A. Michael Froomkin

University of Miami - School of Law

Professor of Law

P.O. Box 248087

Coral Gables, FL 33146

United States

Yale University - Yale Information Society Project

127 Wall Street

New Haven, CT 06511

United States

SCHOLARLY PAPERS

63

DOWNLOADS
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17,446

SSRN CITATIONS
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SSRN RANKINGS

Top 12,592

in Total Papers Citations

37

CROSSREF CITATIONS

57

Scholarly Papers (63)

1.

Self-Defense Against Robots and Drones

Connecticut Law Review, Vol. 48, No. 1, 2015, University of Miami Legal Studies Research Paper No. 15-13
Number of pages: 70 Posted: 03 Oct 2014 Last Revised: 16 Jan 2016
A. Michael Froomkin and Zak Colangelo
University of Miami - School of Law and Lewis Brisbois Bisgaard & Smith LLP
Downloads 1,875 (13,164)
Citation 4

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robots, torts, privacy, drones, self-help, notice

2.

On the Future of Internet Governance

American Society of International Law, Proceedings of the Annual Meeting. Vol. 101
Number of pages: 16 Posted: 25 Jun 2007
Tim Wu, Esther Dyson, A. Michael Froomkin and David A Gross
Columbia University - Law School, affiliation not provided to SSRN, University of Miami - School of Law and affiliation not provided to SSRN
Downloads 1,701 (15,341)
Citation 1

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internet, naming, governance, ICANN, DNS

3.

Habermas@Discourse.Net: Toward a Critical Theory of Cyberspace

Number of pages: 125 Posted: 16 Jan 2003
A. Michael Froomkin
University of Miami - School of Law
Downloads 1,499 (18,570)
Citation 10

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4.

When AIs Outperform Doctors: Confronting the Challenges of a Tort-Induced Over-Reliance on Machine Learning

61 Ariz. L. Rev. 33 (2019), University of Miami Legal Studies Research Paper No. 18-3
Number of pages: 67 Posted: 13 Feb 2018 Last Revised: 06 Mar 2019
A. Michael Froomkin, Ian R. Kerr and Joelle Pineau
University of Miami - School of Law, University of Ottawa - Common Law Section and McGill University
Downloads 1,267 (23,873)
Citation 6

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AI, Tort Law, Machine Learning, AI Policy, Medicine, Medical Malpractice Law, Health Law, Health Policy, Medical Legal Studies, Diagnosis, Neural Networks, Doctors

5.

Almost Free: An Analysis of ICANN's ‘Affirmation of Commitments’

Journal of Telecommunications and High Technology Law, Vol. 9, 2011, University of Miami Legal Studies Research Paper No. 2011-01
Number of pages: 48 Posted: 21 Jan 2011 Last Revised: 24 Dec 2013
A. Michael Froomkin
University of Miami - School of Law
Downloads 906 (38,623)

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ICANN, Internet, DNS, cyberwar, gTLD

6.

Lessons Learned Too Well: Anonymity in a Time of Surveillance

Arizona Law Review, Forthcoming
Number of pages: 64 Posted: 24 Sep 2011 Last Revised: 20 Nov 2016
A. Michael Froomkin
University of Miami - School of Law
Downloads 800 (45,715)
Citation 3

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Anonymity, Surveillance, Privacy, Free Speech, Internet

7.

Anonymity and the Law in the United States

LESSONS FROM THE IDENTITY TRAIL: ANONYMITY, PRIVACY AND IDENTITY IN A NETWORKED SOCIETY, New York: Oxford University Press, 2009, University of Miami Legal Studies Research Paper No. 2008-42
Number of pages: 35 Posted: 01 Dec 2008
A. Michael Froomkin
University of Miami - School of Law
Downloads 717 (52,964)

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Anonymity, Privacy, Identity, Constitutional Law, Freedom of Speech, privacy enhancing technology

8.

Big Data: Destroyer of Informed Consent

Yake Journal of Health Policy, Law, and Ethics, Forthcoming, University of Miami Legal Studies Research Paper Forthcoming
Number of pages: 29 Posted: 23 Jun 2019 Last Revised: 05 Nov 2019
A. Michael Froomkin
University of Miami - School of Law
Downloads 645 (60,759)
Citation 1

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Privacy, Data Retention, Common Rule, Big Data, Machine Learning, De-identification, Personal Health Information

9.

Introduction: Robot Law

Robot Law, Ryan Calo, A. Michael Froomkin & Ian Kerr, eds., 2016, Forthcoming
Number of pages: 10 Posted: 04 Feb 2016
A. Michael Froomkin
University of Miami - School of Law
Downloads 622 (63,626)

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robot law, drones, robots, artificial intelligence, robotics

10.

Identity Cards and Identity Romanticism

LESSONS FROM THE IDENTITY TRAIL: ANONYMITY, PRIVACY AND IDENTITY IN A NETWORKED SOCIETY, New York: Oxford University Press, 2009, University of Miami Legal Studies Research Paper No. 2008-41
Number of pages: 29 Posted: 01 Dec 2008 Last Revised: 04 Dec 2008
A. Michael Froomkin
University of Miami - School of Law
Downloads 598 (66,960)

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Anonymity, Privacy, Identity, Free Speech

11.

Regulating Mass Surveillance as Privacy Pollution: Learning from Environmental Impact Statements

2015 U. Ill. L. Rev. 1713 (2015)
Number of pages: 78 Posted: 25 Feb 2014 Last Revised: 15 Jan 2016
A. Michael Froomkin
University of Miami - School of Law
Downloads 571 (70,986)
Citation 4

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Privacy, surveillance, notice, NEPA, First Amendment

12.

Icann and Antitrust

University of Illinois Law Review, Vol. 1, 2003, UC Berkeley Public Law Research Paper No. 73
Number of pages: 56 Posted: 28 Nov 2001
A. Michael Froomkin and Mark A. Lemley
University of Miami - School of Law and Stanford Law School
Downloads 567 (71,581)
Citation 7

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13.

Wrong Turn in Cyberspace: Using Icann to Route Around the Apa and the Constitution

Number of pages: 168 Posted: 29 Dec 2000
A. Michael Froomkin
University of Miami - School of Law
Downloads 443 (96,450)
Citation 5

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14.

The Death of Privacy?

52 Stan. L. Rev. 1461 (2000)
Number of pages: 84 Posted: 16 Jan 2016
A. Michael Froomkin
University of Miami - School of Law
Downloads 441 (96,968)
Citation 3

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privacy, surveillance, biometrics, First Amendment, cyberlaw

15.

From Anonymity to Identification

1 J. Reg. & Self-Reg. 121 (2015)
Number of pages: 20 Posted: 16 Jan 2016
A. Michael Froomkin
University of Miami - School of Law
Downloads 438 (97,732)
Citation 1

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anonymity, surveillance, cryptography, online anonymity, anonymous communication, Internet, law, anonymous speech

16.

Virtual Worlds, Real Rules

New York Law School Law Review, Vol. 49, 2004, University of Miami Legal Studies Research Paper No. 2008-22, TPRC 2003
Number of pages: 45 Posted: 05 May 2008 Last Revised: 16 May 2012
Caroline M. Bradley and A. Michael Froomkin
University of Miami - School of Law and University of Miami - School of Law
Downloads 320 (138,869)

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17.

Anonymity and its Enmities

1 Journal of Online Law art. 4 (1995)
Number of pages: 15 Posted: 16 Jan 2016
A. Michael Froomkin
University of Miami - School of Law
Downloads 304 (146,450)

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anonymity, encryption, cryptography, political speech, Internet law, cyberlaw

18.

The Internet as a Source of Regulatory Arbitrage

Borders in Cyberspace (Brian Kahin & Charles Nesson, eds.) (1997)
Number of pages: 26 Posted: 20 Jan 2016
A. Michael Froomkin
University of Miami - School of Law
Downloads 297 (150,122)
Citation 2

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Internet governance, cyberlaw, regulation, administrative law, arbitrage, regulatory arbitrage

19.

Fixing the Senate

University of Miami Legal Studies Research Paper No. 3797782
Number of pages: 84 Posted: 05 Mar 2021 Last Revised: 12 Oct 2022
David Froomkin and A. Michael Froomkin
Yale University and University of Miami - School of Law
Downloads 256 (174,497)
Citation 1

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Senate, constitutional amendments, democracy, representation, Entrenchment Clause

20.

Building the Bottom Up from the Top Down

5 I/S: A Journal of Law and Policy for the Information Society 141 (2009), University of Miami Legal Studies Research Paper No. 2009-02
Number of pages: 43 Posted: 07 Feb 2009 Last Revised: 05 Apr 2022
A. Michael Froomkin
University of Miami - School of Law
Downloads 249 (179,151)

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21.

Government Data Breaches

Berkley Technology Law Journal, Forthcoming, University of Miami Legal Studies Research Paper No. 2009-20
Number of pages: 42 Posted: 15 Aug 2009 Last Revised: 26 Aug 2011
A. Michael Froomkin
University of Miami - School of Law
Downloads 236 (188,840)
Citation 1

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22.

The Virtual Law School, 2.0

University of Miami Legal Studies Research Paper No. 3728114, __ J. Leg. Educ. __ (2022, Forthcoming)
Number of pages: 60 Posted: 11 Nov 2020 Last Revised: 15 Aug 2022
A. Michael Froomkin
University of Miami - School of Law
Downloads 198 (222,269)

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legal education, distance learning, COVID, de-skilling, law professors, law schools

23.

The Metaphor is the Key: Cryptography, the Clipper Chip and the Constitution

143 U. Penn. L. Rev. 709 (1995)
Number of pages: 190 Posted: 21 Jan 2016 Last Revised: 03 Feb 2016
A. Michael Froomkin
University of Miami - School of Law
Downloads 196 (224,213)

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cryptography, clipper chip, cyberlaw, Internet law, DES, EES, privacy law

24.

'Pets Must Be on a Leash': How U.S. Law (and Industry Practice) Often Undermines and Even Forbids Valuable Privacy Enhancing Technology

Ohio State Law Journal, Vol. 74, No. 6, 2013, University of Miami Legal Studies Research Paper No. 2014-2
Number of pages: 31 Posted: 04 Nov 2013
A. Michael Froomkin
University of Miami - School of Law
Downloads 178 (243,842)
Citation 1

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surveillance, privacy, law, NSA, Internet, cyberlaw

25.

Privacy as Safety

Washington Law Review, Forthcoming, University of Miami Legal Studies Research Paper Forthcoming
Number of pages: 65 Posted: 07 Apr 2020
A. Michael Froomkin and Zak Colangelo
University of Miami - School of Law and Lewis Brisbois Bisgaard & Smith LLP
Downloads 177 (245,046)

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Privacy, Safety, Smart Cities, Data Protection

26.

Building Privacy into the Infrastructure: Towards a New Identity Management Architecture

University of Miami Legal Studies Research Paper No. 16-26
Number of pages: 52 Posted: 25 May 2016 Last Revised: 30 May 2016
A. Michael Froomkin
University of Miami - School of Law
Downloads 156 (272,348)

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Privacy, Identity, Identity Escrow, Certificate Authorities, First Amendment

27.

ICANN's 'Uniform Dispute Resolution Policy' – Causes and (Partial) Cures

Brooklyn Law Review, Vol. 67, No. 605, 2002
Number of pages: 114 Posted: 03 Feb 2016 Last Revised: 11 Feb 2016
A. Michael Froomkin
University of Miami - School of Law
Downloads 138 (300,395)
Citation 2

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ICANN, Internet law, Internet governance, UDRP, DNS, domain names, IP law, intellectual property

28.

Speculative Microeconomics for Tomorrow's Economy

Internet Publishing and Beyond: The Economics of Digital Information and Intellectual Property 6 (Brian Kahin & Hal Varian eds., 2000)
Number of pages: 23 Posted: 20 Jan 2016
J. Bradford DeLong and A. Michael Froomkin
University of California, Berkeley and University of Miami - School of Law
Downloads 131 (312,573)

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microeconomics, Internet economics, digital economy, data economy

29.

Technologies for Democracy

Democracy Online: The Prospects for Political Renewal Through the Internet (Peter Shane, ed. 2004)
Number of pages: 18 Posted: 13 Feb 2016
A. Michael Froomkin
University of Miami - School of Law
Downloads 130 (314,366)

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democracy online, Internet law, cyberlaw, blog, blogging, community filtering, Habermas, Froomkin

30.

Safety as Privacy

University of Miami Legal Studies Research Paper No. 4021420, Arizona Law Review, Forthcoming
Number of pages: 67 Posted: 01 Feb 2022 Last Revised: 10 Nov 2022
A. Michael Froomkin, Phillip J. Arencibia and Zak Colangelo
University of Miami - School of Law, Duane Morris LLP and Lewis Brisbois Bisgaard & Smith LLP
Downloads 113 (347,688)

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Privacy, Regulation, IoT, drones, FAA, FTC, FDA, CPSC, FDA, NHTSAA

31.

Pseudonyms By Another Name: Identity Management in a Time of Surveillance

Privacy in the Modern Age: The Search for Solutions (Mark Rotenburg, Julia Horwitz, Jeramie Scott, eds. 2015), University of Miami Legal Studies Research Paper No. 16-19
Number of pages: 9 Posted: 24 Mar 2016
A. Michael Froomkin
University of Miami - School of Law
Downloads 84 (420,788)

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32.

Reinventing the Government Corporation

University of Illinois Law Review, p. 543, 1995
Number of pages: 92 Posted: 16 Jan 2016
A. Michael Froomkin
University of Miami - School of Law
Downloads 79 (436,065)

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government corporations, Gore, federal government corporations, administrative law, Froomkin

33.

A Commentary on WIPO's 'The Management of Internet Names and Addresses: Intellectual Property Issues'

Number of pages: 30 Posted: 16 Jan 2016 Last Revised: 03 Feb 2016
A. Michael Froomkin
University of Miami - School of Law
Downloads 73 (455,668)
Citation 1

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domain names, DNS, WIPO, cyberlaw

34.

International and National Regulation of the Internet

The Round Table Expert Group on Telecommunications Laws: Conference Papers (E.J. Dommering & N.A.N.M. van Eijk (eds.) (2005)).
Number of pages: 28 Posted: 21 Jan 2016 Last Revised: 03 Feb 2016
A. Michael Froomkin
University of Miami - School of Law
Downloads 71 (462,563)

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ICANN, DNS, domain names, Internet governance, cyberlaw

35.

Note, In Defense of Administrative Agency Autonomy

Yale Law Journal, Vol. 96, 1987
Number of pages: 28 Posted: 16 Jan 2016
A. Michael Froomkin
University of Miami - School of Law
Downloads 66 (480,474)

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separation of powers, Humphrey's Executor, constitutional law, administrative law, executive power, legislative power, executive action

36.

Anonymity in the Balance

Digital Anonymity: Tensions and Dimensions (C. Nicoll et al. eds., 2003)
Number of pages: 44 Posted: 21 Jan 2016 Last Revised: 03 Feb 2016
A. Michael Froomkin
University of Miami - School of Law
Downloads 62 (495,903)

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anonymity, cyberlaw, Internet law, free speech, anonymous speech, pseudonymity

37.

It Came from Planet Clipper: The Battle Over Cryptographic Key 'Escrow'

1996 U. Chi. L. Forum 15 (The Law of Cyberspace Symposium volume).
Number of pages: 62 Posted: 21 Jan 2016 Last Revised: 03 Feb 2016
A. Michael Froomkin
University of Miami - School of Law
Downloads 59 (507,891)

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cryptography, clipper chip, cyberlaw, cryptographic key escrow

38.

The Constitution and Encryption Regulation: Do We Need a 'New Privacy'?

3 N.Y.U. J. Legis & Pub. Pol. 25 (1999-2000).
Number of pages: 14 Posted: 21 Jan 2016 Last Revised: 03 Feb 2016
A. Michael Froomkin
University of Miami - School of Law
Downloads 56 (520,378)

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encryption, encryption law, encryption regulation, constitutional law

39.

Hard to Believe: The High Cost of a Biometric Identity Card

Chief Justice Earl Warren Institute on Law & Social Policy at University of California, Berkeley School of Law Research Brief, Feb. 2012, Wayne State University Law School Research Paper No. 2016-02
Number of pages: 21 Posted: 16 Jan 2016 Last Revised: 07 Feb 2016
A. Michael Froomkin and Jonathan Weinberg
University of Miami - School of Law and Wayne State University Law School
Downloads 54 (528,971)

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biometric, privacy, anonymity, surveillance, IRCA, BELIEVE

40.

Internet Governance: The ICANN Experiment (Or, Three Paradoxes in Search of a Paradigm)

La Libertad de Información: Gobierno y Arquitectura de Internet 12 (Loreto Corredoira y Alfonso ed., 2001).
Number of pages: 14 Posted: 20 Jan 2016
A. Michael Froomkin
University of Miami - School of Law
Downloads 52 (537,828)

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Internet governance, ICANN, Internet law, cyberlaw, domain name system, DNS

41.

Climbing the Most Dangerous Branch: Legisprudence and the New Legal Process

Texas Law Review, Vol. 66, 1988
Number of pages: 26 Posted: 21 Jan 2016 Last Revised: 04 Feb 2016
A. Michael Froomkin
University of Miami - School of Law
Downloads 50 (546,975)
Citation 1

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book review, eskridge, frisky, legislation, law and policy

42.

The Uneasy Case for National ID Cards as a Means to Enhance Privacy

Securing Privacy in the Internet Age (A. Chander, L. Gelman, M.J. Radin, eds 2008)
Number of pages: 28 Posted: 23 Jan 2016
A. Michael Froomkin
University of Miami - School of Law
Downloads 46 (566,031)

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national identification cards, national ID cards, privacy law, personal privacy

43.

A Dispatch from the Crypto Wars (Review of Matt Curtin, Brute Force: Cracking The Data Encryption Standard (2005))

2 I/S: J. of L. & Pol. for the Info. Soc'y 345 (2006)
Number of pages: 20 Posted: 16 Jan 2016
A. Michael Froomkin
University of Miami - School of Law
Downloads 45 (570,975)

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cryptography, crypto wars, cyberlaw

44.

The Imperial Presidency's New Vestments

Northwestern University Law Review, Vol. 88, p. 1346, 1994
Number of pages: 31 Posted: 16 Jan 2016 Last Revised: 20 Jan 2016
A. Michael Froomkin
University of Miami - School of Law
Downloads 45 (570,975)
Citation 1

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presidency, constitutional law, Rhodes, Calabrese, structural analysis, Constitution, Scalia, executive power

45.

The Plural of Anecdote Is 'Blog'

Washington University Law Review, Vol. 84, p. 1149, 2007
Number of pages: 8 Posted: 16 Jan 2016
A. Michael Froomkin
University of Miami - School of Law
Downloads 43 (581,158)

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blog, blogs, Jotwell, legal blogs, blogging, Froomkin

46.

ICANN 2.0: Meet the New Boss

Loyola of Los Angeles Law Review, Vol. 36, p. 1087, 2003
Number of pages: 16 Posted: 23 Jan 2016
A. Michael Froomkin
University of Miami - School of Law
Downloads 40 (597,460)
Citation 1

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ICANN, Internet law, cyberlaw, Internet governance, DNS, domain names

47.

Beating Microsoft at its Own Game (Reviewing Charles Ferguson, High Stakes, No Prisoners (1999))

Harv. Bus. Rev. Jan-Feb. 2000, at 159
Number of pages: 13 Posted: 20 Jan 2016 Last Revised: 04 Feb 2016
A. Michael Froomkin and J. Bradford DeLong
University of Miami - School of Law and University of California, Berkeley
Downloads 37 (614,190)

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charles ferguson, high stakes, no prisoners, microsoft, book review

48.

When We Say U.S. TM, We Mean It!

41 Hous. L. Rev. 839 (2004)
Number of pages: 46 Posted: 16 Jan 2016
A. Michael Froomkin
University of Miami - School of Law
Downloads 37 (614,190)

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trademark, trademark law, international law, intellectual property, IP, IP law, virtual cultural property

49.

Form and Substance in Cyberspace

6 J. Small & Emerging Bus. L. 93 (2002)
Number of pages: 32 Posted: 16 Jan 2016
A. Michael Froomkin
University of Miami - School of Law
Downloads 36 (620,041)
Citation 1

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ICANN, domain name, DNS, APA, nondelegation doctrine, Carter Coal, cyberlaw

50.

Digital Signatures Today

Financial Cryptography 287 (Rafael Hirschfeld ed., 1997) (Springer Lecture Notes in Computer Science vol. 1318)
Number of pages: 5 Posted: 20 Jan 2016
A. Michael Froomkin
University of Miami - School of Law
Downloads 32 (644,394)

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51.

Of Governments and Governance

14 Berkeley Tech. L.J. 617 (1999)
Number of pages: 18 Posted: 16 Jan 2016
A. Michael Froomkin
University of Miami - School of Law
Downloads 29 (664,543)

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Internet governance, democracy, WIPO, domain name, trademark, cyberlaw, regulation

52.

Forced Sharing of Patient-Controlled Health Records

UM ELSI Group for Project HealthDesign (2007)
Number of pages: 12 Posted: 03 Feb 2016
A. Michael Froomkin
University of Miami - School of Law
Downloads 27 (678,733)

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health care privacy, patient-controlled health records, privacy law

53.

Semi-Private International Rulemaking: Lessons Learned from the WIPO Domain Name Process

Regulating the Global Information Society 211 (Christopher T. Marsden ed., 2000)
Number of pages: 12 Posted: 20 Jan 2016
A. Michael Froomkin
University of Miami - School of Law
Downloads 26 (686,275)

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Internet governance, WIPO, DNS, domain name system, Internet law, cyberlaw, domain names

54.

The Empire Strikes Back

Chicago-Kent Law Review, Vol. 73, p. 1101, 1998
Number of pages: 18 Posted: 16 Jan 2016 Last Revised: 03 Feb 2016
A. Michael Froomkin
University of Miami - School of Law
Downloads 25 (693,829)

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Internet law, supra-nationalism, Post-Johnson, Perritt, Burk

55.

An Introduction to the CDA Decision

Amicus Curiae 27, 1998
Number of pages: 6 Posted: 03 Feb 2016
A. Michael Froomkin
University of Miami - School of Law
Downloads 24 (701,648)

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CDA, Internet law, cyberlaw, computer law

56.

Still Naked After All These Words

Northwestern University Law Review, Vol. 88, p. 1420, 1994
Number of pages: 16 Posted: 16 Jan 2016
A. Michael Froomkin
University of Miami - School of Law
Downloads 24 (701,648)

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Structural Constitution, vesting clauses, Constitution, constitutional law, executive power, presidency

57.

A Critique of WIPO's RFC3

Number of pages: 58 Posted: 16 Jan 2016 Last Revised: 20 Jan 2016
A. Michael Froomkin
University of Miami - School of Law
Downloads 20 (733,968)

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WIPO, Internet law, Internet governance, domain names, DNS, international law

58.

Commentary: Time to Hug a Bureaucrat

35 Loy. U. Chi. L.J. 139 (2003)
Number of pages: 16 Posted: 16 Jan 2016
A. Michael Froomkin
University of Miami - School of Law
Downloads 18 (751,163)

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Internet governance, information technology, Internet regulation, cyberlaw, ICANN, UDRP, BBBOnline, FCC

59.

Creating a Viral Federal Privacy Standard

48 B.C. L. Rev. 55 (2007)
Number of pages: 32 Posted: 16 Jan 2016
A. Michael Froomkin
University of Miami - School of Law
Downloads 17 (760,086)

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privacy, national ID cards, identification cards, Real ID Act of 2005, anonymity

60.

Legal Issues in Anonymity and Pseudonymity

AAAS Symposium Volume, 15 The Information Society 113 , University of Miami Legal Studies Research Paper No. 16-12
Posted: 03 Mar 2016
A. Michael Froomkin
University of Miami - School of Law

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anonymity, pseudonymity, Internet law, cyberlaw

61.

Article 2b as Legal Software for Electronic Contracting-Operating System or Trojan Horse?

Berkeley Technology Law Journal, Vol. 13, No. 4, 1998
Posted: 21 Jan 1999
A. Michael Froomkin
University of Miami - School of Law

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62.

Flood Control on the Information Ocean: Living with Anonymity, Digital Cash, and Distributed Databases

15 Journal of Law and Commerce 395 (1996)
Posted: 10 Dec 1996
A. Michael Froomkin
University of Miami - School of Law

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63.

The Essential Role of Trusted Third Parties in Electronic Commerce

75 Oregon Law Review 49 (1996)
Posted: 07 Nov 1996
A. Michael Froomkin
University of Miami - School of Law

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