Vili Lehdonvirta

University of Oxford - Oxford Internet Institute

Research Fellow

1 St. Giles

University of Oxford

Oxford, Oxfordshire OX1 3JS

United Kingdom

http://www.oii.ox.ac.uk

SCHOLARLY PAPERS

48

DOWNLOADS
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Top 2,487

in Total Papers Downloads

24,468

SSRN CITATIONS
Rank 7,022

SSRN RANKINGS

Top 7,022

in Total Papers Citations

155

CROSSREF CITATIONS

89

Scholarly Papers (48)

1.

Game Design as Marketing: How Game Mechanics Create Demand for Virtual Goods

International Journal of Business Science & Applied Management, Vol. 5, No. 1, pp. 14-29, 2010
Number of pages: 16 Posted: 31 Aug 2009
Juho Hamari and Vili Lehdonvirta
School of Information Science, University of Tampere and University of Oxford - Oxford Internet Institute
Downloads 4,973 (3,422)

Abstract:

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online games, social networking, virtual world, virtual goods, business model, sustainability, captology

2.

Platform Labour and Structured Antagonism: Understanding the Origins of Protest in the Gig Economy

Number of pages: 37 Posted: 19 Apr 2019
Alex Wood, Alex Wood and Vili Lehdonvirta
Oxford Internet Institute and University of Oxford - Oxford Internet Institute
Downloads 2,125 (13,719)
Citation 23

Abstract:

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Employee voice; flexibility; industrial relations; technology; trade unions

3.

Virtual Economics: Applying Economics to the Study of Game Worlds

Proceedings of the 2005 Conference on Future Play (Future Play 2005), Lansing, MI, October 13-15, 2005
Number of pages: 6 Posted: 27 Jun 2010
Vili Lehdonvirta
University of Oxford - Oxford Internet Institute
Downloads 1,816 (17,534)

Abstract:

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virtual economy, virtual currency, virtual goods, virtual world, MMO, MMORPG

4.

Online Labour Index: Measuring the Online Gig Economy for Policy and Research

Technological Forecasting and Social Change, Forthcoming
Number of pages: 31 Posted: 04 Sep 2018
Otto Kässi and Vili Lehdonvirta
Etla and University of Oxford - Oxford Internet Institute
Downloads 1,439 (25,017)
Citation 37

Abstract:

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online freelancing, online labour markets, online gig economy, measurement, statistics, measurement of vacancies, web data collection

5.

Platform Precarity: Surviving Algorithmic Insecurity in the Gig Economy

Number of pages: 48 Posted: 02 Mar 2021 Last Revised: 09 Sep 2021
Alex Wood, Alex Wood and Vili Lehdonvirta
Oxford Internet Institute and University of Oxford - Oxford Internet Institute
Downloads 1,424 (25,433)
Citation 18

Abstract:

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Algorithms, gig economy, platform, precarious work, insecurity, resistance

6.

Real-Money Trade of Virtual Assets: New Strategies for Virtual World Operators

VIRTUAL WORLDS, Ipe, Mary, ed., pp. 113-137, Icfai University Press, Hyderabad, India, 2008
Number of pages: 10 Posted: 04 Mar 2009
Vili Lehdonvirta
University of Oxford - Oxford Internet Institute
Downloads 1,132 (35,520)

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7.

Real-Money Trade of Virtual Assets: Ten Different User Perceptions

Proceedings of Digital Arts and Culture (DAC 2005), IT University of Copenhagen, Denmark, pp. 52-58, December 1-3, 2005
Number of pages: 7 Posted: 06 Mar 2009
Vili Lehdonvirta
University of Oxford - Oxford Internet Institute
Downloads 1,078 (38,114)
Citation 35

Abstract:

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8.

A History of the Digitalization of Consumer Culture: From Amazon Through Pirate Bay to Farmville

In: J. Denegri-Knott and M. Molesworth (eds), Digital Virtual Consumption. New York: Routledge, pp. 11-28. 2012
Number of pages: 30 Posted: 29 Jan 2015
Vili Lehdonvirta
University of Oxford - Oxford Internet Institute
Downloads 1,010 (41,802)

Abstract:

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9.

Flexibility in the Gig Economy: Managing Time on Three Online Piecework Platforms

New Technology, Work and Employment, Forthcoming
Number of pages: 37 Posted: 15 Jan 2018
Vili Lehdonvirta
University of Oxford - Oxford Internet Institute
Downloads 826 (55,239)
Citation 3

Abstract:

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Microwork, Flexible Scheduling, Flextime, Non-Standard Work, Crowd Employment, Crowdsourcing, ICTs, Sociomateriality, Labour Process

10.

Workers of the Internet Unite? Online Freelancer Organisation Among Remote Gig Economy Workers in Six Asian and African Countries

Wood A.J, Lehdonvirta V and Graham M (2018) Workers of the Internet unite? Online freelancer organisation among remote gig economy workers in six Asian and African countries. New Technology, Work and Employment 33(2):95-112.
Number of pages: 33 Posted: 31 Jul 2018
Alex Wood, Alex Wood, Vili Lehdonvirta and Mark Graham
Oxford Internet Institute, University of Oxford - Oxford Internet Institute and University of Oxford - Oxford Internet Institute
Downloads 800 (57,607)
Citation 4

Abstract:

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freelance, gig economy, collective action, collective organisation, union, Southeast Asia, Sub-Saharan Africa, digital labour

11.

Virtual Consumption

Turku School of Economics, No. A-11, 2009
Posted: 27 Jun 2010
Vili Lehdonvirta
University of Oxford - Oxford Internet Institute
Downloads 792 (58,428)
Citation 3

Abstract:

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consumer behaviour, online communities, cross-cultural study, electronic commerce, dematerialisation of consumption, ethics of consumption

12.

Virtual Item Sales as a Revenue Model: Identifying Attributes that Drive Purchase Decisions

Electronic Commerce Research, Vol. 9, No. 1, pp. 97-113, 2009
Number of pages: 17 Posted: 02 Mar 2009 Last Revised: 25 Jun 2010
Vili Lehdonvirta
University of Oxford - Oxford Internet Institute
Downloads 631 (78,421)
Citation 3

Abstract:

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consumer behavior, online communities, business model, purchase drivers, virtual consumption, RMT

13.

Cloud empires’ physical footprint: How trade and security politics shape the global expansion of U.S. and Chinese data centre infrastructures

Number of pages: 24 Posted: 20 Dec 2023
Vili Lehdonvirta, Boxi Wu and Zoe Hawkins
University of Oxford - Oxford Internet Institute, University of Oxford and University of Oxford
Downloads 555 (92,207)

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infrastructural power, technological dependence, weaponized interdependence, cloud computing, Big Tech, digital infrastructure, tech war, digital sovereignty, data sovereignty

14.

How Many Online Workers are There in the World? A Data-Driven Assessment

Number of pages: 16 Posted: 24 Mar 2021 Last Revised: 19 Apr 2021
Otto Kässi, Vili Lehdonvirta and Fabian Stephany
Etla, University of Oxford - Oxford Internet Institute and University of Oxford - Oxford Internet Institute
Downloads 531 (97,464)

Abstract:

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Gig Work, Online Labour Markets, Platform Economy

15.

Mine the Gap: Bitcoin and the Maintenance of Trustlessness

New Media & Society, Forthcoming
Number of pages: 28 Posted: 16 Aug 2018
Gili Vidan and Vili Lehdonvirta
Harvard University - Department of the History of Science and University of Oxford - Oxford Internet Institute
Downloads 523 (99,231)
Citation 3

Abstract:

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Algorithmic Regulation, Bitcoin, Cryptocurrency, Critical Code Studies, Distributed Ledger Technology, Peer Production, Blockchain

16.

Taxing Earnings from the Platform Economy: An EU Digital Single Window for Income Data?

British Tax Review, 2020
Number of pages: 31 Posted: 21 May 2020
Daisy Ogembo and Vili Lehdonvirta
University of Oxford - Faculty of Law and University of Oxford - Oxford Internet Institute
Downloads 468 (113,584)
Citation 1

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17.

Virtual Consumerism: Case Habbo Hotel

Information, Communication & Society, Vol. 12, No. 7, pp. 1059-1079, 2009
Number of pages: 21 Posted: 27 Jun 2010
Vili Lehdonvirta, Terhi-Anna Wilska and Mikael Johnson
University of Oxford - Oxford Internet Institute, University of Turku - Turku School of Economics and Helsinki Institute for Information Technology
Downloads 320 (174,230)
Citation 1

Abstract:

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virtual property, consumer behaviour, commodification, global culture industry, massively-multiplayer online game (MMO), real-money trading (RMT)

ICTs and the Urban-Rural Divide: Can Online Labour Platforms Bridge the Gap?

Number of pages: 21 Posted: 27 Nov 2018 Last Revised: 10 Oct 2019
Fabian Braesemann, Vili Lehdonvirta and Otto Kässi
University of Oxford - Oxford Internet Institute, University of Oxford - Oxford Internet Institute and Etla
Downloads 174 (313,538)
Citation 1

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Platform Economy, Online Labour Markets, Internet Effects on Regional Development, Rural Employment, Urban-Rural Divide, Labour Mobility, Spatial Inequality

ICTs and the Urban-Rural Divide: Can Online Labour Platforms Bridge the Gap?

Information, Communication and Society, 2020
Number of pages: 22 Posted: 14 May 2020
Fabian Braesemann, Vili Lehdonvirta and Otto Kässi
University of Oxford - Oxford Internet Institute, University of Oxford - Oxford Internet Institute and Etla
Downloads 104 (473,187)
Citation 4

Abstract:

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Information and Communication Technology, Platform Economy, Online Labor Platforms, Urban-Rural Divide, Spatial Inequality, Regional Development

19.

Antagonism Beyond Employment: How the ‘Subordinated Agency’ of Labour Platforms Generates Conflict in the Remote Gig Economy

Socio-Economic Review, 2021
Number of pages: 44 Posted: 19 Apr 2021
Alex Wood, Alex Wood and Vili Lehdonvirta
Oxford Internet Institute and University of Oxford - Oxford Internet Institute
Downloads 274 (204,779)
Citation 4

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20.

The Polarisation of Remote Work

Number of pages: 78 Posted: 11 Oct 2021
University of Oxford - Oxford Internet Institute, University of Oxford - Oxford Internet Institute, University of Copenhagen - Copenhagen Center for Social Data Science, Etla, University of Oxford - Oxford Internet Institute and University of Oxford - Oxford Internet Institute
Downloads 270 (207,814)
Citation 1

Abstract:

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Remote work, Online labour, Platform economy, Geography, Polarisation

21.

Do Digital Skill Certificates Help New Workers Enter the Market? Evidence from an Online Labour Platform

CESifo Working Paper No. 7810
Number of pages: 36 Posted: 14 Oct 2019
Otto Kässi and Vili Lehdonvirta
Etla and University of Oxford - Oxford Internet Institute
Downloads 265 (211,751)
Citation 2

Abstract:

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signaling, human capital, skill validation, skill certificates, micro-credentials, online freelancing, platforms, gig economy, computer-based assessment

22.

Can Labour Market Digitalization Increase Social Mobility? Evidence from a European Survey of Online Platform Workers

Number of pages: 21 Posted: 21 Jun 2021
Nicholas Martindale and Vili Lehdonvirta
University of Oxford - Nuffield College and University of Oxford - Oxford Internet Institute
Downloads 210 (265,000)

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New Digital Safety Net or Just More ‘Friendfunding’? Institutional Analysis of Medical Crowdfunding in the United States

Number of pages: 27 Posted: 14 Apr 2020
Sumin Lee and Vili Lehdonvirta
University of Oxford - Oxford Internet Institute and University of Oxford - Oxford Internet Institute
Downloads 159 (339,157)
Citation 2

Abstract:

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medical crowdfunding, charitable crowdfunding, donation crowdfunding, institutions, safety net

New Digital Safety Net or Just More ‘Friendfunding’? Institutional Analysis of Medical Crowdfunding in the United States

Information, Communication, and Society (Forthcoming)
Number of pages: 51 Posted: 23 Jan 2021
Sumin Lee and Vili Lehdonvirta
University of Oxford - Oxford Internet Institute and University of Oxford - Oxford Internet Institute
Downloads 50 (720,990)

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24.

Good Gig, Bad Gig: Autonomy and Algorithmic Control in the Global Gig Economy

Wood AJ, Graham M, Lehdonvirta V, Hjorth I (2018) Good gig, bad gig: autonomy and algorithmic control in the global gig economy. Work, Employment and Society 0(0): 1-20.
Number of pages: 33 Posted: 16 Aug 2018
Alex Wood, Alex Wood, Mark Graham, Vili Lehdonvirta and Isis Hjorth
Oxford Internet Institute, University of Oxford - Oxford Internet Institute, University of Oxford - Oxford Internet Institute and University of Oxford - Oxford Internet Institute
Downloads 203 (273,384)
Citation 23

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25.

Virtual Production Networks: Fixing Commodification and Disembeddedness

Number of pages: 39 Posted: 18 Jun 2021
Oxford Internet Institute, University of Oxford - Oxford Internet Institute, University of Oxford - Oxford Internet Institute, University of Pretoria - Gordon Institute of Business Science and University of Oxford - Oxford Internet Institute
Downloads 193 (286,092)
Citation 6

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digital labor, embeddedness, gig economy, global production networks, online platforms

26.

The Future(s) of Unpaid Work: How Susceptible Do Experts From Different Backgrounds Think the Domestic Sphere Is to Automation

Number of pages: 31 Posted: 30 Jan 2022 Last Revised: 05 Jan 2023
University of Oxford - Oxford Internet Institute, University of Oxford - Department of Sociology, University of Oxford - Department of Sociology, Ochanomizu University and Ochanomizu University
Downloads 190 (290,308)

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artificial intelligence, automation, qualitative forecasting, domestic work, gender

The Future of Unpaid Work: Estimating the Effects of Automation on Time Spent on Housework and Care Work in Japan and the UK

Number of pages: 28 Posted: 16 Feb 2022 Last Revised: 22 Feb 2022
University of Oxford - Department of Sociology, National Institute of Population and Social Security Research, Nihon University, Ochanomizu University and University of Oxford - Oxford Internet Institute
Downloads 130 (399,429)

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unpaid work, automation, labour supply, gender equality, time use

The Future of Unpaid Work: Estimating the Effects of Automation on Time Spent on Housework and Care Work in Japan and the UK

Number of pages: 30 Posted: 31 Mar 2022 Last Revised: 04 May 2023
University of Oxford - Department of Sociology, University of Oxford - Oxford Internet Institute, National Institute of Population and Social Security Research, Ochanomizu University and Nihon University
Downloads 46 (748,036)
Citation 1

Abstract:

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unpaid work, Automation, labour supply, gender equality, time use

28.

Platforms Disrupting Reputation: Precarity and Recognition Struggles In The Remote Gig Economy

Sociology, 2022
Number of pages: 31 Posted: 27 Sep 2022
Alex Wood, Alex Wood and Vili Lehdonvirta
Oxford Internet Institute and University of Oxford - Oxford Internet Institute
Downloads 161 (335,541)
Citation 4

Abstract:

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Algorithms, embeddedness, gig economy, insecurity, platform, precarious work, resistance

29.

Online Labour Index 2020: New ways to measure the world’s remote freelancing market

Stephany, F., Kässi, O., Rani, U., & Lehdonvirta, V. (2021). Online Labour Index 2020: New ways to measure the world’s remote freelancing market. Big Data & Society. https://doi.org/10.1177/20539517211043240
Number of pages: 10 Posted: 24 May 2021 Last Revised: 21 Sep 2021
Fabian Stephany, Otto Kässi, Uma Rani and Vili Lehdonvirta
University of Oxford - Oxford Internet Institute, Etla, International Labour Organization (ILO) and University of Oxford - Oxford Internet Institute
Downloads 158 (340,873)
Citation 4

Abstract:

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Online Labour Markets, Gig Work, Platform Economy, Online Data Collection

30.

UbiPay: Minimizing Transaction Costs with Smart Mobile Payments

Proceedings of the 6th International Conference on Mobile Technology, Application & Systems (Mobility 2009), Nice, France, September 2-4
Number of pages: 7 Posted: 21 Jan 2015
University of Oxford - Oxford Internet Institute, Waseda University, Waseda University, Waseda University, Waseda University and Waseda University
Downloads 138 (380,094)

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Computers and Society, Information Interfaces and Presentation

31.

Dynamics of Contention in the Gig Economy: Rage Against the Platform, Customer, or State?

New Technology, Work & Employment, Forthcoming
Number of pages: 43 Posted: 26 Oct 2021
Alex Wood, Nicholas Martindale and Vili Lehdonvirta
University of Bristol - Department of Management, University of Oxford - Nuffield College and University of Oxford - Oxford Internet Institute
Downloads 136 (384,493)

Abstract:

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Gig economy, consumer, state

32.

Who does “Big Tech” stand for? Conflict between shareholders and executives over the direction of technological change

Number of pages: 37 Posted: 20 Sep 2023 Last Revised: 19 Jan 2024
Vili Lehdonvirta and Rachel Ricucci
University of Oxford - Oxford Internet Institute and University of Oxford - Oxford Internet Institute
Downloads 121 (420,493)

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33.

Virtuality in the Sphere of Economics

Grimshaw, M. (ed.) The Oxford Handbook of Virtuality, Oxford: Oxford University Press, Chapter 31, 2013
Number of pages: 13 Posted: 23 Nov 2014
Vili Lehdonvirta
University of Oxford - Oxford Internet Institute
Downloads 103 (473,484)

Abstract:

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online games, virtual goods, virtual currency, economic crisis, value, subjectivity

34.

A New Frontier in Digital Content Policy: Case Studies in the Regulation of Virtual Goods and Artificial Scarcity

Policy & Internet, vol. 2, no. 3, pp. 7-29 (2010)
Number of pages: 23 Posted: 05 Oct 2014
Vili Lehdonvirta and Perttu Virtanen
University of Oxford - Oxford Internet Institute and Helsinki Institute for Information Technology
Downloads 100 (483,127)

Abstract:

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virtual property, copyright, ownership, secondary markets, online games, social network services, virtual worlds

35.

European Union Data Protection Directive: Adequacy of Data Protection in Singapore

Singapore Journal of Legal Studies, pp. 511-546, 2004
Number of pages: 36 Posted: 28 Dec 2006
Vili Lehdonvirta
University of Oxford - Oxford Internet Institute
Downloads 93 (506,544)
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36.

The Stoic Male: How Avatar Gender Affects Help-Seeking Behavior in an Online Game

Games and Culture, 7(1) 29-47, 2012
Number of pages: 19 Posted: 28 Jan 2015
University of Tokyo, University of Tokyo, University of Oxford - Oxford Internet Institute and University of Tokyo
Downloads 87 (528,130)

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prosocial behavior, gender, online games, avatars, anonymity, identity, online therapy

37.

Applying Pervasive Technologies to Create Economic Incentives that Alter Consumer Behavior

Proceedings of Ubicomp 2009, Orlando, Florida, September 30-October 3. New York: ACM, pp. 175-184
Number of pages: 10 Posted: 21 Jan 2015
Waseda University, University of Oxford - Oxford Internet Institute, Waseda University, Waseda University, Waseda University and Waseda University
Downloads 81 (551,552)

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Persuasive technology, economic incentives, mobile payment, micropayments, activity-based micro-pricing, virtual currency

38.

Pink and Blue Pixel$: Gender and Economic Disparity in Two Massive Online Games

The Information Society, Vol. 30, No. 4, pp. 243-255, 2014
Number of pages: 42 Posted: 22 Nov 2014
University of Oxford - Oxford Internet Institute, Michigan State University, Brock University and University of Southern California - Annenberg School for Communication and Journalism
Downloads 76 (572,249)
Citation 1

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Virtual economy, playbor, prosumer work, online community, online games, digital divide, gender gap, occupational segregation, avatars, MMO

39.

Social Media, Web, and Panel Surveys: Using Non-Probability Samples in Social and Policy Research

Policy & Internet, Forthcoming
Number of pages: 27 Posted: 30 Apr 2020
Vili Lehdonvirta, Atte Oksanen, Pekka Räsänen and Grant Blank
University of Oxford - Oxford Internet Institute, Tampere University - Faculty of Social Sciences, University of Turku and University of Oxford - Oxford Internet Institute
Downloads 74 (580,905)
Citation 1

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40.

Identification with Online and Offline Communities: Understanding ICT Disparities in Finland

Technology in Society, vol. 33, no. 1-2, pp. 4-11, 2011
Number of pages: 8 Posted: 28 Jan 2015
Matti Nasi, Pekka Räsänen and Vili Lehdonvirta
University of Turku, University of Turku and University of Oxford - Oxford Internet Institute
Downloads 68 (608,209)

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Internet , Age groups, Online communities , Identification experiences, Survey

41.

Prosocial Behaviour in Avatar-Mediated Interaction: The Influence of Character Gender on Material Versus Emotional Help-Giving

On the Horizon, vol. 19, no. 3, pp. 165-173, 2011
Number of pages: 9 Posted: 28 Jan 2015
Mika Lehdonvirta, Vili Lehdonvirta and Akira Baba
University of Tokyo, University of Oxford - Oxford Internet Institute and University of Tokyo
Downloads 58 (658,995)

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Gender, Behaviour, Social interaction, Social networking sites

42.

Using Individual, Social and Economic Persuasion Techniques to Reduce CO2 Emissions in a Family Setting

Proceedings of the 4th International Conference on Persuasive Technology (Persuasive 2009), Claremont, California, April 26-29
Number of pages: 8 Posted: 21 Jan 2015
Waseda University, University of Oxford - Oxford Internet Institute, Waseda University, Waseda University, Waseda University and Waseda University
Downloads 56 (670,101)

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User/Machine Systems, Social and Behavioral Science, Design

43.

A Crowdsourcing Based Mobile Image Translation and Knowledge Sharing Service

Proceedings of the 9th International Conference on Mobile and Ubiquitous Multimedia (MUM 2010), Limassol, Cyprus, December 2010
Number of pages: 9 Posted: 28 Jan 2015
University of Oxford - Oxford Internet Institute, Waseda University, Eindhoven University of Technology (TUE), Waseda University, Waseda University and Waseda University
Downloads 55 (675,679)

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Crowdsourcing, mobile image translation, image-text recog- nition, human computation, knowledge sharing

44.

Situated Crowdsourcing Using a Market Model

Proceedings The ACM Symposium on User Interface Software and Technology, Hawaii, US, October 2014
Number of pages: 10 Posted: 28 Jan 2015
University of Oulu, University of Oulu, University of Oxford - Oxford Internet Institute, University of Oulu and University of Oulu
Downloads 50 (705,257)

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Crowdsourcing, virtual currency, market, situated technologies

45.

Reflecting Human Behavior to Motivate Desirable Lifestyle

Proceedings of the 7th ACM Conference on Designing Interactive Systems, February 2008
Number of pages: 10 Posted: 17 Jan 2015
Waseda University, University of Oxford - Oxford Internet Institute, Waseda University and Waseda University
Downloads 50 (705,257)

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Interaction design, Ambient feedback, Persuasive technology, Behavior modification, Intelligent smart objects, Emotional engagement

46.

Collecting Conversations: Three Approaches to Obtaining User-to-User Communications Data from Virtual Environments

Journal of Virtual Worlds Research, vol. 3, no. 3, 2011
Number of pages: 22 Posted: 28 Jan 2015
Mika Lehdonvirta, Vili Lehdonvirta and Akira Baba
University of Tokyo, University of Oxford - Oxford Internet Institute and University of Tokyo
Downloads 48 (717,884)

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chat log, content analysis, lurking, methodology, online game, research ethics

47.

UbiPay: Conducting Everyday Payments with Minimum User Involvement

CHI '08 Extended Abstracts on Human Factors in Computing Systems, Florence, Italy, April 5-10. New York: ACM, pp. 3537-3542, 2008
Number of pages: 6 Posted: 17 Jan 2015
University of Oxford - Oxford Internet Institute, Waseda University, Waseda University, Waseda University and Waseda University
Downloads 44 (743,964)

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Electronic payment, mobile devices, transaction costs

48.

Virtual Worlds Don't Exist: Questioning the Dichotomous Approach in MMO Studies

Game Studies, Vol. 10, No. 1, 2010
Posted: 27 Jun 2010
Vili Lehdonvirta
University of Oxford - Oxford Internet Institute

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reseach design, methodology, online games, magic circle, social world perspective, virtual space, identity