The Evolving External Orientation of Manufacturing: A Profile of Four Countries

29 Pages Posted: 19 Nov 2007

See all articles by José Manuel Campa

José Manuel Campa

University of Navarra - Madrid Campus - IESE Business School; National Bureau of Economic Research (NBER)

Linda S. Goldberg

Federal Reserve Bank of New York; National Bureau of Economic Research (NBER)

Abstract

Using more than two decades of industry data, the authors profile the external orientation of manufacturing industries in the United States, Canada, the United Kingdom, and Japan. They use the term "external orientation" to describe the potential exposure of an industry's revenues and costs to world events through exports, imports, and imported inputs. For each major manufacturing industry, the authors provide histories of the share of total revenues earned in foreign markets, the role of imports in domestic consumption, and the costs of imported inputs in total production. In addition, they construct a measure of net external orientation, which is intended to capture how much an industry's use of imported inputs (a cost factor) can potentially offset exposure to the international economy through exports (a revenue factor).

Keywords: export, import, input-output, external orientation, manufacturing, United States, Canada, United Kingdom, Japan

JEL Classification: F00, F20, F3

Suggested Citation

Campa, José Manuel and Goldberg, Linda S., The Evolving External Orientation of Manufacturing: A Profile of Four Countries. Economic Policy Review, Vol. 3, No. 2, July 1997. Available at SSRN: https://ssrn.com/abstract=1017535

José Manuel Campa

University of Navarra - Madrid Campus - IESE Business School ( email )

Camino del Cerro del Aguila 3
Madrid, 28023
Spain
+34 91 357 0809 (Phone)
+34 91 357 2913 (Fax)

National Bureau of Economic Research (NBER)

1050 Massachusetts Avenue
Cambridge, MA 02138
United States

Linda S. Goldberg (Contact Author)

Federal Reserve Bank of New York ( email )

33 Liberty Street
New York, NY 10045
United States
212-720-2836 (Phone)
212-720-6831 (Fax)

National Bureau of Economic Research (NBER)

1050 Massachusetts Avenue
Cambridge, MA 02138
United States

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