Measuring Ancient Inequality

86 Pages Posted: 31 Oct 2007 Last revised: 12 Jul 2010

See all articles by Branko Milanovic

Branko Milanovic

World Bank - Development Research Group (DECRG); University of Maryland

Peter H. Lindert

University of California, Davis - Department of Economics; National Bureau of Economic Research (NBER)

Jeffrey G. Williamson

Harvard University - Department of Economics, Laird Bell Professor of Economics, Emeritus; Honorary Fellow, University of Wisconsin - Department of Economics; National Bureau of Economic Research (NBER); Centre for Economic Policy Research (CEPR); IZA Institute of Labor Economics

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Date Written: October 2007

Abstract

Is inequality largely the result of the Industrial Revolution? Or, were pre-industrial incomes and life expectancies as unequal as they are today? For want of sufficient data, these questions have not yet been answered. This paper infers inequality for 14 ancient, pre-industrial societies using what are known as social tables, stretching from the Roman Empire 14 AD, to Byzantium in 1000, to England in 1688, to Nueva EspaƱa around 1790, to China in 1880 and to British India in 1947. It applies two new concepts in making those assessments -- what we call the inequality possibility frontier and the inequality extraction ratio. Rather than simply offering measures of actual inequality, we compare the latter with the maximum feasible inequality (or surplus) that could have been extracted by the elite. The results, especially when compared with modern poor countries, give new insights in to the connection between inequality and economic development in the very long run.

Suggested Citation

Milanovic, Branko and Lindert, Peter H. and Williamson, Jeffrey G., Measuring Ancient Inequality (October 2007). NBER Working Paper No. w13550, Available at SSRN: https://ssrn.com/abstract=1024967

Branko Milanovic

World Bank - Development Research Group (DECRG) ( email )

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University of Maryland ( email )

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Peter H. Lindert (Contact Author)

University of California, Davis - Department of Economics ( email )

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Jeffrey G. Williamson

Harvard University - Department of Economics, Laird Bell Professor of Economics, Emeritus ( email )

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