Energy Efficiency Policies: A Retrospective Examination

Posted: 9 Jan 2008

See all articles by Kenneth Gillingham

Kenneth Gillingham

Yale University

Richard G. Newell

Duke University - Nicholas School of Environment; National Bureau of Economic Research (NBER); Resources for the Future

Karen L. Palmer

Resources for the Future

Abstract

We review literature on several types of energy efficiency policies: appliance standards, financial incentive programs, information and voluntary programs, and management of government energy use. For each, we provide a brief synopsis of the relevant programs, along with available existing estimates of energy savings, costs, and cost-effectiveness at a national level. The literature examining these estimates points to potential issues in determining the energy savings and costs, but recent evidence suggests that techniques for measuring both have improved. Taken together, the literature identifies up to four quads of energy savings annually from these programs-at least half of which is attributable to appliance standards and utility-based demand-side management, with possible additional energy savings from the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE's) ENERGY STAR, Climate Challenge, and Section 1605b voluntary programs to reduce carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions. Related reductions in CO2 and criteria air pollutants may contribute an additional 10% to the value of energy savings above the price of energy itself.

Keywords: appliance standards, demand-side management, demand-side management, incentives, information, voluntary programs

Suggested Citation

Gillingham, Kenneth and Newell, Richard G. and Palmer, Karen, Energy Efficiency Policies: A Retrospective Examination. Annual Review of Environment and Resources, Vol. 31, November 2006. Available at SSRN: https://ssrn.com/abstract=1081938

Kenneth Gillingham (Contact Author)

Yale University ( email )

New Haven, CT 06511
United States
203-436-5465 (Phone)

HOME PAGE: http://www.yale.edu/gillingham

Richard G. Newell

Duke University - Nicholas School of Environment ( email )

Box 90228
Durham, NC 27708-0328
United States
919-681-8865 (Phone)

National Bureau of Economic Research (NBER) ( email )

1050 Massachusetts Avenue
Cambridge, MA 02138
United States

Resources for the Future ( email )

1616 P Street, NW
Washington, DC 20036
United States

Karen Palmer

Resources for the Future ( email )

1616 P Street, NW
Washington, DC 20036
United States

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