Alexander Zahar

Research Institute of Environmental Law - Wuhan University

Wuhan, Hubei Province

China

SCHOLARLY PAPERS

39

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CITATIONS

6

Scholarly Papers (39)

1.

A Bottom-Up Compliance Mechanism for the Paris Agreement

Chinese Journal of Environmental Law, Vol. 1, No. 1, 2017
Number of pages: 23 Posted: 08 Feb 2017 Last Revised: 24 Apr 2017
Alexander Zahar
Research Institute of Environmental Law - Wuhan University
Downloads 443 (63,531)

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Paris Agreement Article 15, compliance mechanism, United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change, Kyoto Protocol, Kyoto Protocol Enforcement Branch, Kyoto Protocol Facilitative Branch, ‘enforcement’ versus ‘facilitation’, ‘top-down’ versus ‘bottom-up’ approaches

2.

Command Responsibility of Civilian Superiors for Genocide

Leiden Journal of International Law, Vol. 14, pp. 591-616, 2001
Number of pages: 26 Posted: 21 Mar 2009
Alexander Zahar
Research Institute of Environmental Law - Wuhan University
Downloads 382 (76,014)
Citation 1

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Akayesu case, command responsibility, superior responsibility, Delalic et al. case, Celebici case, genocide, Kayishema and Ruzindana case, Musema case, Rwanda, ICTY, ICTR

3.

Witness Memory and the Manufacture of Evidence at the International Criminal Tribunals

FUTURE PERSPECTIVES ON INTERNATIONAL CRIMINAL JUSTICE, Carsten Stahn & Larissa van den Herik, eds., pp. 600-610, T.M.C. Asser/Cambridge University Press, 2010,
Number of pages: 18 Posted: 05 Jan 2009 Last Revised: 04 Mar 2010
Alexander Zahar
Research Institute of Environmental Law - Wuhan University
Downloads 306 (97,431)
Citation 1

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Witness memory, evidence, fact-finding, psychology, international criminal law, international criminal justice, ICTY, ICTR

4.

Review of Alan J. Kuperman, 'The Limits of Humanitarian Intervention: Genocide in Rwanda'

Journal of Genocide Research, Vol. 4, pp. 461-465, 2002
Number of pages: 5 Posted: 23 Mar 2009
Alexander Zahar
Research Institute of Environmental Law - Wuhan University
Downloads 301 (99,160)

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Alan Kuperman, Rwanda, genocide, humanitarian intervention

5.

Superior Orders

THE OXFORD COMPANION TO INTERNATIONAL CRIMINAL JUSTICE, Antonio Cassese, ed., pp. 525-527, Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2009
Number of pages: 3 Posted: 18 Mar 2009 Last Revised: 04 Nov 2015
Alexander Zahar
Research Institute of Environmental Law - Wuhan University
Downloads 285 (105,252)

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Defences, superior orders, ICTY, ICTR, ICC, mistake of law, command responsibility, war crimes, genocide, crimes against humanity

6.

The ICTR's 'Media' Judgment and the Reinvention of Direct and Public Incitement to Commit Genocide

Criminal Law Forum, Vol. 16, No. 1, pp. 33-48, 2005
Number of pages: 16 Posted: 25 Feb 2009
Alexander Zahar
Research Institute of Environmental Law - Wuhan University
Downloads 251 (120,254)

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ICTR, genocide, incitement, Rwanda, media

7.

The Problem of False Testimony at the International Criminal Tribunal for Rwanda

ANNOTATED LEADING CASES OF INTERNATIONAL CRIMINAL TRIBUNALS, Vol. 25: INTERNATIONAL CRIMINAL TRIBUNAL FOR RWANDA, 2006-2007, André Klip and Göran Sluiter, eds., pp. 509-522, Intersentia, 2010
Number of pages: 20 Posted: 04 Aug 2009 Last Revised: 28 Nov 2010
Alexander Zahar
Research Institute of Environmental Law - Wuhan University
Downloads 205 (146,504)
Citation 2

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perjury, false testimony, witness testimony, lying witnesses, judicial fact-finding, Rwamakuba case, Akayesu case, GAA case, ICTR, ICTY, international criminal tribunals

8.

Perpetrators and Co-Perpetrators of Genocide

The United Nations Genocide Convention: A Commentary, pp. 139-161, Paola Gaeta, ed., Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2009
Number of pages: 12 Posted: 05 Jan 2009 Last Revised: 28 Jul 2017
Alexander Zahar
Research Institute of Environmental Law - Wuhan University
Downloads 173 (171,056)

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genocide, commission of genocide, international criminal law, international criminal justice, ICTY, ICTR

9.

International Court and Private Citizen

New Criminal Law Review (Special Issue on the International Criminal Court), Vol. 12, No. 4, pp. 569-589, 2009
Number of pages: 21 Posted: 19 Feb 2009 Last Revised: 04 Mar 2010
Alexander Zahar
Research Institute of Environmental Law - Wuhan University
Downloads 169 (174,625)

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ICTY, ICC, human rights

10.

Review of Scott Peterson, 'Me Against My Brother: At War in Somalia, Sudan, and Rwanda'

Journal of Genocide Research, Vol. 4, pp. 590-593, 2002
Number of pages: 4 Posted: 24 Mar 2009
Alexander Zahar
Research Institute of Environmental Law - Wuhan University
Downloads 158 (184,934)

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Scott Peterson, war journalism, Somalia, Rwanda, United Nations peacekeeping, Paul Kagame, genocide

11.

Torture

THE OXFORD COMPANION TO INTERNATIONAL CRIMINAL JUSTICE, Antonio Cassese, ed., pp. 537-538, Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2009
Number of pages: 2 Posted: 10 Mar 2009 Last Revised: 04 Nov 2015
Alexander Zahar
Research Institute of Environmental Law - Wuhan University
Downloads 156 (186,864)

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Torture, rape, ICTY, war crimes, crimes against humanity, cruel treatment

12.

Commentary on the Judgment of the ICTY Appeals Chamber in the Case of Prosecutor v. Radislav Krstic

ANNOTATED LEADING CASES OF INTERNATIONAL CRIMINAL TRIBUNALS, Vol. 19: INTERNATIONAL CRIMINAL TRIBUNAL FOR THE FORMER YUGOSLAVIA, 2004, André Klip and Göran Sluiter, eds., Intersentia, 2010
Number of pages: 21 Posted: 26 Oct 2009 Last Revised: 02 Nov 2015
Alexander Zahar
Research Institute of Environmental Law - Wuhan University
Downloads 149 (194,229)

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genocide, complicity in genocide, aiding and abetting genocide, Radislav Krstic, ICTY, ICTR, meaning of in whole or in part, meaning of group, joint criminal enterprise, Genocide Convention

13.

Civilizing Civil War: Writing Morality as Law at the ICTY

THE LEGACY OF THE INTERNATIONAL CRIMINAL TRIBUNAL FOR THE FORMER YUGOSLAVIA, Bert Swart, Göran Sluiter, Alexander Zahar, eds., pp. 469-504, Oxford University Press, 2011
Number of pages: 48 Posted: 23 Nov 2010 Last Revised: 24 Feb 2011
Alexander Zahar
Research Institute of Environmental Law - Wuhan University
Downloads 141 (203,050)
Citation 1

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ICTY, International Criminal Tribunal for the Former Yugoslavia, Customary International Law, Non-International Armed Conflict, Civil War, ICRC, International Committee of the Red Cross, Customary Law Study, Antonio Cassese

14.

Apartheid as an International Crime

THE OXFORD COMPANION TO INTERNATIONAL CRIMINAL JUSTICE, Antonio Cassese, ed., pp. 245-246, Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2009
Number of pages: 2 Posted: 11 Mar 2009 Last Revised: 04 Nov 2015
Alexander Zahar
Research Institute of Environmental Law - Wuhan University
Downloads 139 (205,437)

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Apartheid, international criminal law, crimes against humanity, ICC, International Convention on the Suppression and Punishment of the Crime of Apartheid

15.

The United Nations International Criminal Tribunal for Rwanda (ICTR)

GENOCIDE AT THE MILLENNIUM; GENOCIDE: A CRITICAL BIBLIOGRAPHIC REVIEW, Samuel Totten, ed., Vol. 5, pp. 209-239, Transaction Publishers, 2005
Number of pages: 17 Posted: 15 May 2009
Alexander Zahar and Susan Rohol
Research Institute of Environmental Law - Wuhan University and affiliation not provided to SSRN
Downloads 123 (226,020)

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ICTR, International Criminal Tribunal for Rwanda

16.

Legal Aid, Self-Representation, and the Crisis at the Hague Tribunal

Criminal Law Forum, Vol. 19, pp. 241-263, 2008
Number of pages: 23 Posted: 30 Jan 2009 Last Revised: 06 Apr 2010
Alexander Zahar
Research Institute of Environmental Law - Wuhan University
Downloads 123 (226,020)
Citation 2

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Legal Aid, Self-Representation, Hague Tribunal

17.

Review of Howard Ball, 'Prosecuting War Crimes and Genocide: The Twentieth-Century Experience' and Two Books on the UN International Criminal Tribunals

Journal of Genocide Research, Vol. 6, pp. 286-289, 2004
Number of pages: 4 Posted: 08 Apr 2009
Alexander Zahar
Research Institute of Environmental Law - Wuhan University
Downloads 122 (227,403)

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Genocide, war crimes, Yugoslavia, Rwanda, ICTY, ICTR, Nuremberg Tribunal, racism, ethnic cleansing

18.

Commentary on Trial Judgments of the East Timor Special Panels in the Cases of Jose Cardoso Ferreira and Agustinho Atolan

ANNOTATED LEADING CASES OF INTERNATIONAL CRIMINAL TRIBUNALS, Vol. 13: Timor Leste: THE SPECIAL PANELS FOR SERIOUS CRIMES, 2001-2003, André Klip and Göran Sluiter, eds., pp. 762-765, Intersentia, 2008
Number of pages: 4 Posted: 12 Mar 2009
Alexander Zahar
Research Institute of Environmental Law - Wuhan University
Downloads 122 (227,403)

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East Timor, Special Panels for Serious Crimes, Cardoso Ferreira, Atolan, joint criminal enterprise, crimes against humanity

19.

How Judges Think: Strengthening Defence Approaches to Joint Criminal Enterprise and Closing Arguments

Annual Conference of the Defence Bar of the Court of Bosnia and Herzegovina, Sarajevo, December 12, 2009
Number of pages: 20 Posted: 15 Dec 2009
Alexander Zahar
Research Institute of Environmental Law - Wuhan University
Downloads 120 (230,266)

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Judicial reasoning, International Criminal Tribunal for the Former Yugoslavia, International Criminal Tribunal for Rwanda, joint criminal enterprise, command responsibility, defence of reprisals, defence of superior orders, Court of Bosnia and Herzegovina, defence strategy in criminal cases

20.

Why the Paris Agreement Does Not Need a Compliance Mechanism

Number of pages: 21 Posted: 11 Sep 2016 Last Revised: 28 Sep 2016
Alexander Zahar
Research Institute of Environmental Law - Wuhan University
Downloads 103 (256,752)

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Paris Agreement; Article 15; compliance mechanism; UNFCCC; Kyoto Protocol; Enforcement Branch; Facilitative Branch

21.

The Polluter-Pays Principle in International Climate Change Law: Are States Under an Obligation to Price Carbon Emissions?

Number of pages: 15 Posted: 03 Dec 2018
Alexander Zahar
Research Institute of Environmental Law - Wuhan University
Downloads 99 (263,674)

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Climate change law, polluter-pays principle, Paris Agreement, 2°C limit on global warming, emission trading, climate finance, Kyoto Protocol

22.

Focus on Rwanda

Journal of Genocide Research, Vol. 3, pp. 293-300, 2001
Number of pages: 8 Posted: 21 Mar 2009
Alexander Zahar
Research Institute of Environmental Law - Wuhan University
Downloads 97 (267,218)

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Rwanda, genocide, Rwandan Patriotic Front, ethnicism, racism, conspiracy

23.

Commentary on the Judgment of the ICTY Appeals Chamber in the Case of Prosecutor v. Milorad Krnojelac

ANNOTATED LEADING CASES OF INTERNATIONAL CRIMINAL TRIBUNALS, Vol. 14: INTERNATIONAL CRIMINAL TRIBUNAL FOR THE FORMER YUGOSLAVIA, 2003, André Klip and Göran Sluiter, eds., pp. 841-846, Intersentia, 2008
Number of pages: 6 Posted: 12 Mar 2009 Last Revised: 04 Nov 2015
Alexander Zahar
Research Institute of Environmental Law - Wuhan University
Downloads 92 (276,471)

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Krnojelac case, ICTY, joint criminal enterprise, Tadic

24.

Does Self-Interest Skew State Reporting of Greenhouse Gas Emissions? A Preliminary Analysis Based on the First Verified Emissions Estimates Under the Kyoto Protocol

Climate Law, Vol. 1, No. 2, pp. 313-324, 2010
Number of pages: 11 Posted: 30 May 2010 Last Revised: 29 Oct 2013
Alexander Zahar
Research Institute of Environmental Law - Wuhan University
Downloads 83 (294,813)

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Kyoto Protocol, Expert Review Teams, Greenhouse Gas Inventories, State Compliance, UNFCCC Annex I Parties

25.

Rights Dualism: The International Criminal Tribunals’ Two-Track Approach to the Rights of the Accused

Paper presented at the conference ‘Pluralism v. Harmonization: National Adjudication of International Crimes’, VU University Amsterdam, 14-15 June 2012
Number of pages: 7 Posted: 17 Jun 2012
Alexander Zahar
Research Institute of Environmental Law - Wuhan University
Downloads 81 (299,195)

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criminal law, rules of evidence, rights of the accused, international criminal tribunals, ICTY, ICTR, rights dualism

26.

Verifying Greenhouse Gas Emissions of Annex I Parties: Methods We Have and Methods We Want

Climate Law, Vol. 1, No. 3, pp. 409-427, 2010
Number of pages: 18 Posted: 08 Nov 2010 Last Revised: 07 Feb 2011
Alexander Zahar
Research Institute of Environmental Law - Wuhan University
Downloads 74 (315,450)

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UNFCCC, Kyoto Protocol, greenhouse gases, MRV, verification, Expert Review Teams, satellite measurement of atmospheric CO2

27.

Slavery

THE OXFORD COMPANION TO INTERNATIONAL CRIMINAL JUSTICE, Antonio Cassese, ed., pp. 514-515, Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2009
Number of pages: 2 Posted: 11 Mar 2009 Last Revised: 04 Nov 2015
Alexander Zahar
Research Institute of Environmental Law - Wuhan University
Downloads 66 (335,703)

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Slavery, enslavement, forced labour, compulsory labour, Slavery Convention, war crimes, crimes against humanity, ICTY

28.

Ordering

THE OXFORD COMPANION TO INTERNATIONAL CRIMINAL JUSTICE, Antonio Cassese, ed., pp. 446-448, Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2009
Number of pages: 3 Posted: 11 Mar 2009 Last Revised: 04 Nov 2015
Alexander Zahar
Research Institute of Environmental Law - Wuhan University
Downloads 64 (341,134)

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Ordering, ICTY, ICTR, individual criminal responsibility, Blaskic case, Musema case, Galic case

29.

The Polluter-Pays Principle and its Implications for Environmental Governance in China

Number of pages: 22 Posted: 27 Jul 2017
Alexander Zahar
Research Institute of Environmental Law - Wuhan University
Downloads 52 (386,823)

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China, Environmental Law, Polluter-Pays Principle, Compliance, Monitoring, Reporting, Verification Inspection versus Audit, Independent Third-Party Verification

30.

The Urgenda Appeal Decision and the Argument from Physical Necessity

Number of pages: 3 Posted: 03 Dec 2018
Alexander Zahar
Research Institute of Environmental Law - Wuhan University
Downloads 42 (411,712)

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The Netherlands v. Urgenda Foundation, UN Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC), Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), European Convention on Human Rights (ECHR)

31.

Commentary on the Trial Judgment in the Case of Prosecutor v. Ljube Boškoski and Johan Tarćulovski

ANNOTATED LEADING CASES OF INTERNATIONAL CRIMINAL TRIBUNALS, Vol. 35: INTERNATIONAL CRIMINAL TRIBUNAL FOR THE FORMER YUGOSLAVIA, 2007-2008, André Klip and Göran Sluiter, eds., Intersentia, 2011
Number of pages: 10 Posted: 07 Apr 2011
Alexander Zahar
Research Institute of Environmental Law - Wuhan University
Downloads 26 (481,627)

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Macedonia, ethnic Albanians, civil war, International Criminal Tribunal for the Former Yugoslavia, ICTY

32.

Collective Progress in the Light of Equity Under the Global Stocktake

9(1) Climate Law (Forthcoming)
Number of pages: 17 Posted: 27 Feb 2019
Alexander Zahar
Research Institute of Environmental Law - Wuhan University
Downloads 21 (509,558)

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2015 Paris Agreement Article 14, Global Stocktake, Collective Versus Individual State Progress, Mitigation Ambition/Effort, Equity, Stocktake Outputs to ‘Inform’ Parties

33.

Collective Obligation in the Paris Agreement

Number of pages: 25 Posted: 24 Sep 2018 Last Revised: 10 Jan 2019
Alexander Zahar
Research Institute of Environmental Law - Wuhan University
Downloads 17 (532,650)

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collective v. individual state obligations, Paris Agreement, below 2°C containment obligation, individuation mechanism, global stocktake

34.

'Innovation' and the Law in State Reports on Climate Change Action

Number of pages: 15 Posted: 18 Jul 2018
Xiangbai He and Alexander Zahar
School of Law, Soochow University and Research Institute of Environmental Law - Wuhan University
Downloads 13 (556,134)

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state reporting, UNFCCC, Paris Agreement, climate change law, innovation, technology, MRV

35.

The Legal Obligation of States to Price Carbon Emissions

Number of pages: 16 Posted: 13 May 2019
Alexander Zahar
Research Institute of Environmental Law - Wuhan University
Downloads 12 (562,239)

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Polluter-pays principle, 1992 United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC), 2015 Paris Agreement on Climate Change, 1997 Kyoto Protocol, two-degree Celsius (2°C) limit on global warming, carbon-emission trading, climate change finance

36.

Genocide Law: An Education in Sentimentalism

GENOCIDE, Vol. VI, A. Dirk Moses, ed., pp. 116-165, Routledge, 2010
Number of pages: 25 Posted: 03 Aug 2017
Alexander Zahar and Goran Sluiter
Research Institute of Environmental Law - Wuhan University and University of Amsterdam - Faculty of Law
Downloads 7 (593,256)

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Genocide law, international law, Genocide Convention, Akayesu Case, United Nations Criminal Tribunal for Rwanda (ICTR), United Nations Criminal Tribunal for the former Yugoslavia (ICTY)

37.

Trial Procedure at the British Military Courts, Hong Kong, 1946-1948

Hong Kong's War Crimes Trials, Suzannah Linton, ed., pp. 13-69, Oxford University Press, 2013.
Number of pages: 29 Posted: 01 Aug 2017
Alexander Zahar
Research Institute of Environmental Law - Wuhan University
Downloads 7 (593,256)
Citation 1

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World War II, Hong Kong, British Military Courts, War Crimes, Trials of War Criminals, Criminal Procedure, Japan, China

38.

Pluralism and the Rights of the Accused in International Criminal Proceedings

Pluralism in International Criminal Law, Elies van Sliedregt & Sergey Vasiliev, eds, pp. 225-250, Oxford University Press, 2014
Number of pages: 14 Posted: 01 Aug 2017
Alexander Zahar
Research Institute of Environmental Law - Wuhan University
Downloads 4 (613,177)

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criminal law, rules of evidence, rights of the accused, international criminal tribunals, ICTY, ICTR, rights dualism

39.
Downloads 3 (621,122)

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Paris Agreement on Climate Change, Monitoring Reporting and Verification, Enhanced Transparency Framework, Paris Rulebook, Common but Differentiated Responsibilities