Cynthia Lee

George Washington University Law School

Professor of Law

2000 H Street, N.W.

Washington, DC 20052

United States

SCHOLARLY PAPERS

33

DOWNLOADS
Rank 7,835

SSRN RANKINGS

Top 7,835

in Total Papers Downloads

8,222

SSRN CITATIONS
Rank 24,766

SSRN RANKINGS

Top 24,766

in Total Papers Citations

7

CROSSREF CITATIONS

31

Scholarly Papers (33)

1.

Making Race Salient: Trayvon Martin and Implicit Bias in a Not Yet Post-Racial Society

91 N.C.L. Rev. 1555 , GWU Legal Studies Research Paper No. 2013-97, GWU Law School Public Law Research Paper No. 2013-97
Number of pages: 59 Posted: 29 Jun 2013 Last Revised: 05 Oct 2018
Cynthia Lee
George Washington University Law School
Downloads 1,960 (11,542)
Citation 1

Abstract:

Loading...

race, post-racial, implicit bias, self-defense, race salience, racial profiling, racial bias

2.

'But I Thought He Had a Gun' - Race and Police Use of Deadly Force

Number of pages: 52 Posted: 22 Oct 2004
Cynthia Lee
George Washington University Law School
Downloads 835 (40,896)

Abstract:

Loading...

race, police, racial stereotypes, prejudice, stereotypes, deadly force, bias, unconscious racism, Amadou Diallo, Timothy Thomas, Tyisha Miller

3.

The Trans Panic Defense: Heteronormativity, and the Murder of Transgender Women

66 Hastings L.J. 77 (2014), GWU Law School Public Law Research Paper No. 2014-10, GWU Legal Studies Research Paper No. 2014-10
Number of pages: 57 Posted: 29 Apr 2014 Last Revised: 19 Dec 2014
Cynthia Lee and Peter Kar Yu Kwan
George Washington University Law School and Golden Gate University School of Law
Downloads 631 (59,126)
Citation 6

Abstract:

Loading...

provocation, heat of passion, trans panic, transgender, trans, gay panic, criminal law defenses, fraud-in-the-factum, fraud-in-the-inducement, transphobia, homophobia, masculinity, masculinities

4.

The Gay Panic Defense

UC Davis Law Review, 2008, GWU Legal Studies Research Paper No. 411, GWU Law School Public Law Research Paper No. 411
Number of pages: 97 Posted: 07 Jun 2008
Cynthia Lee
George Washington University Law School
Downloads 517 (76,011)

Abstract:

Loading...

gay panic, gay panic defense, defense strategies, homosexuality, trans-panic defense

5.

Reforming the Law on Police Use of Deadly Force: De-Escalation, Pre-Seizure Conduct, and Imperfect Self-Defense

2018 U. Ill. L. Rev. 629, GWU Law School Public Law Research Paper No. 2017-65, GWU Legal Studies Research Paper No. 2017-65
Number of pages: 65 Posted: 27 Sep 2017 Last Revised: 30 Mar 2018
Cynthia Lee
George Washington University Law School
Downloads 425 (95,966)
Citation 1

Abstract:

Loading...

Police, Policing, Use of Force, Excessive Force, Police Use of Force, Imperfect Self-Defense, De-Escalation, Pre-Seizure Conduct, Reasonableness, Reasonable Beliefs

6.

Cultural Convergence: Interest Convergence Theory Meets the Cultural Defense?

Arizona Law Review, Vol. 49, No. 4, Winter 2007 , George Washington University Legal Studies Research Paper No. 248, George Washington University Law School Public Law Research Paper No. 248
Number of pages: 50 Posted: 08 Mar 2007
Cynthia Lee
George Washington University Law School
Downloads 423 (96,512)

Abstract:

Loading...

cultural defense, interest convergence, cultural convergence, Hmong marriage by capture, black rage, oyako shinju, cultural racism, racialization, stereotypes

7.

Race and Self-Defense: Toward a Normative Conception of Reasonableness

Minnesota Law Review, Vol. 81, 1996, GWU Law School Public Law Research Paper No. 473
Number of pages: 135 Posted: 15 Oct 1996 Last Revised: 30 Sep 2009
Cynthia Lee
George Washington University Law School
Downloads 393 (105,031)

Abstract:

Loading...

8.

Awareness As a First Step Toward Overcoming Implicit Bias

Enhancing Justice: Reducing Bias 289 (Sarah Redfiled et al. eds., 2017), GWU Law School Public Law Research Paper No. 2017-56, GWU Legal Studies Research Paper No. 2017-56
Number of pages: 15 Posted: 01 Aug 2017
Cynthia Lee
George Washington University Law School
Downloads 274 (154,612)
Citation 1

Abstract:

Loading...

implicit bias, racial bias, race, racial stereotyping, jury instructions

9.

The Trans Panic Defense Revisited

57 AM. CRIM. L. REV. 1411 (2020), Forthcoming, GWU Law School Public Law Research Paper No. 2019-63, GWU Legal Studies Research Paper No. 2019-63
Number of pages: 88 Posted: 08 Nov 2019 Last Revised: 01 Jun 2020
Cynthia Lee
George Washington University Law School
Downloads 256 (165,658)

Abstract:

Loading...

provocation, heat of passion, trans panic, gay panic, transgender, trans, gender identity, gender nonconforming, violence, murder, homicide, manslaughter

10.

Reasonable Provocation and Self-Defense: Recognizing the Distinction Between Act Reasonableness and Emotion Reasonableness

CRIMINAL LAW CONVERSATIONS, Paul H. Robinson, Stephen Garvey, Kimberly Ferzan, eds., Oxford University Press, 2009 , GWU Law School Public Law Research Paper No. 450, GWU Legal Studies Research Paper No. 450
Posted: 28 Jul 2010
Cynthia Lee
George Washington University Law School
Downloads 243 (174,176)

Abstract:

Loading...

Reasonable Provocation, Self-Defense, Act Reasonableness, Emotion Reasonableness

11.

Hate Crimes and the War on Terror

HATE CRIMES: PERSPECTIVES AND APPROACHES, Barbara Perry, ed., 2008, GWU Legal Studies Research Paper No. 442, GWU Law School Public Law Research Paper No. 442
Number of pages: 30 Posted: 17 Sep 2008
Cynthia Lee
George Washington University Law School
Downloads 217 (194,009)

Abstract:

Loading...

hate crimes, terrorism, Arab, Muslim, stereotype

12.

Race and the Criminal Law Curriculum

Cynthia Lee, Race and the Criminal Law Curriculum in The Oxford Handbook of Race and Law in the United States (Carbado ed. forthcoming 2021 Oxford University Press), GWU Legal Studies Research Paper No. 2020-15, GWU Law School Public Law Research Paper No. 2020-15
Number of pages: 16 Posted: 10 Apr 2020 Last Revised: 14 Apr 2021
Cynthia Lee
George Washington University Law School
Downloads 196 (213,000)
Citation 1

Abstract:

Loading...

Race, Criminal Law, Teaching, Racial Bias, Critical Race Theory, Social Justice

Murder and the Reasonable Man: Passion and Fear in the Criminal Courtroom

CHAPTERS in Murder and the Reasonable Man: Passion and Fear in the Criminal Courtroom, NYU Press, June 2003, GWU Law School, Public Law Research Paper No. 62A, GWU Legal Studies Research Paper No. 62A
Number of pages: 101 Posted: 06 Aug 2003 Last Revised: 15 Aug 2012
Cynthia Lee
George Washington University Law School
Downloads 104 (351,940)

Abstract:

Loading...

Murder and the Reasonable Man: Passion and Fear in the Criminal Courtroom

CHAPTERS in Murder and the Reasonable Man: Passion and Fear in the Criminal Courtroom, NYU Press, June 2003, GWU Legal Studies Research Paper No. 62B, GWU Law School Public Law Research Paper No. 62B
Number of pages: 64 Posted: 14 Aug 2012
Cynthia Lee
George Washington University Law School
Downloads 66 (462,300)

Abstract:

Loading...

14.

Criminal Law: Cases and Materials

CRIMINAL LAW: CASES AND MATERIALS, 2d Ed., 2009, GWU Legal Studies Research Paper No. 2013-37, GWU Law School Public Law Research Paper No. 2013-37
Number of pages: 68 Posted: 02 Mar 2013
Cynthia Lee and Angela P. Harris
George Washington University Law School and University of California, Davis - King Hall School of Law
Downloads 157 (257,497)

Abstract:

Loading...

criminal law, sources of criminal law, moral culture, American legal system, Anglo-American tradition, rape, murder, burglary, law & order, aims of criminal law, Anglo-American moral culture

15.

Prosecutorial Discretion, Substantial Assistance, and the Federal Sentencing Guidelines

UCLA Law Review, Vol. 42, No. 105, 1994, GWU Law School Public Law Research Paper No. 310, GWU Legal Studies Research Paper No. 310
Number of pages: 77 Posted: 20 Jul 2007
Cynthia Lee
George Washington University Law School
Downloads 153 (262,861)

Abstract:

Loading...

prosecutorial discretion, substantial assistance departures,Federal Sentencing Guideline, federal sentencing guidelines, downward departures, substantial assistance, cooperation, 5K1.1, judicial discretion, prosecutorial discretion, government motion

16.

A New Approach to Voir Dire on Racial Bias

5 U.C. IRVINE L. REV. 843 (2015) , GWU Law School Public Law Research Paper No. 2015-63, GWU Legal Studies Research Paper No. 2015-63
Number of pages: 31 Posted: 07 Mar 2016
Cynthia Lee
George Washington University Law School
Downloads 137 (286,885)

Abstract:

Loading...

Voir Dire, Jury Selection, Race, Racial Bias, Debiasing, Prejudice, Race Salience, Racial Discrimination, Batson challenges

17.

'Murder and the Reasonable Man' Revisited: A Response to Victoria Nourse

Ohio State Journal of Criminal Law, Vol. 3, No. 1, 2005, GWU Law School Public Law Research Paper No. 172
Number of pages: 7 Posted: 02 Nov 2005
Cynthia Lee
George Washington University Law School
Downloads 132 (295,064)

Abstract:

Loading...

18.

(E)Racing Trayvon Martin

Ohio State Journal of Criminal Law, Forthcoming, GWU Law School Public Law Research Paper No. 2014-57, GWU Legal Studies Research Paper No. 2014-57
Number of pages: 18 Posted: 19 Dec 2014
Cynthia Lee
George Washington University Law School
Downloads 124 (309,174)

Abstract:

Loading...

race, color-blindness, self-defense, Critical Race Theory, Trayvon Martin, race salience, reasonableness

19.

Reasonableness with Teeth: The Future of Fourth Amendment Reasonableness Analysis

Mississippi Law Journal, Forthcoming, GWU Law School Public Law Research Paper No. 576, GWU Legal Studies Research Paper No. 576
Number of pages: 51 Posted: 08 Aug 2011 Last Revised: 28 Mar 2012
Cynthia Lee
George Washington University Law School
Downloads 122 (312,937)
Citation 2

Abstract:

Loading...

Fourth Amendment, Reasonableness, Searches and Seizures

20.

Race, Policing, and Lethal Force: Remedying Shooter Bias with Martial Arts Training

Law and Contemporary Problems, Vol. 79, No. 3, 2016, GWU Law School Public Law Research Paper No. 2016-34, GWU Legal Studies Research Paper No. 2016-34
Number of pages: 29 Posted: 14 Aug 2016
Cynthia Lee
George Washington University Law School
Downloads 111 (334,443)

Abstract:

Loading...

police, race, use of force, deadly force, shooter bias, implicit racial bias, martial arts debiasing

21.

The Act-Belief Distinction in Self-Defense Doctrine: A New Dual Requirement Theory of Justification

Buffalo Criminal Law Review, Vol. 2, No. 191, 1998, GWU Law School Public Law Research Paper No. 312, GWU Legal Studies Research Paper No. 312
Number of pages: 58 Posted: 27 Oct 1998
Cynthia Lee
George Washington University Law School
Downloads 103 (351,690)

Abstract:

Loading...

22.

Package Bombs, Footlockers, and Laptops: What the Disappearing Container Doctrine Can Tell Us About the Fourth Amendment

Journal of Criminal Law and Criminology, Forthcoming, GWU Legal Studies Research Paper No. 514, GWU Law School Public Law Research Paper No. 514
Number of pages: 93 Posted: 06 Oct 2010 Last Revised: 16 Jan 2011
Cynthia Lee
George Washington University Law School
Downloads 94 (372,965)

Abstract:

Loading...

Fourth Amendment, Searches and Seizures, Container Searches, Computer Searches, Reasonableness Review, Warrant Preference, Rational Basis with Bite, Automobile Exception, Search Incident to Arrest, Terry Stop and Frisk, Urban Poor, Poor People of Color, Warrants, Critical Race Theory, Feminist

23.

Freedom of Speech in the Public Workplace: A Comment on the Public Concern Requirement

California Law Review, Vol. 76, No. 1109, 1988, GWU Law School Public Law Research Paper No. 311, GWU Legal Studies Research Paper No. 311
Number of pages: 39 Posted: 19 Jul 2007
Cynthia Lee
George Washington University Law School
Downloads 88 (388,437)

Abstract:

Loading...

free speech, public employee speech, workplace speech, public concern

24.

Officer-Created Jeopardy: Broadening the Time Frame for Assessing a Police Officer’s Use of Deadly Force

89 GEO. WASH. L. REV. 1362 (2021), GWU Legal Studies Research Paper No. 2021-05, GWU Law School Public Law Research Paper No. 2021-05
Number of pages: 91 Posted: 04 Feb 2021 Last Revised: 04 Jan 2022
Cynthia Lee
George Washington University Law School
Downloads 78 (416,962)

Abstract:

Loading...

Police, Policing, Use of Force, Police Accountability, Police Reform, Police Violence, Fourth Amendment

25.

Race and the Victim: An Examination of Capital Sentencing and Guilt Attribution Studies

Chicago-Kent Law Review, Symposium on Race and Criminal Law, Vol. 73, No. 2, 1998
Number of pages: 26 Posted: 26 Oct 1998
Cynthia Lee
George Washington University Law School
Downloads 67 (452,736)

Abstract:

Loading...

capital sentencing, death penalty, guilt attribution, race and the victim, race and the jury, racial disparity, juror-victim racial similarity

26.

Probable Cause with Teeth

270 Geo. Wash. L. Rev. 269, GWU Legal Studies Research Paper No. 2019-50, GWU Law School Public Law Research Paper No. 2019-50
Number of pages: 59 Posted: 17 Aug 2019 Last Revised: 16 Jul 2020
Cynthia Lee
George Washington University Law School
Downloads 66 (456,207)

Abstract:

Loading...

probable cause, criminal procedure, race, arrests

27.

Making Black and Brown Lives Matter: Incorporating Race into the Criminal Procedure Curriculum

60 St. Louis U. L.J. 481 (2016), GWU Law School Public Law Research Paper No. 2017-57, GWU Legal Studies Research Paper No. 2017-57
Number of pages: 17 Posted: 02 Aug 2017
Cynthia Lee
George Washington University Law School
Downloads 62 (470,719)

Abstract:

Loading...

Teaching, Criminal Procedure, Race, Social Justice, Criminal Procedure Curriculum

28.

A New 'Sliding Scale of Difference' Approach to Abuse of Discretion: Appellate Review of District Court Departures Under the Federal Sentencing Guidelines

American Criminal Law Review, Vol. 35, No. 1, 1997, GWU Legal Studies Research Paper No. 319, GWU Law School Public Law Research Paper No. 319
Number of pages: 56 Posted: 24 Jul 2007
Cynthia Lee
George Washington University Law School
Downloads 54 (501,980)

Abstract:

Loading...

federal Sentencing guidelines, standard of review, appellate review, sentencing departures

29.

Teaching Criminal Law from a Critical Perspective

7 Ohio State Journal of Criminal Law 261 (2009), GWU Legal Studies Research Paper No. 2013-137, GWU Law School Public Law Research Paper No. 2013-137
Number of pages: 7 Posted: 17 Dec 2013
Angela P. Harris and Cynthia Lee
University of California, Davis - King Hall School of Law and George Washington University Law School
Downloads 45 (541,720)

Abstract:

Loading...

30.

The Sentencing Court's Discretion to Depart Downward in Recognition of a Defendant's Substantial Assistance: A Proposal to Eliminate the Government Motion Requirement

Indiana Law Review, Vol. 23, No. 631, 1990, GWU Legal Studies Research Paper No. 317, GWU Law School Public Law Research Paper No. 317
Number of pages: 23 Posted: 20 Jul 2007
Cynthia Lee
George Washington University Law School
Downloads 42 (556,390)

Abstract:

Loading...

federal sentencing guidelines, substantial assistance, cooperation, 5K1.1, downward departures, government motion, judicial discretion, prosecutorial discretion

31.

Denying the Significance of Race

Denying the Significance of Race: Colorblindness and the Zimmerman Trial in Trayvon Martin, Race, and American Justice 31 (Kenneth J. Fasching-Varner, et al. eds., 2014), GWU Law School Public Law Research Paper No. 2017-62, GWU Legal Studies Research Paper No. 2017-62
Number of pages: 11 Posted: 28 Aug 2017
Cynthia Lee
George Washington University Law School
Downloads 23 (670,548)

Abstract:

Loading...

Race, Colorblind, Trayvon Martin, George Zimmerman, racial stereotypes, critical race theory

32.

Firearms and Initial Aggressors

101 N.C. LAW REV. ___ (forthcoming 2023), GWU Legal Studies Research Paper No. 2022-19, GWU Law School Public Law Research Paper No. 2022-19
Number of pages: 69 Posted: 13 May 2022
Cynthia Lee
George Washington University Law School
Downloads 13 (750,996)

Abstract:

Loading...

self-defense, initial aggressor, firearms, Second Amendment

33.

Cynthia Lee's Written Testimony in Support of Maryland House Bill 166

GWU Legal Studies Research Paper No. 2020-13, GWU Law School Public Law Research Paper No. 2020-13
Number of pages: 11 Posted: 30 Mar 2020
Cynthia Lee
George Washington University Law School
Downloads 11 (769,003)

Abstract:

Loading...

police, justifiable force, police use of force, deadly force, self defense, defense of others, legislation