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Naturalization Proclivities, Ethnicity and Integration

Amelie F. Constant

Princeton University; UNU-MERIT

Liliya Gataullina

Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA)

Klaus F. Zimmermann

Harvard University; German Institute for Economic Research (DIW Berlin); University of Bonn; Centre for Economic Policy Research (CEPR)

January 2008

CEPR Discussion Paper No. DP6656

This paper studies the determinants of naturalization among Turkish and ex-Yugoslav immigrants in Germany differentiating between actual and planned citizenship. Using the German Socio-Economic Panel, we measure the impact that integration and ethnicity indicators exert on the probability to naturalize beyond the standard individual and human capital characteristics. A robust finding is that German citizenship is very valuable to female immigrants and the generally better educated, but not to those educated in Germany. We find that the degree of integration in German society has a differential effect on citizenship acquisition. While a longer residence in Germany has a negative influence on actual or future naturalization, arriving at a younger age and having close German friends are strong indicators of a positive proclivity to citizenship acquisition. Likewise, ethnic origins and religion also influence these decisions. Muslim immigrants in Germany are more willing to become German citizens than non-Muslim immigrants, but there are also fewer German citizens among Muslims than among non-Muslims.

Number of Pages in PDF File: 30

Keywords: Citizenship, ethnicity, integration, naturalization

JEL Classification: F22, J15, J61

Date posted: June 5, 2008  

Suggested Citation

Constant, Amelie F. and Gataullina, Liliya and Zimmermann, Klaus F., Naturalization Proclivities, Ethnicity and Integration (January 2008). , Vol. , pp. -, 2008. Available at SSRN: https://ssrn.com/abstract=1140585

Contact Information

Amelie F. Constant (Contact Author)
Princeton University ( email )
200 Wallace Hall
Princeton, NJ 08544
United States
UNU-MERIT ( email )
Keizer Karelplein 19
Maastricht, 6211TC
HOME PAGE: http://www.merit.unu.edu/about-us/profile/?staff_id=2419
Liliya Gataullina
Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA) ( email )
Schaumburg-Lippe-Str. 7 / 9
Bonn, D-53072

Klaus F. Zimmermann
Harvard University ( email )
1875 Cambridge Street
Cambridge, MA 02138
United States
German Institute for Economic Research (DIW Berlin)
Mohrenstraße 58
Berlin, 10117
University of Bonn
Postfach 2220
Bonn, D-53012
Centre for Economic Policy Research (CEPR)
77 Bastwick Street
London, EC1V 3PZ
United Kingdom
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