Ashley Deeks

University of Virginia School of Law

580 Massie Road

Charlottesville, VA 22903

United States

SCHOLARLY PAPERS

38

DOWNLOADS
Rank 3,467

SSRN RANKINGS

Top 3,467

in Total Papers Downloads

19,310

SSRN CITATIONS
Rank 24,674

SSRN RANKINGS

Top 24,674

in Total Papers Citations

36

CROSSREF CITATIONS

12

Scholarly Papers (38)

1.

'Unwilling or Unable': Toward an Normative Framework for Extra-Territorial Self-Defense

Virginia Journal of International Law, Vol. 52, No. 3, p. 483, 2012
Number of pages: 69 Posted: 12 Dec 2011 Last Revised: 03 Apr 2012
Ashley Deeks
University of Virginia School of Law
Downloads 4,880 (3,529)
Citation 5

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unwilling, unable, self-defense, non-state actor, necessity, use of force

2.

An International Legal Framework for Surveillance

Virginia Journal of International Law, Vol. 55, p. 291, 2015, Virginia Public Law and Legal Theory Research Paper Series 2014-53
Number of pages: 79 Posted: 05 Sep 2014 Last Revised: 10 Nov 2017
Ashley Deeks
University of Virginia School of Law
Downloads 2,105 (13,930)

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electronic surveillance, international law, foreign surveillance, Edward Snowden, espionage, spying, right to privacy

3.

The Judicial Demand for Explainable Artificial Intelligence

119 Colum. L. Rev. __ (2019 Forthcoming), Virginia Public Law and Legal Theory Research Paper No. 2019-51
Number of pages: 22 Posted: 21 Aug 2019 Last Revised: 02 Feb 2020
Ashley Deeks
University of Virginia School of Law
Downloads 1,933 (15,852)
Citation 8

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artificial intelligence, machine learning, predictive algorithms, common law, criminal justice, administrative law

4.

Taming the Doctrine of Preemption

Book chapter, in The Oxford Handbook on the Use of Force (Marc Weller ed., 2015), Virginia Public Law and Legal Theory Research Paper No. 2013-40
Number of pages: 18 Posted: 09 Oct 2013 Last Revised: 10 Nov 2017
Ashley Deeks
University of Virginia School of Law
Downloads 877 (50,881)

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5.

Predicting Enemies

Ashley Deeks, Predicting Enemies, 104 VA. L. REV. __ (2018, Forthcoming). , Virginia Public Law and Legal Theory Research Paper No. 2018-21
Number of pages: 65 Posted: 29 Mar 2018 Last Revised: 02 Feb 2020
Ashley Deeks
University of Virginia School of Law
Downloads 741 (63,868)

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machine learning, artificial intelligence, predictive algorithm, criminal justice, international law, military, targeting

6.

The Geography of Cyber Conflict: Through a Glass Darkly

International Law Studies, Vol. 89, p. 1, 2013, Virginia Public Law and Legal Theory Research Paper No. 2013-10, The Geography of Armed Conflict, Newport, RI: Naval War College (Michael Schmitt ed., 2013)
Number of pages: 22 Posted: 15 Mar 2013 Last Revised: 08 Nov 2017
Ashley Deeks
University of Virginia School of Law
Downloads 677 (71,707)

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jus ad bellum, jus in bello, cyber

7.

The NATO Intervention in Libya (2011)

International Law and the Use of Force: A Case-Based Approach, Olivier Corten and Tom Ruys, eds, Oxford University Press, Forthcoming , Virginia Public Law and Legal Theory Research Paper No. 2017-23
Number of pages: 14 Posted: 10 May 2017 Last Revised: 08 Nov 2017
Ashley Deeks
University of Virginia School of Law
Downloads 617 (80,588)
Citation 1

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8.

Machine Learning, Artificial Intelligence, and the Use of Force by States

10 Journal of National Security Law & Policy (2019, Forthcoming), Virginia Public Law and Legal Theory Research Paper No. 2018-63
Number of pages: 26 Posted: 16 Nov 2018 Last Revised: 02 Feb 2020
Ashley Deeks, Noam Lubell and Daragh Murray
University of Virginia School of Law, University of Essex - School of Law and University of Essex School of Law & Human Rights Centre
Downloads 590 (85,241)

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machine learning, artificial intelligence, united nations charter, self-defense, use of force, cyber, international law, military, proportionality

9.

Confronting and Adapting: Intelligence Agencies and International Law

Virginia Law Review, Vol. 102, p. 599, 2016, Virginia Public Law and Legal Theory Research Paper No. 2016-31
Number of pages: 89 Posted: 25 Apr 2016 Last Revised: 10 Nov 2017
Ashley Deeks
University of Virginia School of Law
Downloads 545 (94,264)
Citation 1

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intelligence, international law, spying, covert action, surveillance, foreign relations, human rights, drones, United States

10.

Consent to the Use of Force and International Law Supremacy

Harvard International Law Journal, Vol. 54, No. 1, 2013, Virginia Public Law and Legal Theory Research Paper No. 2013-14
Number of pages: 61 Posted: 06 Mar 2013 Last Revised: 13 May 2013
Ashley Deeks
University of Virginia School of Law
Downloads 515 (101,082)

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use of force, international law

11.

High-Tech International Law

Forthcoming, 88 Geo. Wash. L. Rev. __ (2020), Virginia Public Law and Legal Theory Research Paper No. 2020-10
Number of pages: 53 Posted: 05 Feb 2020
Ashley Deeks
University of Virginia School of Law
Downloads 492 (106,909)
Citation 1

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artificial intelligence, machine learning, predictive algorithms, computational text analysis, international law, adjudication, treaty, negotiation, customary international law

12.

Intelligence Communities and International Law: A Comparative Approach

Comparative International Law (A. Roberts et al. eds, 2017 Forthcoming), Virginia Public Law and Legal Theory Research Paper No. 1
Number of pages: 20 Posted: 09 Dec 2015 Last Revised: 10 Nov 2017
Ashley Deeks
University of Virginia School of Law
Downloads 468 (113,475)

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electronic surveillance, international law, foreign surveillance, espionage, spying, covert action, human rights

13.

Domestic Humanitarian Law: Developing the Law of War in Domestic Courts

Applying International Humanitarian Law in Judicial and Quasi-Judicial Bodies: International and Domestic Aspects (D. Jinks et al. eds., 2014), Virginia Public Law and Legal Theory Research Paper No. 2013-39
Number of pages: 30 Posted: 09 Oct 2013 Last Revised: 08 Nov 2017
Ashley Deeks
University of Virginia School of Law
Downloads 398 (136,936)

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International law, International humanitarian law, Domestic humanitarian law, Extra-territorial armed conflict, Treaties

14.

The Observer Effect: National Security Litigation, Executive Policy Changes, and Judicial Deference

Fordham L. Rev., Vol. 82, p. 828, 2013, Virginia Public Law and Legal Theory Research Paper No. 2013-41
Number of pages: 73 Posted: 11 Oct 2013 Last Revised: 10 Nov 2017
Ashley Deeks
University of Virginia School of Law
Downloads 394 (138,583)
Citation 1

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National security, Judicial deference, Executive branch, Terrorism, September 11

15.

Coding the Law of Armed Conflict: First Steps

Ashley Deeks, Coding the Law of Armed Conflict: First Steps, in THE LAW OF ARMED CONFLICT IN 2040 (Oxford University Press: New York, Matthew C. Waxman ed., 2020 Forthcoming), Virginia Public Law and Legal Theory Research Paper No. 2020-49
Number of pages: 16 Posted: 28 May 2020
Ashley Deeks
University of Virginia School of Law
Downloads 358 (154,242)
Citation 1

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artificial intelligence, machine learning, predictive algorithms, international law, law of armed conflict, NATO, targeting

16.

The Obama Administration, International Law, and Executive Minimalism

American Journal of International Law, Vol. 110, p. 646, 2016, Virginia Public Law and Legal Theory Research Paper No. 2016-65
Number of pages: 17 Posted: 21 Dec 2016 Last Revised: 10 Nov 2017
Ashley Deeks
University of Virginia School of Law
Downloads 331 (167,924)

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17.

Tax Law as Foreign Policy

Virginia Public Law and Legal Theory Research Paper No. 2021-50, Virginia Law and Economics Research Paper No. 2021-25
Number of pages: 66 Posted: 20 Oct 2021
Ashley Deeks and Andrew T. Hayashi
University of Virginia School of Law and University of Virginia School of Law
Downloads 297 (188,289)

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international tax, national security, foreign policy, international law

18.

Secret Reason-Giving

Yale Law Journal, 129, 2020, Forthcoming, Virginia Public Law and Legal Theory Research Paper No. 2019-53
Number of pages: 78 Posted: 17 Sep 2019 Last Revised: 02 Feb 2020
Ashley Deeks
University of Virginia School of Law
Downloads 244 (229,529)
Citation 1

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secret, reason-giving, accountability, executive branch, president, checks and balances

19.

Defend Forward and Cyber Countermeasures

Ashley Deeks, Defend Forward and Cyber Countermeasures, Hoover Working Group on National Security, Technology, and Law, Aegis Series Paper No. 2004 (August 4, 2020), Virginia Public Law and Legal Theory Research Paper No. 2020-59
Number of pages: 21 Posted: 10 Aug 2020
Ashley Deeks
University of Virginia School of Law
Downloads 241 (232,330)

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countermeasures, “international law”, “Defend Forward”, “lex specialis”, cyber, non-intervention

20.

Statutory International Law

Forthcoming, Va. J. Int’l L., Vol. 57, 2017, Virginia Public Law and Legal Theory Research Paper No. 2017-24
Number of pages: 60 Posted: 17 May 2017 Last Revised: 10 Nov 2017
Ashley Deeks
University of Virginia School of Law
Downloads 238 (235,227)

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21.

Multi-Part Tests in the Jus Ad Bellum

Houston Law Review, Vol. 53, p. 1035, 2016, Virginia Public Law and Legal Theory Research Paper No. 2016-30
Number of pages: 30 Posted: 02 Apr 2016 Last Revised: 10 Nov 2017
Ashley Deeks
University of Virginia School of Law
Downloads 228 (245,076)

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Jus ad bellum, Use of force, Multi-part tests, Defense of nationals, Cyber, Anticipatory self-defense, Humanitarian intervention, Unwilling or unable

22.

Checks and Balances from Abroad

University of Chicago Law Review, Vol. 83, p. 65, 2016, Virginia Public Law and Legal Theory Research Paper No. 38
Number of pages: 24 Posted: 31 Jul 2015 Last Revised: 10 Nov 2017
Ashley Deeks
University of Virginia School of Law
Downloads 211 (263,539)
Citation 1

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checks and balances, surveillance, foreign affairs, presidential power

23.

Introduction to the Symposium: How Will Artificial Intelligence Affect International Law?

114 AJIL Unbound 138 (2020), Virginia Public Law and Legal Theory Research Paper No. 2020-38
Number of pages: 4 Posted: 29 Apr 2020
Ashley Deeks
University of Virginia School of Law
Downloads 205 (270,703)
Citation 1

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international law, artificial intelligence, machine learning, NATO, self-driving cars, human rights, treaty

24.

A (Qualified) Defense of Secret Agreements

Ariz. St. L.J., Vol. 49, p. 713, 2017, Virginia Public Law and Legal Theory Research Paper No. 2017-41
Number of pages: 83 Posted: 04 Aug 2017 Last Revised: 10 Nov 2017
Ashley Deeks
University of Virginia School of Law
Downloads 196 (281,859)

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international agreement; treaty; secrecy; U.N. Charter; executive power; compliance

25.

National Security AI and the Hurdles to International Regulation

The Digital Social Contract: A Lawfare Paper Series (2023), Virginia Public Law and Legal Theory Research Paper No. 2023-28
Number of pages: 41 Posted: 03 Apr 2023
Ashley Deeks
University of Virginia School of Law
Downloads 179 (305,774)

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national security, artificial intelligence, cyber, nuclear, international law, international norms

26.

Tax Sanctions and the Russia-Ukraine Conflict

Virginia Public Law and Legal Theory Research Paper No. 2023-21, Virginia Law and Economics Research Paper No. 2023-07
Number of pages: 35 Posted: 03 Mar 2023
Andrew T. Hayashi and Ashley Deeks
University of Virginia School of Law and University of Virginia School of Law
Downloads 162 (333,484)

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economic sanctions, tax policy, Ukraine, Russia

27.

Intelligence Communities, Peer Constraints, and the Law

Harv. Nat’l Security J., Vol. 7, p. 1, 2016, Virginia Public Law and Legal Theory Research Paper No. 16
Number of pages: 55 Posted: 08 Feb 2016 Last Revised: 10 Nov 2017
Ashley Deeks
University of Virginia School of Law
Downloads 157 (342,323)
Citation 2

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28.

Secrecy Surrogates

106 Virginia Law Review, Forthcoming, Virginia Public Law and Legal Theory Research Paper No. 2020-62
Number of pages: 56 Posted: 27 Aug 2020
Ashley Deeks
University of Virginia School of Law
Downloads 151 (353,678)

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: secrecy, executive branch, checks and balances, national security, cybersecurity, election interference, counterterrorism, congress, leaks, technology companies

29.

Will Cyber Autonomy Undercut Democratic Accountability?

“Will Cyber Autonomy Undercut Democratic Accountability?,” 96 Int’l L. Stud. 464 (2020), Virginia Public Law and Legal Theory Research Paper No. 2020-75
Number of pages: 43 Posted: 29 Oct 2020
Ashley Deeks
University of Virginia School of Law
Downloads 127 (405,248)

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cyber, autonomy, executive branch, Congress, legislature, parliament, democratic accountability, war powers, international law

30.

Facebook Unbound?

Virginia Law Review, Vol. 105, 2019, Virginia Public Law and Legal Theory Research Paper No. 2019-08
Number of pages: 18 Posted: 26 Feb 2019
Ashley Deeks
University of Virginia School of Law
Downloads 123 (415,112)

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Facebook, national security, technology, executive branch, checks and balances

31.

Book Review of ‘National Security and Double Government’

Am. J. Int’l L., Vol 109, p.900, 2016
Number of pages: 5 Posted: 12 Nov 2017
Ashley Deeks
University of Virginia School of Law
Downloads 107 (460,284)

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32.

Administrative Detention in Armed Conflict

Case Western Reserve Journal of International Law, Vol. 40, p. 403, 2009
Number of pages: 35 Posted: 12 Nov 2017
Ashley Deeks
University of Virginia School of Law
Downloads 99 (485,901)
Citation 5

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33.

The International Legal Dynamics of Encryption

Hoover Instit. Paper No. 1609 (2016)
Number of pages: 28 Posted: 01 May 2020
Ashley Deeks
University of Virginia School of Law
Downloads 98 (489,212)

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encryption, human rights, law enforcement, intelligence, export control, freedom of expression, treaty, National Security Agency

34.

Iraq's Constitution: A Drafting History

Cornell International Law Journal, Vol. 40, p. 1, 2007
Number of pages: 89 Posted: 12 Nov 2017
Ashley Deeks and Matthew Burton
University of Virginia School of Law and Government of the United States of America - Department of State
Downloads 94 (502,590)

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35.

Sleeping Dogs: The Restatement (Fourth) and International Humanitarian Law

The Restatement and Beyond – The Past, Present, and Future of U.S. Foreign Relations Law (Oxford University Press: New York, Sarah A. Cleveland & Paul B. Stephan eds., 2020 Forthcoming), Virginia Public Law and Legal Theory Research Paper No. 2020-14
Number of pages: 23 Posted: 07 Feb 2020
Ashley Deeks
University of Virginia School of Law
Downloads 71 (593,766)

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international humanitarian law, law of armed conflict, restatement, foreign relations law, war on terror, supreme court, executive branch

36.

Frictionless Government and Foreign Relations

110 Virginia Law Review (forthcoming 2024), Virginia Public Law and Legal Theory Research Paper No. 2024-17
Number of pages: 57 Posted: 15 Feb 2024
Kristen Eichensehr and Ashley Deeks
University of Virginia School of Law and University of Virginia School of Law
Downloads 64 (627,163)

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Separation of powers, checks and balances, foreign relations, national security, China, Russia, semiconductors, sanctions, civil rights, Constitution, administrative law

37.

The Substance of Secret Agreements and the Role of Government Lawyers

Ashley Deeks, The Substance of Secret Agreements and the Role of Government Lawyers, 111 AJIL Unbound 474 (2018)., Virginia Public Law and Legal Theory Research Paper No. 2018-11
Number of pages: 6 Posted: 21 Feb 2018
Ashley Deeks
University of Virginia School of Law
Downloads 62 (637,287)

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publicity, secrecy, legal compliance, legal violations, international law

38.

(Sub-)Delegating National Security Powers

Forthcoming, 172 U. Pa. L. Rev. (2024) , Virginia Public Law and Legal Theory Research Paper No. 2024-30
Number of pages: 29 Posted: 19 Mar 2024
Ashley Deeks
University of Virginia School of Law
Downloads 35 (808,415)

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national security, delegation, President, Congress, cyber, targeted killing, use of force