Manoj Joshi

Amity University

Professor of VUCA Strategy, Director Centre for VUCA Studies

Amity University, Lucknow Campus

Gomtinagar

Lucknow

India

http://https://www.linkedin.com/in/manoj-joshi-38a26821/

SCHOLARLY PAPERS

68

DOWNLOADS
Rank 1,695

SSRN RANKINGS

Top 1,695

in Total Papers Downloads

22,350

SSRN CITATIONS
Rank 41,162

SSRN RANKINGS

Top 41,162

in Total Papers Citations

6

CROSSREF CITATIONS

12

Ideas:
“  I am working on VUCA (Volatility, uncertainty, complexity, ambiguity) connected to various dimensions of business.  ”

Scholarly Papers (68)

1.

Café Coffee Day (CCD): A Case Analysis

Number of pages: 14 Posted: 03 Sep 2011
Manoj Joshi and Sachin Bansal
Amity University and Head- Strategy & Brand Marketing
Downloads 4,726 (2,234)

Abstract:

Loading...

Cafe Coffee Day, case, competition, strategy, innovative practices

2.

Enhancing Competitiveness of Indian Automobile Industry: A Study Using Porters Diamond Model

Management & Change, Volume 15, Number 1&2 (2011)
Number of pages: 18 Posted: 28 Dec 2011 Last Revised: 16 Dec 2014
Shailja Dixit and Manoj Joshi
Amity Business School, Amity University and Amity University
Downloads 1,886 (10,485)

Abstract:

Loading...

Competitiveness, Roadblocks, Globalization, Automobile Industry

3.

Corporate Social Responsibility: Global Perspective, Competitiveness, Social Entrepreneurship & Innovation

Number of pages: 13 Posted: 12 Jul 2007
Manoj Joshi, S. P. Tiwari and Vindhyalaya Joshi
Amity University, Dr R M L Awadh University and Association of Knowledge Workers - Department of Education - U.P. India
Downloads 1,814 (11,168)
Citation 3

Abstract:

Loading...

Innovation, Enterprise, Social Responsibility, Competitiveness, Social Entrepreneruship

4.

Hdfc the Indian Housing & Services Provider - a Case Study on Innovative and Entrepreneurial Practices by an Indian SME

Number of pages: 33 Posted: 31 Jul 2006
Manoj Joshi and Vindhyalaya Joshi
Amity University and Association of Knowledge Workers - Department of Education - U.P. India
Downloads 868 (33,791)

Abstract:

Loading...

Innovative Practices, Radical Innovation, Intrinsic & Extrinsic Motivation, Entrepreneurial Competency, Opportunity Recognition, Risk and Uncertainty

5.

The Connection between Entrepreneurship & Innovation

Number of pages: 28 Posted: 28 Jun 2017
Manoj Joshi
Amity University
Downloads 841 (35,354)

Abstract:

Loading...

Innovation, Entrepreneurship, VUCA

6.

Business War: Competitive Innovation Velocity

Number of pages: 5 Posted: 10 Apr 2007
Manoj Joshi, Nilesh Joshi and Vindhyalaya Joshi
Amity University, Tech Mahindra and Association of Knowledge Workers - Department of Education - U.P. India
Downloads 837 (35,526)
Citation 3

Abstract:

Loading...

Entrepreneurship, Strategic Innovation, Innovative practices, Enterprise, Competitive Innovation

7.

Gardening the Culture to Innovation

Number of pages: 46 Posted: 12 Jul 2006
Manoj Joshi
Amity University
Downloads 729 (42,939)

Abstract:

Loading...

Entrepreneurial Recognition, Orientation, Innovative Practices, Innovation, Entrepreneurship

8.

Case Analysis: INFOSYS Technologies Limited

Number of pages: 7 Posted: 29 Sep 2009
Manoj Joshi
Amity University
Downloads 691 (46,119)
Citation 1

Abstract:

Loading...

Competition, innovation, strategy

9.

Case Analysis: HDFC: Housing Development and Finance Corporation, India

Number of pages: 12 Posted: 24 Sep 2009
Manoj Joshi
Amity University
Downloads 634 (51,683)

Abstract:

Loading...

Innovative Practices, Incremental Innovation, Intrinsic & Extrinsic Motivation, Entrepreneurial Competency, Opportunity Recognition, Risk and Uncertainty

10.

Is Accelerator an Option? Impact of Accelerator in Start-up Eco-System!

Number of pages: 18 Posted: 20 May 2014
Apoorv Sharma, Manoj Joshi and Balvinder Shukla
VentureNursery, Amity University and Amity University Uttar Pradesh
Downloads 548 (62,189)

Abstract:

Loading...

VC, Risk Capital, Start-ups, Entrepreneurship, Accelerators

11.

The Innovation Agenda - the Strategic Tool for Developing New Markets

Number of pages: 19 Posted: 25 Jun 2006
Manoj Joshi and D. N. Kakkar
Amity University and Sahara Arts & Management Academy
Downloads 416 (86,820)

Abstract:

Loading...

Entrepreneurial competency, Innovative practices, Enterprise, Innovation, Competitive positioning

12.

Drumming the Drums - a Case Study on Innovative and Entrepreneurial Practices by an Indian SME

Number of pages: 31 Posted: 26 Jun 2006
Manoj Joshi
Amity University
Downloads 386 (94,672)

Abstract:

Loading...

Innovative Practices, Radical Innovation, Intrinsic & Extrinsic Motivation, Entrepreneurial Competency, Opportunity Recognition, Risk and Uncertainty

13.

New Market Creation via Innovation: A Study on Tata Nano

Number of pages: 15 Posted: 23 Apr 2015
Swati Singh and Manoj Joshi
Amity University - Amity International Business School and Amity University
Downloads 381 (96,163)

Abstract:

Loading...

Innovation, New Market Creation, Strategy, Nano, India

14.

Housing Development and Finance Corporation: The Indian Housing & Services Provider

Number of pages: 24 Posted: 29 Oct 2007
Manoj Joshi and Vindhyalaya Joshi
Amity University and Association of Knowledge Workers - Department of Education - U.P. India
Downloads 380 (96,447)

Abstract:

Loading...

Innovative Practices, Incremental Innovation, Intrinsic & Extrinsic Motivation, Entrepreneurial Competency, Opportunity Recognition, Risk and Uncertainty

15.

Entrepreneurial Orientation Through Opportunity Recognition as an Endowment to Entrepreneurs from India and Nepal

Number of pages: 12 Posted: 25 Jun 2006
Manoj Joshi and D. N. Kakkar
Amity University and Sahara Arts & Management Academy
Downloads 362 (101,922)

Abstract:

Loading...

Entrepreneurial competency, Entrepreneurial Orientation, Opportunity Recognition, Competitive positioning, Entrepreneur, Innovation

16.
Downloads 348 (106,460)

Abstract:

Loading...

Innovative Practices, Intrinsic Motivation, Entrepreneurial Competency, Opportunity recognition & Orientation, Innovation

17.
Downloads 346 (107,179)

Abstract:

Loading...

Innovative Practices, Radical Innovation, Intrinsic & Extrinsic Motivation, Entrepreneurial Competency, Opportunity Recognition, Risk and Uncertainty

18.

Can Business Incubators Impact the Start-Up Success? India Perspective!

Number of pages: 37 Posted: 20 Oct 2014 Last Revised: 30 Jan 2015
Apoorv Sharma, Balvinder Shukla and Manoj Joshi
VentureNursery, Amity University Uttar Pradesh and Amity University
Downloads 306 (122,547)

Abstract:

Loading...

Entrepreneurship, Business Incubator, Start-up, Business Model, India

19.
Downloads 302 (124,276)

Abstract:

Loading...

Innovative Practices, Intrinsic Motivation, Entrepreneurial Competency, Opportunity recognition & Orientation, Innovation

20.

Determinants of Innovation

Number of pages: 11 Posted: 28 Jun 2017
Manoj Joshi
Amity University
Downloads 297 (126,483)

Abstract:

Loading...

Determinants, Innovation, Entrepreneurship, commercialisation, VUCA

21.

DNA of a Startup Firm

Number of pages: 4 Posted: 03 Jan 2010
Rahul Gupta and Manoj Joshi
Amity University - Amity International Business School and Amity University
Downloads 262 (144,042)

Abstract:

Loading...

Startup, DNA, Firm, Entrepreneur, Innovation, Opportunity recognition

22.
Downloads 245 (153,898)
Citation 1

Abstract:

Loading...

Innovative Practices, Intrinsic Motivation, Entrepreneurial Competency, Opportunity Recognition, Risk and Uncertainty, innovation

23.
Downloads 230 (163,558)

Abstract:

Loading...

Innovative Practices, Incremental Innovation, Intrinsic & Extrinsic Motivation, Entrepreneurial Competency, Opportunity Recognition, Services, Risk, Innovation

24.

Types of Innovation

Number of pages: 29 Posted: 09 May 2013
Manoj Joshi
Amity University
Downloads 216 (173,654)

Abstract:

Loading...

Innovation types, Radical, Incremental, De Novo, De Alia, Strategy

25.

Professionalization and Spin-Off: A Case of Closely Held Family Business

Number of pages: 18 Posted: 19 Jan 2012 Last Revised: 05 Jun 2013
Amity University, Amity University, Lucknow Campus - Amity Business School, affiliation not provided to SSRN and affiliation not provided to SSRN
Downloads 216 (173,654)

Abstract:

Loading...

Family Business, Professionalization, Spin-off, Strategy, Transition

26.

The Eco-Politics of CPEC and India

Number of pages: 5 Posted: 12 Jun 2017 Last Revised: 13 Jun 2017
Manoj Joshi, Suhayl Abidi and Anuradha Rai
Amity University, Independent and Amity Business School Lucknow campus
Downloads 214 (175,183)
Citation 1

Abstract:

Loading...

CPEC, VUCA, China, India, Pakistan, Eco-Poltics

27.

Can SME Exchange Really Play a Vital Role in Accelerating Start-up Growth?

Sharma, A.R., Shukla, B.,Jain, S.K., and Joshi, M. (2014), "Can SME Exchange Really Play a Vital Role in Sensitizing Start-up Growth?", IBT Journal of Business Studies (Formerly Journal of Management & Social Sciences), Karachi-75190, Pakistan, Vol. 9, No. 1
Number of pages: 15 Posted: 19 May 2014 Last Revised: 07 Jan 2015
VentureNursery, Amity University Uttar Pradesh, Indian Institute of Technology (IIT), Delhi and Amity University
Downloads 211 (177,525)

Abstract:

Loading...

SME, Fund Raising, Start-ups, Growth, Entrepreneurship, Accelerator

28.

Path Finder Strategy Radar

Journal of Entrepreneurship, Business and Economics, 2013, 1(1/2): 17–34
Number of pages: 18 Posted: 06 Oct 2012 Last Revised: 15 Jul 2017
Manoj Joshi
Amity University
Downloads 193 (192,669)

Abstract:

Loading...

path finder strategy, strategy radar, innovation, competitive advantage, dynamic capability

29.

Endogenous Agency Problems, Their Impact and Mitigation in Privately-Held Family Firms for Sustaining Growth

Amity Business Journal, Vol. 1, no. 2, August, 2012
Number of pages: 22 Posted: 20 May 2012 Last Revised: 02 Oct 2012
Manoj Joshi and M. Akbar
Amity University and affiliation not provided to SSRN
Downloads 156 (231,516)
Citation 1

Abstract:

Loading...

Endogenous agency, owner-managed firms, family business, typologies of firms, case method

30.

Invention, Innovation and Innovative Practices: A Reason to Study in a VUCA Perspective

Journal of Entrepreneurship, Business and Economics, ISSN 2345-4695 2017, 5(2), 87–109
Number of pages: 23 Posted: 23 Jun 2017
Manoj Joshi
Amity University
Downloads 146 (244,543)

Abstract:

Loading...

Invention, Innovation, Innovative practices, entrepreneurship, VUCA

31.

Understanding Innovation

Number of pages: 10 Posted: 07 May 2013
Manoj Joshi
Amity University
Downloads 139 (254,346)

Abstract:

Loading...

Innovation, Entrepreneurial Firm, Innovativeness, Enterprise

32.

Comfort Living Private Limited (CLPL) - An Indian Case Study on Family Business

Number of pages: 14 Posted: 06 Apr 2009
Manoj Joshi
Amity University
Downloads 135 (260,204)

Abstract:

Loading...

Altruism, Opportunism, Self Control, Moral Hazard, Adverse Selection, Goal Dissonance, Bounded Rationality, agency issues, family business

33.

Conflicts in a Family Business: A Case of Durga and Company

Number of pages: 18 Posted: 20 Jul 2016
Amity University, Amity Business School, Amity University, Amity University - Amity Business School and Amity University Uttar Pradesh
Downloads 127 (272,420)

Abstract:

Loading...

Family Business, Conflicts, Transition, Women, Durga & Company

34.

Invention, Innovation, Innovative Practices: A Reason to Study

Number of pages: 16 Posted: 15 Apr 2013
Manoj Joshi
Amity University
Downloads 127 (272,420)
Citation 1

Abstract:

Loading...

Invention, Innovation, Innovative practices, entrepreneurship, Strategy

35.

Sporting Family Business Generations

Number of pages: 17 Posted: 19 Dec 2012 Last Revised: 20 Dec 2012
Amity University, Amity University, Lucknow Campus - Amity Business School and Independent
Downloads 127 (272,420)

Abstract:

Loading...

family business, entrepreneurship, professionalization, transition, governance, strategy

36.

Internationalization of Family Business: Case of D.K. Exports

Number of pages: 13 Posted: 11 Oct 2012 Last Revised: 24 Oct 2012
Manoj Joshi and Apoorva Srivastava
Amity University and Amity University, Lucknow Campus - Amity Business School
Downloads 125 (275,710)

Abstract:

Loading...

family business, professionalization, internationalization, competition, strategy

37.

Creativity and Innovation

Number of pages: 16 Posted: 28 Jun 2017
Manoj Joshi
Amity University
Downloads 123 (279,025)
Citation 2

Abstract:

Loading...

Creativity, Innovation, Entrepreneurship, VUCA

38.

Study on Innovation Models

Number of pages: 9 Posted: 07 May 2013
Manoj Joshi
Amity University
Downloads 118 (287,640)

Abstract:

Loading...

Innovation, Models, Entrepreneurial organisation

39.

Endogenous Conflicts, Its Mitigation and Resolution in a Closely Held Family Business

Number of pages: 31 Posted: 23 May 2014 Last Revised: 27 May 2014
Manoj Joshi and Meenal Poddar
Amity University and Amity University - Amity International Business School
Downloads 117 (289,318)

Abstract:

Loading...

Family business, closely held family business, conflicts, conflict management, sustainability, India

40.

The Shelter Imbroglio: The Rise and Fall of an Indian Family Business

Amity Business Journal, Vol. 1, No. 1, January, 2012
Number of pages: 17 Posted: 27 Aug 2011 Last Revised: 02 Oct 2012
Manoj Joshi
Amity University
Downloads 116 (291,018)
Citation 3

Abstract:

Loading...

41.

'I Have a Dream': Lucent Pharmaceuticals

Number of pages: 13 Posted: 23 Sep 2012 Last Revised: 04 Oct 2013
Manoj Joshi and Apoorva Srivastava
Amity University and Amity University, Lucknow Campus - Amity Business School
Downloads 114 (294,513)

Abstract:

Loading...

entrepreneur, entrepreneurial process and behavior, new venture, pharmaceuticals, ayurveda, strategy

42.

Dynamic Capability Acquisition for Family Managed Businesses: A Case of Microlit

Number of pages: 2 Posted: 20 Jan 2012
Amity University, affiliation not provided to SSRN and Amity Business School
Downloads 114 (294,513)
Citation 1

Abstract:

Loading...

Dynamic capabilities, innovation, customer-oriented product design, intellectual property creation, Family Business, Strategy

43.

Evaluating Firms’ Performance by Defining Path Finder Strategy

Number of pages: 4 Posted: 03 Jan 2010 Last Revised: 05 May 2013
Amity University, Amity University - Amity International Business School, SIESclinic: Start-up, Innovation and Entrepreneurship Strategy, Amity University - Amity International Business School, Amity University - Amity International Business School and Amity University - Amity International Business School
Downloads 114 (294,513)

Abstract:

Loading...

Path Finder Strategy, Strategic Radar Zone, Innovation, Firm, Competitive

44.

Entrepreneurial Success, Orientation and Opportunity Recognition

Number of pages: 22 Posted: 28 Jun 2017
Manoj Joshi
Amity University
Downloads 113 (296,285)

Abstract:

Loading...

Entrepreneurial Success, Orientation and Opportunity recognition, Innovation, Entrepreneurship, VUCA

45.

Connecting Family Business & Generations: A Case of Hafizia Art & Crafts Pvt. Ltd.

Number of pages: 15 Posted: 04 Dec 2012 Last Revised: 05 Jun 2013
Manoj Joshi and Apoorva Srivastava
Amity University and Amity University, Lucknow Campus - Amity Business School
Downloads 112 (298,213)
Citation 1

Abstract:

Loading...

Family Business, Professionalization, Internationalisation, Strategy, Transition, Entrepreneurial Strategy, Trade Facilitation and Grievance, Innovation

46.

Case Analysis: Trauma Centre

Number of pages: 6 Posted: 24 Sep 2009
Manoj Joshi
Amity University
Downloads 101 (320,077)

Abstract:

Loading...

Innovation, entrepreneurship, intrinsic motivation, risks, barriers, challenges

47.

A Perspective of Innovation in Entrepreneurial Firms

Number of pages: 28 Posted: 29 May 2014 Last Revised: 21 Jul 2014
Manoj Joshi and Balvinder Shukla
Amity University and Amity University Uttar Pradesh
Downloads 94 (335,141)

Abstract:

Loading...

De novo, de alia, entrepreneurial firm, innovation, innovation types, innovativeness

48.

The Dynamics of Closely Held Family Business, Its Transition Planning and Management

Number of pages: 32 Posted: 23 May 2014
Manoj Joshi and Divya Pillai
Amity University and Amity University - Amity International Business School
Downloads 91 (342,066)

Abstract:

Loading...

Family Business, transition, planning, management, trans-generational, sustainability

49.

Drivers to Innovation by Entrepreneurs

Number of pages: 12 Posted: 28 Jun 2017
Manoj Joshi
Amity University
Downloads 88 (349,392)
Citation 1

Abstract:

Loading...

Drivers, Innovation, Entrepreneurship, VUCA

50.

Case Analysis: Comfort N Care

Number of pages: 6 Posted: 24 Sep 2009
Manoj Joshi
Amity University
Downloads 83 (361,996)

Abstract:

Loading...

Innovation, entrepreneurship, Opportunity orientation

51.

Innovating Survival: Tactics to Mitigate Turbulence & Lessons from Transitional Markets

Number of pages: 7 Posted: 15 Mar 2010
Manoj Joshi
Amity University
Downloads 82 (364,626)

Abstract:

Loading...

Innovation, transitional markets, entrepreneurship, competition, survival, strategy

52.

The Golden Egg of a Black Swan

Number of pages: 3 Posted: 12 Jun 2017 Last Revised: 13 Jun 2017
Suhayl Abidi and Manoj Joshi
Independent and Amity University
Downloads 78 (375,359)

Abstract:

Loading...

Golden egg, Black Swan, VUCA

53.

Leadership by Innovation: A Case of Linkwell Telesystems

Number of pages: 12 Posted: 27 Aug 2011
Manoj Joshi
Amity University
Downloads 75 (383,853)
Citation 1

Abstract:

Loading...

Visiontek, Linkwell Telesystems, Entrepreneur, Innovation, Competitiveness, Leadership, Opportunity Recognition & Orientation

54.

Sprinting Dreams: A Case of an Indian Entrepreneur

Number of pages: 18 Posted: 27 Aug 2011
Manoj Joshi
Amity University
Downloads 74 (386,693)

Abstract:

Loading...

Innovative Practices, Intrinsic Motivation, Entrepreneurial Competency, Opportunity recognition & Orientation, Ethics, Marketing

55.

Impact Making Successful Business Models Adopted by Various IT Firms Operating in the City of Lucknow

Number of pages: 7 Posted: 03 Jan 2010
Manoj Joshi and Shah
Amity University and affiliation not provided to SSRN
Downloads 69 (401,789)

Abstract:

Loading...

Information Technology, Business Model, Strategy, Innovation

56.

Entrepreneurial Opportunity Recognition and Orientation via Strategic Alliance: A Case Study of RTAP

Number of pages: 29 Posted: 15 Dec 2014
Manoj Joshi and Shailja Dixit
Amity University and Amity Business School, Amity University
Downloads 67 (408,089)

Abstract:

Loading...

Entrepreneurship, Entrepreneurial Orientation, Opportunity Recognition and Evaluation, Experience, Innovation, High technology, Social Network, Strategic Alliance

57.

Impact Making Biotechnology Firms in India

Number of pages: 3 Posted: 10 Jan 2010
Pushpa Unyauni and Manoj Joshi
affiliation not provided to SSRN and Amity University
Downloads 67 (408,089)

Abstract:

Loading...

Biotechnology, Strategy, Innovation, Strategic Sustainable development, Generic drugs, Vaccines

58.

Transition Management in a Family Business: A Case of Excel Transporters

Number of pages: 18 Posted: 11 Aug 2016
Amity University, Amity University - Amity Business School, Amity Business School, Amity University and Amity University Uttar Pradesh
Downloads 64 (417,878)

Abstract:

Loading...

Family Business, Conflicts, Transition, Succession, Corporate Governance Structure, Professionalism

59.

Rising NPAS: Could There Be Behavioural Causes?

Number of pages: 7 Posted: 10 Jan 2017
Suhayl Abidi and Manoj Joshi
Independent and Amity University
Downloads 43 (498,594)

Abstract:

Loading...

VUCA, Strategy, NPA, Behavioural Finance

60.

Farsightedness in Policy Making

Number of pages: 6 Posted: 12 Jun 2017 Last Revised: 13 Jun 2017
Manoj Joshi and Suhayl Abidi
Amity University and Independent
Downloads 36 (531,661)

Abstract:

Loading...

Farsightedness, VUCA, Demonetisation

61.

Capitalizing Resources & Capabilities by Enhancing Skill Development

Yojana ISSN 0971-8400 special issue on Skill Development: Scaling New Heights October 2015
Number of pages: 11 Posted: 04 Dec 2015
Amity University, Amity Business School, Lucknow (U.P.) INDIA and Amity Business School, Amity University
Downloads 36 (531,661)

Abstract:

Loading...

Skill Development, Entrepreneurship, Resources, Capabilities, Economic Development

62.

Knowledge Electronics Private Ltd (KEPL)

Number of pages: 5 Posted: 27 Aug 2011
Manoj Joshi
Amity University
Downloads 32 (552,635)

Abstract:

Loading...

Altruism, Opportunism, Moral Hazard, Adverse Selection, Goal Dissonance, Bounded Rationality, agency issues, family business, Entrepreneurship

63.

Midland Agrochemical Pvt Limited (MAPL)

Number of pages: 5 Posted: 27 Aug 2011
Manoj Joshi
Amity University
Downloads 32 (552,635)

Abstract:

Loading...

Altruism, Opportunism, Moral Hazard, Adverse Selection, Goal Dissonance, Bounded Rationality, agency issues, family business, Entrepreneurship

64.

International Lessons on Innovation for Socio Economic Development in India

Number of pages: 14 Posted: 13 Oct 2014
Amity University, Amity University, Lucknow Campus - Amity Business School and Amity University Uttar Pradesh
Downloads 31 (558,097)

Abstract:

Loading...

International Lessons, Innovation, innovative practices, Socio Economic Development, India

65.

Transition Challenge in a Closely Held Family Business: A Case of K L Bricks

Number of pages: 8 Posted: 11 Sep 2015
Amity University, Amity Lucknow Campus, Amity Lucknow Campus and Amity Lucknow Campus
Downloads 26 (588,112)

Abstract:

Loading...

Entrepreneurship, family business, transition, strategy, brick kiln

66.

Innovation Performance, Experiences in Different Countries

Number of pages: 19 Posted: 28 Jun 2017
Manoj Joshi
Amity University
Downloads 25 (594,482)

Abstract:

Loading...

Innovation, Entrepreneurship, countries, VUCA

67.

Genesis Housing Private Limited (GHPL)

Number of pages: 4 Posted: 27 Aug 2011
Manoj Joshi
Amity University
Downloads 25 (594,482)

Abstract:

Loading...

Altruism, Opportunism, Moral Hazard, Adverse Selection, Goal Dissonance, Bounded Rationality, agency issues, family business, Entrepreneurship

68.

Commercialising Discontinuous (Radical) Innovations

Number of pages: 9 Posted: 28 Jun 2017
Manoj Joshi
Amity University
Downloads 23 (607,721)

Abstract:

Loading...

Commercialising, Discontinuous Innovation, Entrepreneurship, VUCA