Ayala Corporation

Posted: 12 Nov 2007 Last revised: 21 Dec 2011

See all articles by Belen Villalonga

Belen Villalonga

New York University (NYU) - Leonard N. Stern School of Business

Raphael ('Raffi") H. Amit

The Wharton School UPENN

Christopher Hartman

Harvard University - Business School (HBS)

Date Written: October 2006


The Ayala Corp. case focuses on three unique aspects of the company's financial and corporate strategy from which there are important lessons to be drawn. First, for a company that has been owned and managed by the same family for seven generations, Ayala is remarkably open to public investors. This financial strategy is in stark contrast with that of many other family firms, which choose to stay private and shy away from public capital markets even when they are qualified to access them, as illustrated for instance by the Kohler Co. case (HBS 205-034). The Ayala case thus provides a useful counterpoint to the Kohler case in facilitating a discussion of the benefits and costs for family firm owners and managers of partnering with public investors.

Second, like many other companies around the world, Ayala Corp. has a very diversified portfolio of businesses. What is more unusual about Ayala is the fact that both the parent company and its largest subsidiaries and affiliates are publicly traded. Because of this structure, the Ayala group offers a unique opportunity to measure and discuss the value implications of corporate diversification for family and non-family shareholders.

Third, Ayala's business diversification contrasts with its almost total lack of diversification in a geographical sense of the company's revenues come from the Philippines. The contrast is all the more striking given that the Philippines is not only an emerging market, but one with a notorious history of sociopolitical instability, which leaves Ayala's investors heavily exposed to country risk.

The combination of these three factors provides a rich setting in which to analyze corporate finance and strategy in family-controlled firms. Ayala Corp.'s mixed shareholder base - local family shareholders, local or regional non-family shareholders, and global shareholders - suggests that the company's cost of equity capital can best be thought of as a weighted average of the different returns that each of the three investor groups require. As a result of these cost differences, the net benefits of Ayala's corporate strategy also differ across the three investor groups.

Keywords: Family firms, business groups, diversification discount, conglomerate discount, valuation, emerging markets

JEL Classification: G32, G34, G3

Suggested Citation

Villalonga, Belen and Amit, Raphael H. and Hartman, Christopher, Ayala Corporation (October 2006). HBS Publishing Case No. 207-041; Courseware No.: 207-705; Teaching Note No.: 207-042, Available at SSRN: https://ssrn.com/abstract=1029202

Belen Villalonga (Contact Author)

New York University (NYU) - Leonard N. Stern School of Business ( email )

40 West 4th Street
Suite 9-160
New York, NY NY 10012
United States

Raphael H. Amit

The Wharton School UPENN ( email )

The Wharton School
3620 Locust Walk
Philadelphia, PA 19104-6370
United States
215 898 7731 (Phone)

Christopher Hartman

Harvard University - Business School (HBS) ( email )

Soldiers Field Road
Morgan 270C
Boston, MA 02163
United States

Do you have a job opening that you would like to promote on SSRN?

Paper statistics

Abstract Views
PlumX Metrics