Expressing Anger in Conflict: When it Helps and When it Hurts

Journal of Applied Psychology, Forthcoming

48 Pages Posted: 22 Jul 2007

See all articles by Gerben A. van Kleef

Gerben A. van Kleef

University of Amsterdam - Department of Psychology

Stéphane Côté

University of Toronto - Rotman School of Management

Abstract

Do expressions of anger in conflict elicit competition or cooperation? To reconcile inconsistent results obtained in previous research, we develop and test a dual-process model that proposes that power and the appropriateness of the expressions of anger jointly determine whether an individual facing an angry antagonist competes by demanding value or cooperates by conceding value. In a scenario study and a computer-mediated negotiation simulation, (1) participants with lower power claimed less value from an angry adversary than from a non-emotional one regardless of the appropriateness of the expressions of anger, and (2) participants with higher power demanded more value when the adversary's expressions of anger were inappropriate than when they were appropriate or when the adversary was non-emotional. We discuss the theoretical and practical implications of our model and findings.

Keywords: conflict, negotiation, anger, power, appropriateness, retaliation

Suggested Citation

van Kleef, Gerben A. and Cote, Stephane, Expressing Anger in Conflict: When it Helps and When it Hurts. Available at SSRN: https://ssrn.com/abstract=1002224

Gerben A. Van Kleef (Contact Author)

University of Amsterdam - Department of Psychology ( email )

Roetersstraat 15
Amsterdam, 1018 WB
Netherlands
+31 20 525 6633 (Phone)
+31 20 639 0531 (Fax)

Stephane Cote

University of Toronto - Rotman School of Management ( email )

105 St. George Street
Toronto, Ontario M5S 3E6 M5S1S4
Canada

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