State Investment Tax Incentives: What are the Facts?
Federal Reserve Bank of San Francisco Working Paper No. 2006-49
25 Pages Posted: 20 Aug 2007 Last revised: 13 May 2010
Date Written: November 1, 2006
There is an ongoing debate in the U.S. among policymakers and the courts concerning the practical effects of state investment tax incentives. However, this debate often suffers from a lack of clear information on the extent of such incentives among states and how these incentives have evolved over time. This paper takes a first step toward addressing this shortcoming. Compiling information from all 50 states and the District of Columbia over the past 40 years, we are able to paint a picture of the variation in state investment tax incentives across states and over time. In particular, we document three stylized facts: (1) Over the last 40 years, state investment tax incentives have become increasingly large and increasingly common among states; (2) these incentives, as well as the level of the overall after-tax price of capital, are to a large extent clustered in certain regions of the country; and (3) states that enact investment tax credits tend to do so around the same time as their neighboring states.
Keywords: State Tax Incentives, Interstate Tax Competition, Business Taxes
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