The Nature and Basis of Human Dignity

Ratio Juris, Vol. 21, Issue 2, pp. 173-193, June 2008

21 Pages Posted: 15 May 2008

See all articles by Patrick Lee

Patrick Lee

Franciscan University of Steubenville

Robert George

Princeton University


We argue that all human beings have a special type of dignity which is the basis for (1) the obligation all of us have not to kill them, (2) the obligation to take their well-being into account when we act, and (3) even the obligation to treat them as we would have them treat us, and indeed, that all human beings are equal in fundamental dignity. We give reasons to oppose the position that only some human beings, because of their possession of certain characteristics in addition to their humanity (for example, an immediately exercisable capacity for self-consciousness, or for rational deliberation), have full moral worth. What distinguishes human beings from other animals, what makes human beings persons rather than things, is their rational nature, and human beings are rational creatures by virtue of possessing natural capacities for conceptual thought, deliberation, and free choice, that is, the natural capacity to shape their own lives.

Suggested Citation

Lee, Patrick and George, Robert, The Nature and Basis of Human Dignity. Ratio Juris, Vol. 21, Issue 2, pp. 173-193, June 2008, Available at SSRN: or

Patrick Lee (Contact Author)

Franciscan University of Steubenville ( email )

Steubenville, OH 43952
United States

Robert George

Princeton University ( email )

Fisher Hall
Princeton, NJ 08540
United States

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