakonstantinou and Paul De Hert
Faculty of Law and Criminology, Vrije Universiteit Brussel and Free University of Brussels (VUB)- LSTS
Downloads 59 (653,618)

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ePrivacy Directive, ePrivacy Regulation, metadata, big data analytics

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rule of law, crisis ,COVID crisis and 9/11, codifying best practices today or wait, mechanisms of fear, peer pressure, and techno-hypnosis -increases in government and police power through digitization

30.

Post-GDPR Lawmaking in the Digital Data Society: Mimesis Without Integration. Topological Understandings of Twisted Boundary Setting in EU Data Protection Law

Number of pages: 34 Posted: 27 Dec 2023
Paul De Hert and Brussels Privacy Hub
Free University of Brussels (VUB)- LSTS and Brussels Privacy Hub
Downloads 49 (717,884)

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31.

Data Protection and the EPPO

Number of pages: 13 Posted: 03 Aug 2021 Last Revised: 01 Dec 2021
Vagelis Papakonstantinou and Paul De Hert
Faculty of Law and Criminology, Vrije Universiteit Brussel and Free University of Brussels (VUB)- LSTS
Downloads 48 (737,222)
Citation 2

Abstract:

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Data, Protection

32.

The Police and Criminal Justice Data Protection Directive: Comment and Analysis, Society for Computers and Law (SCL, UK)

Number of pages: 5 Posted: 02 Aug 2021 Last Revised: 09 Sep 2021
Paul De Hert and Vagelis Papakonstantinou
Free University of Brussels (VUB)- LSTS and Faculty of Law and Criminology, Vrije Universiteit Brussel
Downloads 47 (724,251)
Citation 1

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Data, Protection

33.

The PNR Agreement and Transatlantic Anti-terrorism Cooperation: No Firm Human Rights Framework on Either Side of the Atlantic

Common Market Law Review, Volume 46, Issue 3 (2009) pp. 885 – 919
Number of pages: 41 Posted: 31 Mar 2021 Last Revised: 09 Jul 2021
Paul De Hert and Vagelis Papakonstantinou
Free University of Brussels (VUB)- LSTS and Faculty of Law and Criminology, Vrije Universiteit Brussel
Downloads 43 (750,771)

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Data, Protection

34.

Private Policing in the Data-Driven Society: The Flexible State Monopoly on Force Challenged but Not Abandoned

Tilburg Law School Research Paper No. 3
Number of pages: 23 Posted: 12 Oct 2023
Magdalena Brewczyńska and Paul De Hert
Tilburg University - Tilburg Institute for Law, Technology, and Society (TILT) and Free University of Brussels (VUB)- LSTS
Downloads 29 (858,169)

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35.

The EU PNR Framework Decision Proposal: Towards Completion of the PNR Processing Scene in Europe

Computer Law & Security Review, Volume 26, Issue 4, July 2010, Pages 368-376
Number of pages: 9 Posted: 31 Mar 2021 Last Revised: 08 Sep 2021
Paul De Hert and Vagelis Papakonstantinou
Free University of Brussels (VUB)- LSTS and Faculty of Law and Criminology, Vrije Universiteit Brussel
Downloads 22 (921,809)

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Data, Protection

36.

Structuring Modern Life Running on Software. Recognizing (Some) Computer Programs as New 'Digital Persons'

Number of pages: 13 Posted: 03 Aug 2021 Last Revised: 09 Dec 2021
Vagelis Papakonstantinou and Paul De Hert
Faculty of Law and Criminology, Vrije Universiteit Brussel and Free University of Brussels (VUB)- LSTS
Downloads 20 (941,312)

Abstract:

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Data, Protection

37.

The Data Protection Framework Decision of 27 November 2008 Regarding Police and Judicial Cooperation in Criminal Matters – Modest But Not the Data Protection Text Everybody Expected

Computer Law & Security Review, Volume 25, Issue 5, September 2009, Pages 403-414
Number of pages: 12 Posted: 31 Mar 2021 Last Revised: 08 Sep 2021
Paul De Hert and Vagelis Papakonstantinou
Free University of Brussels (VUB)- LSTS and Faculty of Law and Criminology, Vrije Universiteit Brussel
Downloads 13 (1,011,577)

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Data, Protection

38.

Questioning Modern Surveillance Technologies. A Special Issue

Information Polity 27 (2) https://content.iospress.com/journals/information-polity/27/2
Posted: 29 Aug 2022
affiliation not provided to SSRN, Free University of Brussels (VUB)- LSTS, Trinity College Dublin and University of Edinburgh

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surveillance, technology, privacy, data protection, data privacy, security, law & technology, Artificial Intelligence

39.

Right to be Forgotten

Elgar Encyclopedia of Law and Data Science, Forthcoming
Posted: 29 Apr 2022
Paul De Hert and Vagelis Papakonstantinou
Free University of Brussels (VUB)- LSTS and Faculty of Law and Criminology, Vrije Universiteit Brussel

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40.

The Future of Privacy Certification in Europe: An Exploration of Options Under Article 42 of the Gdpr, International Review of Law

Posted: 03 Aug 2021
University of Edinburgh, Free University of Brussels (VUB)- LSTS and Faculty of Law and Criminology, Vrije Universiteit Brussel

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Data, Protection

41.

Google Spain: Addressing Critiques and Misunderstandings One Year Later

Posted: 02 Aug 2021
Paul De Hert and Vagelis Papakonstantinou
Free University of Brussels (VUB)- LSTS and Faculty of Law and Criminology, Vrije Universiteit Brussel

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Data, Protection

42.

The New Police and Criminal Justice Data Protection Directive: A First Analysis

Posted: 02 Aug 2021
Paul De Hert and Vagelis Papakonstantinou
Free University of Brussels (VUB)- LSTS and Faculty of Law and Criminology, Vrije Universiteit Brussel

Abstract:

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Data, Protection

43.

The Cloud Computing Standard ISO/LEC 27018 Through the Lens of the EU Legislation on Data Protection

Posted: 02 Aug 2021
Free University of Brussels (VUB)- LSTS, Faculty of Law and Criminology, Vrije Universiteit Brussel and Tilburg University - Tilburg Institute for Law, Technology, and Society (TILT)

Abstract:

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Data, Protection

44.

The New General Data Protection Regulation: Still a Sound System for the Protection of Individuals?

Posted: 02 Aug 2021
Paul De Hert and Vagelis Papakonstantinou
Free University of Brussels (VUB)- LSTS and Faculty of Law and Criminology, Vrije Universiteit Brussel

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Data, Protection

45.

The Rich UK Contribution to the Field of EU Data Protection: Let's Not Go for 'Third Country' Status after Brexit

Posted: 02 Aug 2021
Paul De Hert and Vagelis Papakonstantinou
Free University of Brussels (VUB)- LSTS and Faculty of Law and Criminology, Vrije Universiteit Brussel

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Data, Protection

46.

Legal Challenges Posed by Online Aggregation of Museum Content: The Cases of Europeana and the Google Art Project

Posted: 02 Aug 2021
Vagelis Papakonstantinou and Paul De Hert
Faculty of Law and Criminology, Vrije Universiteit Brussel and Free University of Brussels (VUB)- LSTS

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Data, Protection

47.

Repeating the Mistakes of the Past Will Do Little Good for Air Passengers in the EU – The Comeback of the EU PNR Directive and a Lawyer's Duty to Regulate Profiling

Posted: 31 Mar 2021
Paul De Hert and Vagelis Papakonstantinou
Free University of Brussels (VUB)- LSTS and Faculty of Law and Criminology, Vrije Universiteit Brussel

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Data, Protection

48.

The Council of Europe Data Protection Convention Reform: Analysis of the New Text and Critical Comment on its Global Ambition

Posted: 31 Mar 2021
Paul De Hert and Vagelis Papakonstantinou
Free University of Brussels (VUB)- LSTS and Faculty of Law and Criminology, Vrije Universiteit Brussel

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Data, Protection

49.

The Proposed Regulation and the Construction of a Principles-Driven System For Individual Data Protection

Posted: 31 Mar 2021
Free University of Brussels (VUB)- LSTS, Faculty of Law and Criminology, Vrije Universiteit Brussel and affiliation not provided to SSRN

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Data, Protection

50.

Three Scenarios for the Future

Posted: 31 Mar 2021
Paul De Hert and Vagelis Papakonstantinou
Free University of Brussels (VUB)- LSTS and Faculty of Law and Criminology, Vrije Universiteit Brussel

Abstract:

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Data, Protection