Alexander Zahar

Southwest University of Political Science and Law

Chongqing

China

China-ASEAN Legal Research Center

Chongqing, Chongqing

China

Macquarie University - Macquarie Law School (Sydney, Australia)

North Ryde

Sydney, New South Wales 2109

Australia

SCHOLARLY PAPERS

62

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SSRN CITATIONS

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CROSSREF CITATIONS

8

Scholarly Papers (62)

1.

The Polluter-Pays Principle in International Climate Change Law: Are States Under an Obligation to Price Carbon Emissions?

Number of pages: 15 Posted: 03 Dec 2018
Alexander Zahar
Southwest University of Political Science and Law
Downloads 654 (76,424)

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Climate change law, polluter-pays principle, Paris Agreement, 2°C limit on global warming, emission trading, climate finance, Kyoto Protocol

2.

A Bottom-Up Compliance Mechanism for the Paris Agreement

Chinese Journal of Environmental Law, Vol. 1, No. 1, 2017
Number of pages: 23 Posted: 08 Feb 2017 Last Revised: 24 Apr 2017
Alexander Zahar
Southwest University of Political Science and Law
Downloads 642 (78,193)

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Paris Agreement Article 15, compliance mechanism, United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change, Kyoto Protocol, Kyoto Protocol Enforcement Branch, Kyoto Protocol Facilitative Branch, ‘enforcement’ versus ‘facilitation’, ‘top-down’ versus ‘bottom-up’ approaches

3.

The Polluter-Pays Principle and its Implications for Environmental Governance in China

Number of pages: 22 Posted: 27 Jul 2017
Alexander Zahar
Southwest University of Political Science and Law
Downloads 616 (82,296)
Citation 2

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China, Environmental Law, Polluter-Pays Principle, Compliance, Monitoring, Reporting, Verification Inspection versus Audit, Independent Third-Party Verification

4.

The Polluter Pays Principle and its Ascendancy in Climate Change Law

National Taipei University Law Review, Vol. 114, pp. 129-180, 2020
Number of pages: 52 Posted: 12 Nov 2019 Last Revised: 14 Jul 2020
Alexander Zahar
Southwest University of Political Science and Law
Downloads 535 (98,344)

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Polluter-pays principle; 1992 United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC); 2015 Paris Agreement on Climate Change (Paris Agreement); 1997 Kyoto Protocol; two-degree Celsius (2°C) limit on global warming; Nationally Determined Contributions (NDCs); carbon trading; climate finance

5.

Command Responsibility of Civilian Superiors for Genocide

Leiden Journal of International Law, Vol. 14, pp. 591-616, 2001
Number of pages: 26 Posted: 21 Mar 2009
Alexander Zahar
Southwest University of Political Science and Law
Downloads 500 (106,851)

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Akayesu case, command responsibility, superior responsibility, Delalic et al. case, Celebici case, genocide, Kayishema and Ruzindana case, Musema case, Rwanda, ICTY, ICTR

6.

Review of Alan J. Kuperman, 'The Limits of Humanitarian Intervention: Genocide in Rwanda'

Journal of Genocide Research, Vol. 4, pp. 461-465, 2002
Number of pages: 5 Posted: 23 Mar 2009
Alexander Zahar
Southwest University of Political Science and Law
Downloads 370 (151,404)

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Alan Kuperman, Rwanda, genocide, humanitarian intervention

7.

Witness Memory and the Manufacture of Evidence at the International Criminal Tribunals

FUTURE PERSPECTIVES ON INTERNATIONAL CRIMINAL JUSTICE, Carsten Stahn & Larissa van den Herik, eds., pp. 600-610, T.M.C. Asser/Cambridge University Press, 2010,
Number of pages: 18 Posted: 05 Jan 2009 Last Revised: 04 Mar 2010
Alexander Zahar
Southwest University of Political Science and Law
Downloads 361 (155,599)

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Witness memory, evidence, fact-finding, psychology, international criminal law, international criminal justice, ICTY, ICTR

8.

The ICTR's 'Media' Judgment and the Reinvention of Direct and Public Incitement to Commit Genocide

Criminal Law Forum, Vol. 16, No. 1, pp. 33-48, 2005
Number of pages: 16 Posted: 25 Feb 2009
Alexander Zahar
Southwest University of Political Science and Law
Downloads 341 (165,515)

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ICTR, genocide, incitement, Rwanda, media

9.

Superior Orders

THE OXFORD COMPANION TO INTERNATIONAL CRIMINAL JUSTICE, Antonio Cassese, ed., pp. 525-527, Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2009
Number of pages: 3 Posted: 18 Mar 2009 Last Revised: 04 Nov 2015
Alexander Zahar
Southwest University of Political Science and Law
Downloads 339 (166,522)

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Defences, superior orders, ICTY, ICTR, ICC, mistake of law, command responsibility, war crimes, genocide, crimes against humanity

10.

Apartheid as an International Crime

THE OXFORD COMPANION TO INTERNATIONAL CRIMINAL JUSTICE, Antonio Cassese, ed., pp. 245-246, Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2009
Number of pages: 2 Posted: 11 Mar 2009 Last Revised: 04 Nov 2015
Alexander Zahar
Southwest University of Political Science and Law
Downloads 292 (195,036)

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Apartheid, international criminal law, crimes against humanity, ICC, International Convention on the Suppression and Punishment of the Crime of Apartheid

11.

The Problem of False Testimony at the International Criminal Tribunal for Rwanda

ANNOTATED LEADING CASES OF INTERNATIONAL CRIMINAL TRIBUNALS, Vol. 25: INTERNATIONAL CRIMINAL TRIBUNAL FOR RWANDA, 2006-2007, André Klip and Göran Sluiter, eds., pp. 509-522, Intersentia, 2010
Number of pages: 20 Posted: 04 Aug 2009 Last Revised: 28 Nov 2010
Alexander Zahar
Southwest University of Political Science and Law
Downloads 281 (202,883)
Citation 1

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perjury, false testimony, witness testimony, lying witnesses, judicial fact-finding, Rwamakuba case, Akayesu case, GAA case, ICTR, ICTY, international criminal tribunals

12.

Commentary on the Judgment of the ICTY Appeals Chamber in the Case of Prosecutor v. Radislav Krstic

ANNOTATED LEADING CASES OF INTERNATIONAL CRIMINAL TRIBUNALS, Vol. 19: INTERNATIONAL CRIMINAL TRIBUNAL FOR THE FORMER YUGOSLAVIA, 2004, André Klip and Göran Sluiter, eds., Intersentia, 2010
Number of pages: 21 Posted: 26 Oct 2009 Last Revised: 02 Nov 2015
Alexander Zahar
Southwest University of Political Science and Law
Downloads 258 (221,003)

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genocide, complicity in genocide, aiding and abetting genocide, Radislav Krstic, ICTY, ICTR, meaning of in whole or in part, meaning of group, joint criminal enterprise, Genocide Convention

13.

Perpetrators and Co-Perpetrators of Genocide

The United Nations Genocide Convention: A Commentary, pp. 139-161, Paola Gaeta, ed., Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2009
Number of pages: 12 Posted: 05 Jan 2009 Last Revised: 28 Jul 2017
Alexander Zahar
Southwest University of Political Science and Law
Downloads 208 (271,693)

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genocide, commission of genocide, international criminal law, international criminal justice, ICTY, ICTR

14.

Collective Obligation in the Paris Agreement

Number of pages: 25 Posted: 24 Sep 2018 Last Revised: 10 Jan 2019
Alexander Zahar
Southwest University of Political Science and Law
Downloads 189 (296,320)

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collective v. individual state obligations, Paris Agreement, below 2°C containment obligation, individuation mechanism, global stocktake

15.

Review of Scott Peterson, 'Me Against My Brother: At War in Somalia, Sudan, and Rwanda'

Journal of Genocide Research, Vol. 4, pp. 590-593, 2002
Number of pages: 4 Posted: 24 Mar 2009
Alexander Zahar
Southwest University of Political Science and Law
Downloads 189 (296,320)

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Scott Peterson, war journalism, Somalia, Rwanda, United Nations peacekeeping, Paul Kagame, genocide

16.

Why the Paris Agreement Does Not Need a Compliance Mechanism

Number of pages: 21 Posted: 11 Sep 2016 Last Revised: 28 Sep 2016
Alexander Zahar
Southwest University of Political Science and Law
Downloads 184 (303,324)

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Paris Agreement; Article 15; compliance mechanism; UNFCCC; Kyoto Protocol; Enforcement Branch; Facilitative Branch

17.

International Court and Private Citizen

New Criminal Law Review (Special Issue on the International Criminal Court), Vol. 12, No. 4, pp. 569-589, 2009
Number of pages: 21 Posted: 19 Feb 2009 Last Revised: 04 Mar 2010
Alexander Zahar
Southwest University of Political Science and Law
Downloads 184 (303,324)

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ICTY, ICC, human rights

18.

The United Nations International Criminal Tribunal for Rwanda (ICTR)

GENOCIDE AT THE MILLENNIUM; GENOCIDE: A CRITICAL BIBLIOGRAPHIC REVIEW, Samuel Totten, ed., Vol. 5, pp. 209-239, Transaction Publishers, 2005
Number of pages: 17 Posted: 15 May 2009
Alexander Zahar and Susan Rohol
Southwest University of Political Science and Law and affiliation not provided to SSRN
Downloads 182 (306,364)

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ICTR, International Criminal Tribunal for Rwanda

19.

Climate Law, Environmental Law, and the Schism Ahead

ROUTLEDGE HANDBOOK OF INTERNATIONAL ENVIRONMENTAL LAW, 2nd ed., Erika Techera, Jade Lindley, Karen Scott, and Anastasia Telesetsky, eds., pp. 488-500, Routledge, 2020
Number of pages: 22 Posted: 27 Feb 2020 Last Revised: 23 Oct 2020
Alexander Zahar
Southwest University of Political Science and Law
Downloads 180 (309,428)

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Paris Agreement on Climate Change, Climate Change Law, Environmental Law, Conflicting Legal Regimes

20.

Two Arguments Against Historical Responsibility for Climate Change

DEBATING CLIMATE LAW, Benoit Mayer and Alexander Zahar, eds., Cambridge University Press, Forthcoming 2021
Number of pages: 20 Posted: 28 Aug 2020
Alexander Zahar
Southwest University of Political Science and Law
Downloads 178 (312,493)

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climate change, historical responsibility, historical emissions, Industrial Revolution

21.

Civilizing Civil War: Writing Morality as Law at the ICTY

THE LEGACY OF THE INTERNATIONAL CRIMINAL TRIBUNAL FOR THE FORMER YUGOSLAVIA, Bert Swart, Göran Sluiter, Alexander Zahar, eds., pp. 469-504, Oxford University Press, 2011
Number of pages: 48 Posted: 23 Nov 2010 Last Revised: 24 Feb 2011
Alexander Zahar
Southwest University of Political Science and Law
Downloads 176 (315,630)
Citation 2

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ICTY, International Criminal Tribunal for the Former Yugoslavia, Customary International Law, Non-International Armed Conflict, Civil War, ICRC, International Committee of the Red Cross, Customary Law Study, Antonio Cassese

22.

The Paris Agreement’s Implications for Monitoring, Reporting, and Verification of Greenhouse Gas Emissions and Climate-Related Policies and Measures in Developing Countries

Number of pages: 11 Posted: 19 Jul 2019 Last Revised: 07 Oct 2019
Alexander Zahar
Southwest University of Political Science and Law
Downloads 171 (323,669)
Citation 2

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Paris Agreement on Climate Change, Monitoring Reporting and Verification, Enhanced Transparency Framework, Paris Rulebook, Common but Differentiated Responsibilities

23.

Torture

THE OXFORD COMPANION TO INTERNATIONAL CRIMINAL JUSTICE, Antonio Cassese, ed., pp. 537-538, Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2009
Number of pages: 2 Posted: 10 Mar 2009 Last Revised: 04 Nov 2015
Alexander Zahar
Southwest University of Political Science and Law
Downloads 170 (325,277)

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Torture, rape, ICTY, war crimes, crimes against humanity, cruel treatment

24.

The Urgenda Appeal Decision and the Argument from Physical Necessity

Number of pages: 3 Posted: 03 Dec 2018
Alexander Zahar
Southwest University of Political Science and Law
Downloads 166 (332,043)
Citation 2

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The Netherlands v. Urgenda Foundation, UN Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC), Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), European Convention on Human Rights (ECHR)

25.

Governing International Climate Finance and Investment: The Role of Law

David Rossati and Alexander Zahar, ‘Governing Climate Finance and Investment: The Role of Law’, in Research Handbook on Climate Finance and Investment Law, edited by M. Mehling and H. van Asselt (Edward Elgar, 2022), VU University Amsterdam Legal Studies Paper Series
Number of pages: 24 Posted: 28 Mar 2022
David Rossati and Alexander Zahar
Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam and Southwest University of Political Science and Law
Downloads 164 (335,540)

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climate change finance and investment, United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change, Paris Agreement on Climate Change, multilateral development banks, international trade law, international investment law, climate bonds, socially responsible investment

26.

What is Climate Law?

Number of pages: 8 Posted: 18 Feb 2021 Last Revised: 13 Dec 2021
Alexander Zahar
Southwest University of Political Science and Law
Downloads 157 (348,222)
Citation 1

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climate law, definition, international law, domestic climate law, collective obligation

27.

Legal Aid, Self-Representation, and the Crisis at the Hague Tribunal

Criminal Law Forum, Vol. 19, pp. 241-263, 2008
Number of pages: 23 Posted: 30 Jan 2009 Last Revised: 06 Apr 2010
Alexander Zahar
Southwest University of Political Science and Law
Downloads 154 (353,865)
Citation 1

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Legal Aid, Self-Representation, Hague Tribunal

28.

Commentary on Trial Judgments of the East Timor Special Panels in the Cases of Jose Cardoso Ferreira and Agustinho Atolan

ANNOTATED LEADING CASES OF INTERNATIONAL CRIMINAL TRIBUNALS, Vol. 13: Timor Leste: THE SPECIAL PANELS FOR SERIOUS CRIMES, 2001-2003, André Klip and Göran Sluiter, eds., pp. 762-765, Intersentia, 2008
Number of pages: 4 Posted: 12 Mar 2009
Alexander Zahar
Southwest University of Political Science and Law
Downloads 153 (355,853)

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East Timor, Special Panels for Serious Crimes, Cardoso Ferreira, Atolan, joint criminal enterprise, crimes against humanity

29.

How Judges Think: Strengthening Defence Approaches to Joint Criminal Enterprise and Closing Arguments

Annual Conference of the Defence Bar of the Court of Bosnia and Herzegovina, Sarajevo, December 12, 2009
Number of pages: 20 Posted: 15 Dec 2009
Alexander Zahar
Southwest University of Political Science and Law
Downloads 151 (359,594)

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Judicial reasoning, International Criminal Tribunal for the Former Yugoslavia, International Criminal Tribunal for Rwanda, joint criminal enterprise, command responsibility, defence of reprisals, defence of superior orders, Court of Bosnia and Herzegovina, defence strategy in criminal cases

30.

Shell and the Essential Irreducibility of Collective Responsibility for Climate Change

Number of pages: 8 Posted: 09 Aug 2021 Last Revised: 27 Sep 2021
Alexander Zahar
Southwest University of Political Science and Law
Downloads 149 (363,443)
Citation 1

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climate change litigation, Milieudefensie et al. v. Shell, collective v. individual responsibility for climate change, Paris Agreement, Market Substitution Argument, human rights law

31.

Debating Climate Law: Introduction

Benoit Mayer & Alexander Zahar (eds), Debating Climate Law (Cambridge University Press, 2021)
Number of pages: 10 Posted: 21 Apr 2021
Benoit Mayer and Alexander Zahar
The Chinese University of Hong Kong (CUHK) - Faculty of Law and Southwest University of Political Science and Law
Downloads 146 (369,601)

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32.

Review of Howard Ball, 'Prosecuting War Crimes and Genocide: The Twentieth-Century Experience' and Two Books on the UN International Criminal Tribunals

Journal of Genocide Research, Vol. 6, pp. 286-289, 2004
Number of pages: 4 Posted: 08 Apr 2009
Alexander Zahar
Southwest University of Political Science and Law
Downloads 140 (381,970)

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Genocide, war crimes, Yugoslavia, Rwanda, ICTY, ICTR, Nuremberg Tribunal, racism, ethnic cleansing

33.

Factual Findings and Applicable Law in Climate Litigation

Number of pages: 4 Posted: 10 Oct 2019
Alexander Zahar
Southwest University of Political Science and Law
Downloads 134 (395,307)

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climate change litigation, effectiveness, Gloucester (Rocky Hill) case, Lliuya v. RWE (Huaraz) case, Urgenda case, Juliana case

34.

Two Arguments Against Environmental Impact Assessment for Greenhouse Gas Emissions

DEBATING CLIMATE LAW, Benoit Mayer and Alexander Zahar, eds., Cambridge University Press, 2021 Forthcoming
Number of pages: 16 Posted: 28 Aug 2020
Alexander Zahar
Southwest University of Political Science and Law
Downloads 129 (407,220)
Citation 1

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climate change; Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA); Climate Impact Assessment (CIA); Rocky Hill case; market substitution argument; Trail Smelter case; no-harm principle

35.

Human Rights Law and the Obligation to Reduce Greenhouse Gas Emissions

Human Rights Review, Forthcoming
Number of pages: 29 Posted: 02 Dec 2021
Alexander Zahar
Southwest University of Political Science and Law
Downloads 128 (409,565)
Citation 1

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Climate change, emission-reduction (mitigation) obligations, United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC), Kyoto Protocol to UNFCCC, Paris Agreement on Climate Change, test for a violation of human rights, transposition of test to mitigation of the causes of climate change

36.

How Meaningful is Historical Responsibility for Climate Change?

Number of pages: 13 Posted: 17 Aug 2021 Last Revised: 06 Jun 2022
Alexander Zahar
Southwest University of Political Science and Law
Downloads 118 (435,381)

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climate change, historical responsibility, mitigation ambition, Paris Agreement 2015, Nationally Determined Contributions (NDCs), history of carbon-based technologies

37.

Human Rights Law Cannot Advance Climate Change Mitigation

Paper presented in the staff seminar series at the Faculty of Law of Victoria University of Wellington, 15 December 2020
Number of pages: 18 Posted: 06 Jan 2021 Last Revised: 04 Aug 2021
Alexander Zahar
Southwest University of Political Science and Law
Downloads 116 (440,933)
Citation 1

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climate law, climate change mitigation, human rights law, test for violation of human rights, modification of causality element in test, Urgenda v. The Netherlands, Barragán et al. v. Colombia (Future Generations case)

38.

Focus on Rwanda

Journal of Genocide Research, Vol. 3, pp. 293-300, 2001
Number of pages: 8 Posted: 21 Mar 2009
Alexander Zahar
Southwest University of Political Science and Law
Downloads 114 (446,722)

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Rwanda, genocide, Rwandan Patriotic Front, ethnicism, racism, conspiracy

39.

Greenpeace v. Norway: A Leakage Case Litigated as a Human Rights Case

Paper presented at the “Climate Litigation as Governance Tool” conference, held at Duke Kunshan University, Suzhou, China, 24-25 October 2020
Number of pages: 6 Posted: 09 Nov 2020
Alexander Zahar
Southwest University of Political Science and Law
Downloads 112 (452,622)

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Climate Change, Climate Law, Human Rights Law, Environmental Rights, Climate Litigation Strategy, Greenpeace v. Norway (2018/2020), Problem of Leakage, Market Substitution

40.

Climate Change Mitigation Law and Policy in the Asia-Pacific

RESEARCH HANDBOOK ON CLIMATE CHANGE MITIGATION LAW, Leonie Reins and Jonathan Verschuuren, eds., Edward Elgar, 2021, Forthcoming.
Number of pages: 23 Posted: 06 Jan 2021 Last Revised: 17 Mar 2021
Alexander Zahar
Southwest University of Political Science and Law
Downloads 110 (458,731)

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Asia-Pacific region, Paris Agreement, mitigation law, mitigation policy, mitigation ambition, poverty alleviation, developmental priorities, monitoring reporting and verification (MRV), per-capita emissions of greenhouse gases, emission trends 2010-2017, emissions from LULUCF

41.

Commentary on the Judgment of the ICTY Appeals Chamber in the Case of Prosecutor v. Milorad Krnojelac

ANNOTATED LEADING CASES OF INTERNATIONAL CRIMINAL TRIBUNALS, Vol. 14: INTERNATIONAL CRIMINAL TRIBUNAL FOR THE FORMER YUGOSLAVIA, 2003, André Klip and Göran Sluiter, eds., pp. 841-846, Intersentia, 2008
Number of pages: 6 Posted: 12 Mar 2009 Last Revised: 04 Nov 2015
Alexander Zahar
Southwest University of Political Science and Law
Downloads 108 (464,748)

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Krnojelac case, ICTY, joint criminal enterprise, Tadic

42.

'Historical Responsibility' for Climate Change in Historical Perspective

Essays in Economic and Business History, Forthcoming
Number of pages: 24 Posted: 17 Sep 2022
Alexander Zahar
Southwest University of Political Science and Law
Downloads 106 (471,074)

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climate change; history, biological old regime, coal as an energy source, Industrial Revolution, history of carbon-based technologies, greenhouse gas emissions c. 1750-1850, moral responsibility for “historical greenhouse” gas emissions

43.

Does Self-Interest Skew State Reporting of Greenhouse Gas Emissions? A Preliminary Analysis Based on the First Verified Emissions Estimates Under the Kyoto Protocol

Climate Law, Vol. 1, No. 2, pp. 313-324, 2010
Number of pages: 11 Posted: 30 May 2010 Last Revised: 29 Oct 2013
Alexander Zahar
Southwest University of Political Science and Law
Downloads 97 (500,558)

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Kyoto Protocol, Expert Review Teams, Greenhouse Gas Inventories, State Compliance, UNFCCC Annex I Parties

44.

Rights Dualism: The International Criminal Tribunals’ Two-Track Approach to the Rights of the Accused

Paper presented at the conference ‘Pluralism v. Harmonization: National Adjudication of International Crimes’, VU University Amsterdam, 14-15 June 2012
Number of pages: 7 Posted: 17 Jun 2012
Alexander Zahar
Southwest University of Political Science and Law
Downloads 96 (503,940)

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criminal law, rules of evidence, rights of the accused, international criminal tribunals, ICTY, ICTR, rights dualism

45.

Collective Progress in the Light of Equity Under the Global Stocktake

9(1-2) Climate Law 101-121
Number of pages: 21 Posted: 27 Feb 2019 Last Revised: 23 Jul 2020
Alexander Zahar
Southwest University of Political Science and Law
Downloads 94 (510,867)
Citation 1

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2015 Paris Agreement Article 14, Global Stocktake, Collective Versus Individual State Progress, Mitigation Ambition/Effort, Equity, Stocktake Outputs to ‘Inform’ Parties

46.

Verifying Greenhouse Gas Emissions of Annex I Parties: Methods We Have and Methods We Want

Climate Law, Vol. 1, No. 3, pp. 409-427, 2010
Number of pages: 18 Posted: 08 Nov 2010 Last Revised: 07 Feb 2011
Alexander Zahar
Southwest University of Political Science and Law
Downloads 94 (510,867)

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UNFCCC, Kyoto Protocol, greenhouse gases, MRV, verification, Expert Review Teams, satellite measurement of atmospheric CO2

47.

Ordering

THE OXFORD COMPANION TO INTERNATIONAL CRIMINAL JUSTICE, Antonio Cassese, ed., pp. 446-448, Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2009
Number of pages: 3 Posted: 11 Mar 2009 Last Revised: 04 Nov 2015
Alexander Zahar
Southwest University of Political Science and Law
Downloads 89 (528,751)

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Ordering, ICTY, ICTR, individual criminal responsibility, Blaskic case, Musema case, Galic case

48.

Slavery

THE OXFORD COMPANION TO INTERNATIONAL CRIMINAL JUSTICE, Antonio Cassese, ed., pp. 514-515, Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2009
Number of pages: 2 Posted: 11 Mar 2009 Last Revised: 04 Nov 2015
Alexander Zahar
Southwest University of Political Science and Law
Downloads 85 (543,939)

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Slavery, enslavement, forced labour, compulsory labour, Slavery Convention, war crimes, crimes against humanity, ICTY

49.

The Paris Agreement’s “Nationally Determined Contribution”: Law and Practice

Number of pages: 25 Posted: 02 Jan 2023 Last Revised: 30 Aug 2023
Alexander Zahar
Southwest University of Political Science and Law
Downloads 81 (560,020)

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Paris Agreement, Nationally Determined Contribution, NDC legal obligations, conditional v. unconditional NDCs, climate finance, progression, non-regression, ambition, absence of objective assessment standard for NDC implementation or ambition

50.

The Missing Relational Element in Tort Cases On Greenhouse Gas Emissions

Number of pages: 20 Posted: 09 Aug 2022 Last Revised: 06 Sep 2022
Alexander Zahar
Southwest University of Political Science and Law
Downloads 76 (581,096)

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climate change, greenhouse gas emissions, Common Law jurisdictions, law of torts, negligence, nuisance, standard of conduct, Smith v. Fonterra (New Zealand), City of Oakland v. BP (United States), City of New York v. Chevron (United States), Sharma v. Minister for the Environment (Australia)

51.

'Innovation' and the Law in State Reports on Climate Change Action

The Transformation of Environmental Law and Governance: Risk, Innovation and Resilience, D. Antolini, T. Qin, F. Sindico, & S. Switzer, eds., Edward Elgar, 2020
Number of pages: 14 Posted: 18 Jul 2018 Last Revised: 13 Nov 2019
Xiangbai He and Alexander Zahar
Zhejiang University Guanghua Law School and Southwest University of Political Science and Law
Downloads 72 (598,797)

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state reporting, UNFCCC, Paris Agreement, climate change law, innovation, technology, monitoring reporting verification, role of law

52.

The Legal Obligation of States to Price Carbon Emissions

Number of pages: 16 Posted: 13 May 2019
Alexander Zahar
Southwest University of Political Science and Law
Downloads 71 (603,375)

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Polluter-pays principle, 1992 United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC), 2015 Paris Agreement on Climate Change, 1997 Kyoto Protocol, two-degree Celsius (2°C) limit on global warming, carbon-emission trading, climate change finance

53.

Debating Climate Law: Conclusion

Benoit Mayer & Alexander Zahar (eds), Debating Climate Law (Cambridge University Press 2021)
Number of pages: 3 Posted: 21 Apr 2021
Benoit Mayer and Alexander Zahar
The Chinese University of Hong Kong (CUHK) - Faculty of Law and Southwest University of Political Science and Law
Downloads 51 (709,631)

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54.

Emission Neutrality in Asia in the Paris Agreement Context

Paper presented in Carbon Neutrality Dialogue Series: Seminar 1: Carbon Neutrality Pledges in Asia, The Chinese University of Hong Kong, 17 March 2021
Number of pages: 7 Posted: 23 Mar 2021 Last Revised: 13 Dec 2021
Alexander Zahar
Southwest University of Political Science and Law
Downloads 47 (734,953)

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Climate change, Paris Agreement, Nationally Determined Contributions (NDCs), long-term low greenhouse gas emission development strategies, carbon neutrality, emission neutrality, Asia, Korea, Japan, Singapore

55.

Agricultural Exceptionalism in the Climate Change Treaties

Transnational Environmental Law, Forthcoming
Number of pages: 25 Posted: 31 Oct 2022
Alexander Zahar
Southwest University of Political Science and Law
Downloads 44 (755,083)

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Climate change, greenhouse gas emissions, agricultural exceptionalism/protectionism, United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change, Paris Agreement on Climate Change, food production (systems), hunger reduction, food security, poverty alleviation, mitigation technologies for agriculture

56.

Commentary on the Trial Judgment in the Case of Prosecutor v. Ljube Boškoski and Johan Tarćulovski

ANNOTATED LEADING CASES OF INTERNATIONAL CRIMINAL TRIBUNALS, Vol. 35: INTERNATIONAL CRIMINAL TRIBUNAL FOR THE FORMER YUGOSLAVIA, 2007-2008, André Klip and Göran Sluiter, eds., Intersentia, 2011
Number of pages: 10 Posted: 07 Apr 2011
Alexander Zahar
Southwest University of Political Science and Law
Downloads 44 (755,083)

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Macedonia, ethnic Albanians, civil war, International Criminal Tribunal for the Former Yugoslavia, ICTY

57.

Genocide Law: An Education in Sentimentalism

GENOCIDE, Vol. VI, A. Dirk Moses, ed., pp. 116-165, Routledge, 2010
Number of pages: 25 Posted: 03 Aug 2017
Alexander Zahar and Goran Sluiter
Southwest University of Political Science and Law and University of Amsterdam - Faculty of Law
Downloads 40 (783,614)

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Genocide law, international law, Genocide Convention, Akayesu Case, United Nations Criminal Tribunal for Rwanda (ICTR), United Nations Criminal Tribunal for the former Yugoslavia (ICTY)

58.

Aversion or Inertia? A Research Programme to Understand the Prospects of Reducing Greenhouse Gas Emissions From Agriculture in Indonesia

Number of pages: 7 Posted: 21 Jun 2023 Last Revised: 15 Jul 2023
Alexander Zahar
Southwest University of Political Science and Law
Downloads 23 (927,271)

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Indonesia, climate change, greenhouse gas emissions, mitigation policy, agriculture, agricultural regulation, adaptation-focused laws, agricultural protectionism, agricultural subsidies, food security, food self-sufficiency, farmers’ support for mitigation policy

59.

Pluralism and the Rights of the Accused in International Criminal Proceedings

Pluralism in International Criminal Law, Elies van Sliedregt & Sergey Vasiliev, eds, pp. 225-250, Oxford University Press, 2014
Number of pages: 14 Posted: 01 Aug 2017
Alexander Zahar
Southwest University of Political Science and Law
Downloads 20 (957,127)

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criminal law, rules of evidence, rights of the accused, international criminal tribunals, ICTY, ICTR, rights dualism

60.

The Treaty-affirmed Lawfulness of Greenhouse Gas Emissions

Fifth OPEC-OPEC Fund Annual Legal Workshop: Responsibility of States Regarding Climate Change’, held at the OPEC Secretariat, Vienna, on 23 October 2023
Number of pages: 4 Posted: 12 Jan 2024
Alexander Zahar
Southwest University of Political Science and Law
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greenhouse gas emissions, Paris Agreement, Nationally Determined Contributions (NDCs), International Court of Justice (ICJ) Advisory Opinion, lawfulness of emissions

61.

Trial Procedure at the British Military Courts, Hong Kong, 1946-1948

Hong Kong's War Crimes Trials, Suzannah Linton, ed., pp. 13-69, Oxford University Press, 2013.
Number of pages: 29 Posted: 01 Aug 2017
Alexander Zahar
Southwest University of Political Science and Law
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World War II, Hong Kong, British Military Courts, War Crimes, Trials of War Criminals, Criminal Procedure, Japan, China

62.

Ambition in Nationally Determined Contributions: The Case of Hydropower

Climate Technology and Law in the Anthropocene, edited by Alexander Zahar and Leonie Reins (Bristol University Press, Forthcoming)
Number of pages: 18 Posted: 05 Jan 2024
Alexander Zahar
Southwest University of Political Science and Law
Downloads 14 (1,019,396)

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Paris Agreement, Nationally Determined Contributions, mitigation measures, hydropower, greenhouse gas emissions from reservoir installations, cost and schedule overruns, environmental impacts