Within and between Gender Disparities in Income and Education Benefits from Democracy

36 Pages Posted: 23 May 2008

See all articles by Ruth Uwaifo Oyelere

Ruth Uwaifo Oyelere

Morehouse College; IZA Institute of Labor Economics

Abstract

There is data evidence that welfare has improved post democracy in Nigeria. However, the distribution or concentration of the benefits in subgroups of the population is unknown. In this paper, the question of differential welfare impacts, across and within gender, post democracy in Nigeria is explored. I make use of simple econometric tools to test two null hypotheses. First, there is no disparity in the income and returns to education benefits of the shift to democracy across gender in Nigeria. Second, there are no within gender disparities of the shift to democracy on income and returns to education in Nigeria. From the results, both null hypotheses are rejected. Though men and women benefited from reforms post democracy, gender differences exist. Specifically, I find on average higher income benefits for men post democracy. Nigeria. However, disparities in income benefits are at lower levels of education. Men and women have similar income benefits at the tertiary level. Interestingly, I find the reverse when considering returns to education. On average, women experienced a greater change in returns to education post democracy in Nigeria but this disparity is primarily at the tertiary level. I also find inequality has increased post democracy in Nigeria, more so among women than men.

Keywords: Nigeria, returns to education, disparities, income gap, democracy, gender, inequality

JEL Classification: O15, P00, J16, D63

Suggested Citation

Uwaifo Oyelere, Ruth, Within and between Gender Disparities in Income and Education Benefits from Democracy. IZA Working Paper No. 3221, Available at SSRN: https://ssrn.com/abstract=1136383 or http://dx.doi.org/10.2139/ssrn.1136383

Ruth Uwaifo Oyelere (Contact Author)

Morehouse College ( email )

Department of Economics
Atlanta, GA 30332
United States

IZA Institute of Labor Economics

P.O. Box 7240
Bonn, D-53072
Germany

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