Bas Berend Bakker

International Monetary Fund (IMF)

700 19th Street, N.W.

Washington, DC 20431

United States









Scholarly Papers (10)


The Credit Boom in the EU New Member States: Bad Luck or Bad Policies?

IMF Working Paper No. 10/130
Number of pages: 46 Posted: 04 Jun 2010
Bas Berend Bakker and Anne-Marie Gulde
International Monetary Fund (IMF) and International Monetary Fund (IMF)
Downloads 330 (127,492)



Eastern Europe, Capital flows, Credit demand, Credit expansion, Business cycles, Economic reforms, Global Financial Crisis 2008-2009


Vulnerabilities in Emerging Southeastern Europe - How Much Cause for Concern?

IMF Working Paper No. 07/236
Number of pages: 46 Posted: 25 Jan 2008
International Monetary Fund (IMF), International Monetary Fund (IMF), International Monetary Fund (IMF), International Monetary Fund (IMF) and International Monetary Fund (IMF)
Downloads 238 (177,593)



Working Paper, Economic indicators, Europe, Capital inflows, Emerging markets, Adjustment process, Crisis prevention


The Rich and the Great Recession

IMF Working Paper No. 14/225
Number of pages: 37 Posted: 06 Feb 2015
Bas Berend Bakker and Joshua Felman
International Monetary Fund (IMF) and International Monetary Fund (IMF)
Downloads 67 (452,482)



Income inequality, United States, Income distribution, Private savings, Household consumption, Economic recession, Econometric models, wealth inequality, business cycles, assets, reserve, debt, disposable income, prices, marginal propensity to consume, valuation, consumption function, real income, trends, elasticity, wages, variables, real estate, household debt, macroeconomics, econometrics, monetary policy, growth rate, gdp, national income, mortgages, financial crisis, central bank, trough, income groups, political economy, debts, consumption increases, lags, measurement, distribution of wealth, households, advanced economies, homeowners, loan, loan delinquency


Dismal Employment Growth in EU Countries: The Role of Corporate Balance Sheet Repair and Dual Labor Markets

IMF Working Paper No. 13/179
Number of pages: 33 Posted: 11 Sep 2013
Bas Berend Bakker and Li Zeng
International Monetary Fund (IMF) and International Monetary Fund (IMF)
Downloads 39 (571,295)



Labor markets, Europe, European Economic and Monetary Union, Employment, Corporate sector, Profits, Debt, Current account deficits, saving, firms, employment growth, unemployment, employment losses, labor productivity, temporary employment, recession, employment reductions, employment performance, unemployment increases, duration of unemployment, employment outcome, labor force, employment outcomes, unemployment rate, total employment, employment outlook, reductions in employment, employment declines, employment impact, reduction in employment, unemployment rates, employment data, number of employees, employment protection, structural unemployment, employment status


Conventional and Insidious Macroeconomic Balance-Sheet Crises

IMF Working Paper No. 14/160
Number of pages: 41 Posted: 10 Sep 2014
Bas Berend Bakker and Leslie Lipschitz
International Monetary Fund (IMF) and IMF Institute
Downloads 34 (598,376)



Fiscal imbalances, Developed countries, Emerging markets, Capital account, Balance sheets, Financial crises, crises, business cycles, capital flows, capital inflows, exchange rate, real effective exchange rate, effective exchange rate, capital markets, current account deficit, real appreciation, foreign exchange, ppp, global capital markets, foreign capital, exchange rates, capital account crises, exchange rate policy, current account deficits, fixed exchange rates, net capital, foreign exchange reserves, current account balance, exchange reserves, exchange risk, net capital flows, capital inflow, crisis prevention, foreign capital inflows, capital controls, capital control, moral hazard, fl


The Lack of Convergence of Latin-America Compared with Cesee: Is Low Investment to Blame?

IMF Working Paper No. 20/98
Number of pages: 83 Posted: 23 Jul 2020
International Monetary Fund (IMF), International Monetary Fund (IMF), International Monetary Fund (IMF) and International Monetary Fund (IMF)
Downloads 20 (692,747)




COVID-19 in Latin America: A High Toll on Lives and Livelihoods

IMF Working Paper No. 2021/168
Number of pages: 60 Posted: 15 Feb 2022
Bas Berend Bakker and Carlos Goncalves
International Monetary Fund (IMF) and International Monetary Fund (IMF)
Downloads 19 (700,434)



later lockdown, dynamics of Covid-19 epidemic, lock-downs in Latin America, modeling lockdown type, lockdowns in Latin America, COVID-19, South America, Caribbean, Europe, Western Europe, Asia and Pacific


What Happens If Central Banks Misdiagnose a Slowdown in Potential Output

IMF Working Paper No. 19/208
Number of pages: 42 Posted: 08 Nov 2019
Bas Berend Bakker
International Monetary Fund (IMF)
Downloads 18 (708,291)



Real sector, Real interest rates, Return on investment, Unemployment, Investment, Monetary policy, potential output, Solow-Swan, WP, investment rate, gross investment, net investment, output growth, capital stock


Unemployment Surges in the EU: The Role of Risk Premium Shocks

IMF Working Paper No. 19/56
Number of pages: 34 Posted: 08 Apr 2019
Bas Berend Bakker, Marta Korczak and Krzysztof Krogulski
International Monetary Fund (IMF), International Monetary Fund (IMF) and International Monetary Fund (IMF)
Downloads 15 (732,889)



Risk premium, Market interest rates, Interest rates, Real interest rates, Unemployment, Risk premia, Euro area crisis, global economic and fincanial crisis, premia, euro area, pre-crisis, Baltics, GDP decline


The Future of CIS and CEE Countries

Economics of Transition, Vol. 26, Issue 4, pp. 801-826, 2018
Number of pages: 26 Posted: 18 Sep 2018
Stockholm School of Economics - Stockholm Institute of Transition Economics (SITE), European Bank for Reconstruction and Development (EBRD) - Office of the Chief EconomistEuropean Bank for Reconstruction and Development, Federal Reserve Bank of Philadelphia, International Monetary Fund (IMF) and Kyiv School of Economics
Downloads 3 (846,859)



Transition, political economy, banking reform, survey data