James Kraska

Stockton Center for International Law, U.S. Naval War College

Chairman and Charles H. Stockton Professor of International Maritime Law

686 Cushing Rd.

Newport, RI 02841

United States

http://https://www.usnwc.edu/Academics/Faculty/James-C--Kraska.aspx

University of Virginia School of Law, Center for Oceans Law & Policy

Senior Fellow

580 Massie Road

Charlottesville, VA 22903

United States

University of Virginia School of Law, Center for National Security Law

Senior Fellow

580 Massie Road

Charlottesville, VA 22903

United States

University of California Berkeley School of Law

Distinguished Fellow, Law of the Sea Institute

215 Boalt Hall

Berkeley, CA 94720

United States

http://https://www.law.berkeley.edu

Foreign Policy Research Institute (FPRI)

1528 Walnut Street

Ste 610

Philadelphia, PA 19102

United States

Council on Foreign Relations (CFR)

Permanent Member

The Harold Pratt House

58 East 68th Street

New York, NY 10021

United States

SCHOLARLY PAPERS

42

DOWNLOADS
Rank 3,696

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Top 3,696

in Total Papers Downloads

10,722

SSRN CITATIONS
Rank 31,536

SSRN RANKINGS

Top 31,536

in Total Papers Citations

2

CROSSREF CITATIONS

19

Ideas:
“  I'm currently working on the revision to the San Remo Manual on the International Law Applicable to Armed Conflicts at Sea, as part of the International Group of Experts commissioned by the International Institute of Humanitarian Law in San Remo, Italy.  ”

Scholarly Papers (42)

1.

How the United States Lost the Naval War of 2015

Orbis (Foreign Policy Research Institute), pp. 35-46, Winter 2001
Number of pages: 11 Posted: 26 Jul 2010
James Kraska
Stockton Center for International Law, U.S. Naval War College
Downloads 1,332 (14,678)

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Great Power War, Sino-American War, U.S.-China, Pacific Security, U.S. Navy, Chinese Navy, Naval Warfare, Aircraft Carrier, Naval War, Asia, conflict

2.

Putting Your Head in the Tiger's Mouth: Submarine Espionage in Territorial Waters

Columbia Journal of Transnational Law, Vol. 54, No. 16, 2015
Number of pages: 84 Posted: 22 Dec 2015
James Kraska
Stockton Center for International Law, U.S. Naval War College
Downloads 756 (33,508)

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international law, UNCLOS, Submarine, espionage

3.

The Law of Unmanned Naval Systems in War and Peace

Journal of Ocean Technology, 2010
Number of pages: 28 Posted: 26 Feb 2013
James Kraska
Stockton Center for International Law, U.S. Naval War College
Downloads 730 (35,221)

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unmanned, drone, UAS, UAV, underwater, autonomous, expendable, robot

4.

A Report on the Case of the ARA Libertad (Argentina v. Ghana), International Tribunal for the Law of the Sea, Case No. 20, Provisional Measures

American Journal of International Law, Vol. 107, 2013
Number of pages: 7 Posted: 04 May 2013
James Kraska
Stockton Center for International Law, U.S. Naval War College
Downloads 630 (42,973)

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Ghana, Libertad, frigate, ITLOS, UNCLOS, Law of the Sea, warship, sovereign immunity, provisional measures, maritime law, international law, oceans law

5.

Freakonomics of Maritime Piracy

Brown Journal of World Affairs, Vol. 16, No. 2, p. 109, Summer 2010
Number of pages: 12 Posted: 04 May 2011
James Kraska
Stockton Center for International Law, U.S. Naval War College
Downloads 602 (45,638)

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Piracy, Freakonomics, Economics, Kenya, Somalia, Maritime, Sea Power, Seapower, pirates, brigands

6.

The Law of the Sea Convention: A National Security Success - Global Strategic Mobility Through the Rule of Law

George Washington International Law Review, Vol. 39, 2007
Number of pages: 30 Posted: 26 Jul 2010 Last Revised: 05 May 2011
James Kraska
Stockton Center for International Law, U.S. Naval War College
Downloads 550 (51,157)

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UNCLOS, law of the sea, navigation, freedom of the seas, global commons, oceans, sea, maritime, power

7.

The Law of the Sea Convention and the Northwest Passage

International Journal of Marine and Coastal Law, Vol. 22, No. 2, p. 257, 2007
Number of pages: 25 Posted: 04 May 2011
James Kraska
Stockton Center for International Law, U.S. Naval War College
Downloads 495 (58,570)

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Arctic, Northwest Passage, UNCLOS, Law of the Sea, EEZ, Polar

8.

The Pirates of the Gulf of Aden: The Coalition is the Strategy

Stanford Journal of International Law Vol. 45, p. 241, 2009
Number of pages: 44 Posted: 20 Jun 2009 Last Revised: 05 May 2011
James Kraska and Brian Wilson
Stockton Center for International Law, U.S. Naval War College and United States Navy
Downloads 490 (59,312)

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piracy, maritime piracy, maritime law, naval, marine piracy, armed robbery at sea, Somalia, pirate, terrorism

9.

Grasping 'The Influence of Law on Sea Power'

Naval War College Review, Vol. 62, No. 3, Summer 2009
Number of pages: 23 Posted: 22 Jun 2009 Last Revised: 05 May 2011
James Kraska
Stockton Center for International Law, U.S. Naval War College
Downloads 433 (68,916)
Citation 1

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seapower, international law, arms control, maritime security, naval, navy, maritime power, naval, expeditionary, great power, international relations

10.

International and Comparative Regulation of Private Maritime Security Companies Employed in Counter-Piracy

Modern High Seas Piracy, (Douglas Guilfoyle, Ed. Elgar, 2012)
Number of pages: 31 Posted: 06 Apr 2013
James Kraska
Stockton Center for International Law, U.S. Naval War College
Downloads 394 (77,118)
Citation 1

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PCASP, PMSC, private security, piracy, maritime security, law of the sea, UNCLOS, contract

11.

Prize Law

Max Planck Encyclopedia of Public International Law, Forthcoming
Number of pages: 11 Posted: 05 Jul 2011
James Kraska
Stockton Center for International Law, U.S. Naval War College
Downloads 326 (95,747)

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prize, piracy, privateer, naval warfare, neutrality, law of armed conflict, international law, maritime law, law of the sea, humanitarian law, LOAC

12.

Combating Pirates of the Gulf of Aden: The Djibouti Code and the Somali Coast Guard

Ocean & Coastal Management, pp. 1-5, 2009
Number of pages: 5 Posted: 16 Nov 2011 Last Revised: 26 Feb 2013
James Kraska and Brian Wilson
Stockton Center for International Law, U.S. Naval War College and United States Navy
Downloads 312 (100,549)

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piracy, maritime piracy, Gulf of Aden, Djibouti Code, Somali, Somalia, Indian Ocean

13.

Rule Selection in the Case of Israel’s Naval Blockade of Gaza: Law of Naval Warfare or Law of the Sea?

Yearbook of International Humanitarian Law, Forthcoming
Number of pages: 28 Posted: 04 May 2011
James Kraska
Stockton Center for International Law, U.S. Naval War College
Downloads 303 (103,758)

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Blockade, Naval Warfare, Gaza, Israel, Law of the Sea, Hamas, Mavi Marmara, Non-international armed conflict, maritime interception operations, MIO, Visit, Board, Search and Seizure, VBSS, use of force, LOAC, Law of Armed Conflict, freedom of navigation, international humanitarian law

14.

The Legal Vortex in the Strait of Hormuz

Virginia Journal of International Law, Forthcoming
Number of pages: 44 Posted: 06 Apr 2013 Last Revised: 27 Jan 2016
James Kraska
Stockton Center for International Law, U.S. Naval War College
Downloads 263 (120,648)

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International Law, Law of the Sea, Straits, UNCLOS, Iran, nuclear, proliferation, Hormuz, Persian, submarine, warship, Navy

15.

Sovereignty at Sea

Survival: Journal of the International Institute of Strategic Studies, Vol. 51, pp. 13-18, June-July 2009
Number of pages: 6 Posted: 04 May 2011
James Kraska
Stockton Center for International Law, U.S. Naval War College
Downloads 261 (121,623)

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China, Naval Power, seapower, sea power, Southeast Asia, South China Sea, SCS, carrier, Navy

16.

I.O. 2.0: Indian Ocean Security and the Law of the Sea

Georgetown Journal of International Law, Vol. 43, 2012
Number of pages: 61 Posted: 26 Feb 2013
James Kraska
Stockton Center for International Law, U.S. Naval War College
Downloads 250 (127,210)

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Indian Ocean, piracy, maritime law, oceans law, law of the sea, China, naval, conflict

17.

International Security and International Law in the Northwest Passage

Vanderbilt Journal of Transnational Law, Vol. 42, pp. 1109-1132, 2009
Number of pages: 24 Posted: 26 Jul 2010
James Kraska
Stockton Center for International Law, U.S. Naval War College
Downloads 219 (144,912)

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Arctic, Northwest Passage, Canada, Polar, Security, International Law, Law of the Sea, Oceans Law

18.

From Pariah to Partner - Russian-American Security Cooperation in the Arctic Ocean

ILSA Journal of International & Comparative Law, Vol. 16, No. 2, 2009
Number of pages: 18 Posted: 26 Jul 2010 Last Revised: 05 May 2011
James Kraska
Stockton Center for International Law, U.S. Naval War College
Downloads 219 (144,912)

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Arctic, U.S.-Russian, Foreign Relations, Law of the Sea, Maritime Security, Polar, Bering, Canada, Norway, UNCLOS, EEZ, strait

19.

Broken Taillight at Sea: The Peacetime International Law of Visit, Board, Search, and Seizure

Ocean and Coastal Law Journal, Vol. 16, pp. 1-45, 2010
Number of pages: 46 Posted: 09 May 2011
James Kraska
Stockton Center for International Law, U.S. Naval War College
Downloads 218 (145,544)

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20.

American Security and Law of the Sea

Ocean Development & International Law, Vol. 40, pp. 268-290, 2009
Number of pages: 23 Posted: 26 Jul 2010
Brian Wilson and James Kraska
United States Navy and Stockton Center for International Law, U.S. Naval War College
Downloads 211 (150,060)

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Law of the Sea, National Security, Maritime Law, Naval Warfare, Freedom of Navigation, Treaty Ratification

21.

Legal Vortex in the Strait of Hormuz

54 Virginia Journal of International Law 323 (2014)
Number of pages: 44 Posted: 27 Jul 2014 Last Revised: 07 Jan 2015
James Kraska
Stockton Center for International Law, U.S. Naval War College
Downloads 168 (184,473)

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UNCLOS, Iran, Straits, Hormuz, Transit, naval, LOAC, Persian Gulf, submarine, Navy

22.

Sustainable Development Is Security: The Role of Transboundary River Agreements as a Confidence Building Measure (CBM) in South Asia

Yale Journal of International Law, Vol. 28, p. 317, 2009
Number of pages: 39 Posted: 26 Jul 2010 Last Revised: 05 May 2011
James Kraska
Stockton Center for International Law, U.S. Naval War College
Downloads 144 (210,065)

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Environmental security, sustainable, transboundary river, India, Pakistan, river, environment, environmental change, Indus

23.

Beijing’s Political and Legal ‘Warfare’ to Deny Littoral Access: Foreign Military Activities in China’s Exclusive Economic Zone

Asian Defence Journal (Malaysia), May 2009
Number of pages: 4 Posted: 27 Jul 2010 Last Revised: 09 Apr 2013
James Kraska and Brian Wilson
Stockton Center for International Law, U.S. Naval War College and United States Navy
Downloads 133 (223,825)

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China, naval, SCS, South China Sea, Cow Tongue, EEZ, Law of the Sea, UNCLOS, dispute, Southeast

24.

Effective Implementation of the 2005 Convention on the Suppression of Unlawful Acts Against the Safety of Maritime Navigation

Naval War College Review, Vol. 70, No. 1, Winter 2017
Number of pages: 13 Posted: 28 Jun 2017
James Kraska
Stockton Center for International Law, U.S. Naval War College
Downloads 129 (229,165)

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Maritime Terrorism, Suppression of Unlawful Acts, Achille Lauro, Maritime Law Enforcement, Maritime Security

25.

Humanitarian Law: Developing International Rules for the Digital Battlefield

Journal of Conflict and Security Law, Vol. 8, pp. 133-160, 2003
Number of pages: 28 Posted: 04 May 2011
James Kraska and Brian T. O'Donnell
Stockton Center for International Law, U.S. Naval War College and Victoria University of Wellington
Downloads 121 (240,446)

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Cyber, information, cyberwar, cyberattack, Net, Internet, ROE, rules of engagement

26.

A Way Out for Arctic Diplomacy

Canadian Naval Review, Vol. 5, No. 3, Fall 2009
Number of pages: 6 Posted: 27 Jul 2010
James Kraska
Stockton Center for International Law, U.S. Naval War College
Downloads 118 (245,065)

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Arctic, Arctic security, law of the sea, northwest passage, Canada, United States, NORAD

27.

Safe Conduct and Safe Passage

Max Planck Encyclopedia of Public International Law, 2009
Number of pages: 6 Posted: 05 Jul 2011
James Kraska
Stockton Center for International Law, U.S. Naval War College
Downloads 113 (252,761)

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28.

The Northern Canada Vessel Traffic Services Zone Regulations (NORDREG) and the Law of the Sea

30 International Journal of Marine and Coastal Law 225-254 (2015)
Number of pages: 30 Posted: 20 Jun 2015
James Kraska
Stockton Center for International Law, U.S. Naval War College
Downloads 96 (282,689)

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Arctic, NORDREG, UNCLOS, law of the sea

29.

Siege

Max Planck Encyclopedia of Public International Law, 2009
Number of pages: 7 Posted: 05 Jul 2011
James Kraska
Stockton Center for International Law, U.S. Naval War College
Downloads 87 (300,859)

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humanitarian law, law of armed conflict, siege, proportionality, suffering, civilian, warfare, ancient, LOAC

30.

A Social Justice Theory of Self-Defense at the World Court

9 Loyola University Chicago International Law Review 25-44
Number of pages: 20 Posted: 16 Apr 2012
James Kraska
Stockton Center for International Law, U.S. Naval War College
Downloads 79 (318,976)

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Law of war, law of armed conflict, jus ad vellum, John Rawls, Social Justice, international law, peace, world justice, world court, international court of justice, Hague

31.

Maritime Interdiction of North Korean Ships under UN Sanctions

Berkeley Journal of International Law (BJIL), Vol. 37, 369 (2019)
Number of pages: 24 Posted: 17 Oct 2019
James Kraska
Stockton Center for International Law, U.S. Naval War College
Downloads 69 (344,280)

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North Korea, interdiction, Security Council, DPRK, WMD, Nuclear, ROK, maritime security, naval warfare

32.

Fresh Thinking for an Old Problem: Report of the Naval War College Workshop on Countering Maritime Piracy

Naval War College Review, Vol. 62, No. 4, Autumn 2009
Number of pages: 14 Posted: 27 Jul 2010
James Kraska
Stockton Center for International Law, U.S. Naval War College
Downloads 68 (347,077)

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Piracy, Diplomacy, Somalia, Horn of Africa

33.

Oceanographic and Naval Deployments of Expendable Marine Instruments Under U.S. And International Law

Ocean Development & International Law, Vol. 27, p. 311, 1995
Number of pages: 45 Posted: 16 Nov 2011
James Kraska
Stockton Center for International Law, U.S. Naval War College
Downloads 66 (352,492)
Citation 1

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unmanned, drones, expendable, autonomous, robots, Navy, UUV, underwater, antisubmarine, bathythermograph, marine scientific research, military surveys, EEZ, maritime power

34.

Averting Nuclear Terrorism: Building a Global Regime of Cooperative Threat Reduction

American University International Law Review, Vol. 20, No. 703, 2005
Number of pages: 82 Posted: 26 Jul 2010
James Kraska
Stockton Center for International Law, U.S. Naval War College
Downloads 62 (364,125)

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35.

Particularly Sensitive Sea Areas and the Law of the Sea

Freedom of Seas, Passage Rights and the 1982 Law of the Sea Convention, Myron H. Nordquist, Tommy T.B. Koh, and John Norton Moore, Eds. (Martinus Nijhoff Publishers, 2009)
Number of pages: 62 Posted: 25 Feb 2013
James Kraska
Stockton Center for International Law, U.S. Naval War College
Downloads 61 (367,129)

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Marine environmental law, marine protected areas, marine environment, environmental law, international environmental law, oceans law, ocean law, coastal law, environmental protection

36.

The Law of the Sea and LNG: Cross-Border Law and Politics over Head Harbor Passage

Canada-United States Law Journal, Vol. 37, No. 1, 2012
Number of pages: 41 Posted: 26 Feb 2013
James Kraska
Stockton Center for International Law, U.S. Naval War College
Downloads 52 (395,823)

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law of the sea, marine environmental protection, Canada, straits, natural gas, UNCLOS, navigation, maritime law

37.

Torts and Terror: Rethinking Deterrence Models and Catastrophic Terrorist Attack

American University International Law Review, Vol. 22, p. 361, 2007
Number of pages: 31 Posted: 27 Jul 2010 Last Revised: 05 May 2011
James Kraska
Stockton Center for International Law, U.S. Naval War College
Downloads 48 (409,687)

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deterrence, nuclear terrorism, torts, strategic, WMD, nuclear, Al Qaeda, terrorist, bomb

38.

Toward a Global Regime of Vessel Anti-Fouling

Duke Environmental Law & Policy Forum, Vol. 26, 2016
Number of pages: 17 Posted: 04 Mar 2016
James Kraska and Daniel Rittschof
Stockton Center for International Law, U.S. Naval War College and Duke University
Downloads 38 (448,755)

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Marine pollution, UNCLOS, Anti-Fouling, Shipping

39.

Global Swing States and the Maritime Order

Global Swing States Working Paper 2012, German Marshall Fund of the United States
Number of pages: 15 Posted: 26 Feb 2013
James Kraska
Stockton Center for International Law, U.S. Naval War College
Downloads 36 (457,200)
Citation 1

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Law of the Sea, UNCLOS, India, Turkey, Indonesia, Brazil, maritime governance, oceans policy, maritime law

40.

Bio-Logging of Marine Migratory Species in the Law of the Sea

Marine Policy, 51, p. 394, 2015
Number of pages: 7 Posted: 09 Jan 2015
James Kraska, Guillermo Crespo and David Johnston
Stockton Center for International Law, U.S. Naval War College, Duke University - Nicholas School of the Environment and Duke University - Nicholas School of the Environment
Downloads 23 (523,405)

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41.

Tyrants, Terrorists and Traffickers and the Ungoverned Oceans

SAIS Review, Vol. 36, No. 1, 2016
Number of pages: 10 Posted: 28 Jun 2017
James Kraska
Stockton Center for International Law, U.S. Naval War College
Downloads 17 (559,785)

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42.

The Co-Operative Strategy and the Pirates of the Gulf of Aden

Journal of the Royal United Services Institute, Vol. 154, pp. 74-81, 2009
Posted: 04 May 2011
James Kraska
Stockton Center for International Law, U.S. Naval War College

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Piracy, Gulf of Aden, Naval, Strategy, sea power, seapower, maritime power, irregular, asymmetric

Other Papers (1)

Total Downloads: 116
1.

Putting Your Head in the Tiger's Mouth: Submarine Espionage in the Territorial Sea

Columbia Journal of Transnational Law, Vol. 54, 2015
Number of pages: 80 Posted: 06 Jun 2015
James Kraska
Stockton Center for International Law, U.S. Naval War College
Downloads 116 (242,842)

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submarine, espionage, law of the sea, UNCLOS